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Given in memory of 

Elisha Hanson 


Letitia Armistead Hanson 








VOLUME Y, 1893 

W J McGee, Chairman 
A. W. Greely C. IIart MEKRIA^r 

Pii.hlicatimi Coiiniiitfi'i' 




NOV 51961 







C. J. BELL, Treasurer 

F. H. NEWELL* \ „ , . 
ELIZA R. SCIDMORE / '^''<'''''''"''^''* 



JOHN HYDE ^ Managers 

* Resigned November 1, 1898, and elected a manager; vacancy filled hy election of 
Cyrus C. Babb 






Copper Engravers 





New Y'ork 



Discoverers of America : Annual Address by the President, Gak- 

DrNEK G. Hubbard 1 

The Movements of our Population ; by Hexry Gannett 21 

Rainfall Types of the United States : Annual Report by Vice-Presi- 
dent General A. W. Greely 45 

The Natural Bridge of Virginia ; by Charles D. Walcott 59 

The geographical Position and Height of Mount Saint Elias ; by Dr 

T. C. Mendenhall t)3 

The Improvement of Geographical Teaching ; by Professor William 

MoRRrs Davis • f>8 

An undiscovered Island off the northern Coast of Alaska: 

I— By Marcus Baker 76 

II — By Captain E. P. Herendeen 78 

III— By General A. W. Greely 80 

The Geologist at Blue Mountain, Maryland ; bv Charles D. Wal- 
cott 84 

The great populous Centers of the AVorld ; by General A. W\ Greely . 89 

Ouryoungest Volcano ; by J. S. Diller. 98 

Proceedings of the International Geographic Conference in Chicago, 

July 27-28, 1893 • 97 

Introduction ; [by General x\. W. Greely of the Committee 

on Conference] -^^ 

Minutes of the Conference ; by F. H. Newell and] Eliza 

RuHAMAH SciDMORE, Secretaries 101 

Memoirs and Addresses 112 

The Relations of Air and Water to Temperature; and Life ; 

by Gardiner G. Hubbard 112 

The Relations of Geography to History ; by Francis W. 

Parker 1-"^ 

Norway and the Vikings ; by Captain Magnus Andersen . 132 
Geographic Instruction in the public Schools ; by W. B. 

POWELI l'^'^ 

The Relations of Geology to Physiography in our educa- 
tional System ; by T. C. Chamberlin lo4 

The Relations of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Cur- 
rent ; by William Libbey, Junior 161 

■ The arid Regions of the United States ; by F. H. Newell . 167 
Recent Explorations in Alaska; by Eliza Ruhamah 

SCIDMORE 1 ' "^ 

Z:, The Caravels of Columbus ; by Victor Maria Concas. . . 180 
' In the Wake of Columbus ;. by Frederick A. Ober 187 


iv National (xeogvaphic Magazine. 

Proceedings of the International Geooraphic Conference (continued) 

Memoirs and Addresses (continued) 

Recent Disclosures concernin,"' pre-Colunil>ian Voyages 

to America in the Archives of the Vatican ; by W. E. 

Curtis 197 

Early Voyages along the northwestern Coast of America ; 

by Professor George Davidson'. 235 

Index to Volume V ' 257 

Title-page and Imprimatur i 

Contents and Illustrations iii 

Publications of the National Geographic Society vi 

Errata viii 

Proceedings of the National Geographic Society ix 

Sixth Annual Report of the Secretaries xx 

Sixth Annual Report of the Treasurer xxii 

Report of the Auditing Conunittee xxiv 

By-laws of the Society ^ xxv 

Officers of the Society xxvii 

Honorary Members of the Society xxviii 

Members of the Society , xxix 



Plate 1 — Claudius Ptolemy Map, circa ]50 1 

2 — Chroiiicon Nui'embergense Map, 1493 2 

3— Toscanelli Map, 1474 4 

4— Juan de la Cosa Map, 1500 17 

5— Euyscli Map, 1508 18 

()— The total urban and I'ural Population at each Census .... 22 

7 — Settled Area of the United States ■ 25 

8 — Position of the Center of Pojjulation at the close of each 

Decade from 1790 to 1890 27 

9 — Density of Population 28 

10— Distribution by Families and Sex 31 

11 — Distribution by Color 33 

12— Constituents of the total Immis2:ration and of the Immi- 
gration between 1880 and 1890 35 

13— Distribution by Nativity 37 

14 — Distribution of the Foreign Born 38 

15— Distribution of the Foreign Born 39 

16— Distribution of the Foreign Born 40 

17 — Elements of the Population of great Cities 41 

18 — Rates of Increase of all Whites, and of the native Ele- 
ments of the North, and of all Whites of the South. . . 42 
19— Population at each Census classified by Race and Nativity . 43 

20— Simple Types of Rainfall Distribution 45 

21 — Natural Bridge, Virginia 59 

Hubbard : Figure 1 —Magellan's Circumnavigation . 1 . 

2 — Drake's Circumnavigation 16 

AValcutt : Figure l^Attitude of Strata at Natural Bridge 60 

Mendexhall: Figure 2 — Triangulation in the Vicinity of Mount 

Saint Elias 65 

Dillkk: Figure 3 —Relations of older and younger Forests to vol- 
canic Sand 95 



Regi'lak Publications 

In addition to announcenients of meetings and various circulars sent to 
members from time to time, the Society issues a single serial publication 
entitled The National Geographic Magazine. During the first two 
years of the existence of the Society this serial was issued in quarterly 
numbers. With the beginning of the third year of the Society and the 
third volume of the Magazine the form of publication was changed, and 
the serial now appears at irregular intervals in parts or brochures (desig- 
nated by pages and designed either for separate i^reservation or for gather- 
ing into A^olumes) which consist either of single memoirs or of magazine 
brochures made up of articles, notes, abstracts and other geographic 
matter, together with the Proceedings and other administrative records 
of the Society. 

The Magazine is mailed free to membei's of the Society and to exchanges. 
The complete volumes, as well as the separate brochures of the third, 
fourth and fifth, are sold at the prices given below, by the Secretary, Mr 
Cyrus C. Babb, 1330 F street, Washington, D. C. 

To To the 

Members. Public. 
Volume I, 1889 : 4 numbers, 334 pages, 16 plates and 26 

figures $1 40 $2 00 

Volume II, 1890 : 5 numbers, 344 pages, 10 plates and 11 

figures 1 40 2 00 

Volume III, 1891 : 5 brochures, 296 pages, 21 plates and 8 

figures 1 60 3 00 

Volume IV, 1892 : 7 brochures, 239 pages, 20 plates and 5 

figures 1 75 3 00 

Volume V, 1893 : Comprising — 

Discoverers of America ; Annual Address by the 
President, Gardiner G. Hubbard : pp. 1-20, pis. 
1-5, April 7, 1893 $0 35 $0 50 

The Movements of our Population; by tienry 

Gannett : pp. 21-44, pis. 6-19, March 20, 1893. . 30 50 

Rainfall Types of the United States ; Annual Re- 
port by Vice-President General A. W. Greely : 
pp. 45-58, pi. 20, April 29, 1893 15 25 

Magazine brochure, pp. 59-96, pi. 21, July 10, 1893 . 25 50 

Proceedings of the International Geographic Con- 
ference in Chicago, July 27-28, 1893 : pp. 97-256, 
January 31, 1894 50 75 

Administrative brochure, pp. 257-263, i-lxviii, 

May 5, 1894 40 50 

$1 95 13 00 

Pii.hlications. vii 

Irrkgular Publicatioxs 

In the interest, of exact bibliography, tlie Society takes cognizance of 
all publications issued either wholly or partly under its auspices. Each 
author of a memoir published in The National Geographic Magazine 
receives 25 copies, and is authorized to order any number of additional 
copies at a slight advance on the cost Of press-work and paper ; and these 
separate brochures are identical with those of the regular edition issued 
by the Society. Contributors to the magazine brochures are authorized 
to order any number of copies of their contributions at a slight advance 
oncost of press- work andpai^er, provided these separates bear the original 
pagination and a j^rinted reference to the serial and volume from which 
they are extracted ; but such separates are jDibliographically distinct from 
the brochures issued by the Society. The Magazine is not cojayrighted , 
and articles may be reprinted freely ; and a record of reprints, so far as 
known, is kept. 

The following separates from volume V have been issued : 

Edition unifofm irilli the Brochures of the Magazine 

Pages 1-20, plates 1-5 : 225 copies, April 7, 1893. 
" 21-44, *" 6-19: 25 " March 20, " 
" 45-58, plate 20: 50 " April 29, " 

Special Editions 

Pages 59-62: 50 copies with covers, July 10, 189;!. 

68-75: 25 " 

84- 88: 50 " 

" 112-124: 100 " " " January 31, 1894. 

" 137-153: 700 " 

" "167-172: 100 . " 

" 197-234: 100 " " " " " 

" 235-256: 50 " 

" vi: 1,000 " without covers. May 5, " 

"xxv-xxvi: 700 " " " " " " 

" xxix-lxviii : 50 " " " " " " 

VI 11 

National Geographic Magazine. 


Facing' page 59, outside cover, line 1 from top ; for " IV " read V. 
" " 59, inside cover, line 9 from top; for " Heredeen 
Page 85, foot-note; for "pp. — " read pp. 475-482. 
86, " " " " pp. 523-568. 


134, line 8 from bottom ; 


' 12 ' 

top; " 


' 11 ' 

' iDottom ; ' ' 



' top ; ' ' 


' 4 ' 

I (( 11 


' 21 ' 

' bottom ; ' ' 

" Helleland " read Helluland. 

" Karlsevne " " Karlsefni. 

" Erickson " " Ericsson. 

' ' Proctor' s " " Procter' s. 

" 1890 " rmcn891. 

"Vinland" read Vineland. 
200, lines 10, 14, 16 from top ; /or " . " 
200, line 10 from top; for "Helleland" read Helluland. 

211, lines 16 and 20 from top; for "Nicholas" read Nicolas. 

212, line 11 from top; for " Nicholas" read Nicolas. 

212, " 11 " " " "Amabric" " Arnabrie. 

213, " 10 " bottom; for "Nicholas" rmtr Nicolas. 





(Abstract of Minutes) 

December 30, 1892. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 600. 

Civil Engineer R. E. Peary, United States Navy, delivered a 
lecture on the results of his recent expedition to Greenland, 
exhibiting during the course of his address a large number of 

January 6th, 1893. 7^h meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 80. 

The report of the Auditing Committee appointed at the an- 
nual meeting was read and approved. 

General A. W. GreeW read a paper on '' Rainfall Tjqies of the 
United States," illustrating his remarks b}^ a colored map and 
several charts. Printed in this volume, pp. JfO-58. 

Mr H. G. Ogden spoke on " Methods of geographic and toi:)0- 
grapliic Surveying." Remarks were afterward made b}^ Messrs 
Baker, Wilson, Littlehales, and Gilbert Thompson. 

January 13, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. Attendance, 

The President, Honorable Gardiner G. Hubbard, delivered 
the annual address on " Discoverers of America." Printed in 
this volume, pp. 1-20. At the conclusion Professor Alex. Melville 
Bell read Tennyson's poem on the return of Columbus. 

II— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, ^\m^, (jx) 

X . National Geographic Magazine. 

Jamuiry 20, 1893. I'oih meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Mr 
Willits in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Dr T. C. Mendenhall read a paper on " The use of the Pendu- 
lum in determining the Figure and Density of the Earth," illus- 
trating his remarks b}^ diagrams. At the conclusion Mr E. D. 
Preston made a few remarks. 

Janua,vy 27, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. Vice-President 
Greely in the chair. Attendance, 400. 

Mr Cyrus C. Adams, President of the Department of Geogra- 
phy of the Brooklyn Institute of Sciences and Arts, gave an il- 
lustrated lecture on " Recent Results of African Explorations." 

Februarij 3, 1893. 76th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly. Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
Vice-President Mendenhall in the chair. Attendance, 55. 

Professor W. M. Davis, of Harvard Universit}'-, spoke on the 
" Improvement of geographic Teaching." Printed in this vokime, 
pp. 68-75. 

February 10, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 350. 

Mr Rounsevelle Wildman, United States Consul at Singapore, 
gave a description of " Malaya and the Sultan of Johore," illus- 
trating his subject by lantern slides and by a number of curios. 

February 17, 1893. 77th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Mr 
Gilbert in the chair. Attendance, 20. 

The chairman read an announcement of the Loubat prizes 
offered by Columbia College for the best essays on geographic 
and other subjects. 

\ Two papers were read on the subject of the evening, " The 
Geomorphology of the southern Appalachians," one by Mr M. 
R. Campbell, and the other by Dr C. Willard Hayes. Remarks 
were made at the close by Messrs Willis, Gilbert, and McGee. 

Abstract of Minutes. . xi 

Fehraary 2J/., 1893. > Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 350. 

Major J. W. Powell introduced the speaker of the evening, Mr 
W. D. Kelley, Engineer-in-charge of third Corps, Interconti- 
nental Railway Commission. Mr Kelley exhibited a large num- 
ber of lantern views, taken in the Andes while making a survey 
from the equator south Avard 1,700 miles. 

March 10, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 500. 

Honoral)le H. L. Dawes in a short address introduced Mr C. L. 
Carter, one of the commissioners from the Hawaiian islands, who 
delivered an illustrated lecture on the peoples of these islands. 

March 15, 1893. Special meeting. 

The annual reception was held at the Arlington Hotel from 
9 to 12 p m for the purpose of social intercourse between the 
members. Attendance, 350. 

March 17, 1893. 78th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
Vice-President Merriam in the chair. Attendance, 30. 

Honorable Edwin Willits, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, 
delivered an address on " The Benefits to Agriculture of geo- 
graphic Research." Remarks were made by Messrs Merriam and 

March 21f, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 600. 

General A. W. Greely presented the speaker of the evening. 
Miss Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, who described " Japan and its 
Inhabitants." A large number of lantern views Avere shown. 

March 31, 1893. 79th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hulv 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 300. 

Mr E. D. Preston, of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, gave the results of a scientific expedition to the Sandwich 
islands. A few lantern views were shown. 

xii National Cleo<ji'aphic Mayazlne. 

April 7, 189S. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Buiklers' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 300. 

Professor William M. Brewer, of Yale University, gave a de- 
scription of two visits to Colorado, one in 1869 and the other in 

April i^, 1893. 80th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 100. 

Dr Elliott Coues, of the Smithsonian Institution, gave a de- 
scription of Lewis and Clark's travels across the American con- 
tinent, and exhibited the original note books of the expedition. 

April 21., 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 300. 

Mr Courtnay De Kalb read a paper on " Nicaragua and the 
unexplored Regions of the Mosquito Coast." 

April 28, 1893. 81st meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 125. 

The following proposed amendment to the By-laws was given 
its first reading by General A. W. Greely : 

In article IV, last paragraph, change last sentence to read : 
" Five members of the Board of Managers shall constitute a quo- 
rum at regular meetings and nine members at special meetings." 

The first paper of the evening was by Dr T. C. Mendenhall, 
entitled '' The geographic Position and Height of Mount Saint 
Elias." Printed in this volume, pp. 63-67. 

Reverend Sumantrao Vishna Karmarkar, a native of Bomba}^, 
then spoke of the origin and condition of castes in India. 

Mr Margus Baker and General A. W. Greely discussed the evi- 
dence of the probable existence of certain islands off the north- 
ern coast of Alaska. Printed in this volume, pp. 76-88. 

Mr J. S. Diller described a recently extinct volcano in Lassen 
county, California. Printed in this volume, pp. 93-96. 

Mr F. H. Newell read a paper on the condition of member- 

Abstract of Minutes. xiii 

ship and the Hbrary of the Society, illustrating the same with a 
number of diagrams. 

Major J. W. Powell then spoke on the future of the Society, 
with the advantages incidental to an increase in membership. 

May i, 1893. Field meeting. 

About 350 members and guests embarked on the steamer 
Charles Macalester for a trip down the Potomac river. On 
reaching Indian head, the party was received by Ensign R. B. 
Dashiell, United States Navy, who explained and illustrated by 
the actual firing of several guns, the operations of testing naval 
ordnance and armor plates. 

Returning to Marshall Hall, a planked-shad dinner was served, 
and at 9 p ni the Society left for the city. 

On the return trip speeches were made by Honorable J. H. 
Outhwaite and others. Mr Tsunejiro Mijaoka, secretary of the 
Japanese legation, gave a brief description of Japan and its peo- 
ple. The Reverend Suraantrao Vishna Karmarkar, of Bombay, 
sang some of his native songs, accompanied b}^ his wife, who ^ 
afterward spoke briefly on the women of India. 

May 5, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' ISxchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 350. 

Professor J. S. Rothrock, of the Pennsylvania Forestry Asso- 
ciation, described a winter's cruise in the British West Indies. 
His lecture was illustrated with lantern slides. 

May 12, 1893. 82d meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 400. 

Dr J. Walter Fewkes, of the Hemenway expedition, delivered 
an illustrated lecture on " The Moki Snake Dance." 

May 19, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 625. 

Professor Albert S. Bickmore gave an illustrated lecture on 
" Moorish S]3ain." 

xiv Ndtioiial (leoiirdpliic iMcu/dzliic. 

June 2, 1893. , ■ 8Sd ineeting. 

Meeting held in the Assenibl_y Hull of the Cosmos Club. 
Vice-President Ha3aien in the chair. Attendance, 75. 

The following amendment to the By-laws, proposed b}^ Gen- 
eral A. W. Greely, was read and adopted: 

In article IV, last paragraph, change last sentence to read : 
" Five members of the Board of Managers shall constitute a quo- 
rum at regular meetings and nine members at special meetings." 

Lieutenant W. H. Beehler, United States Navy, read a paper 
on the Solarometer. « 

Mr Robert T. Hill read a paper on the geography of Texas. 

JVIr Henry Gannett read a paper descriptive of the discovery 
and exploration of the Yellowstone National Park. 

Jnyie 28, 1898. Special meeting. 

About 200 members and guests enjoyed the hospitality of 
President Hubbard at a garden party, from 6 to 10 o'clock p m, 
at his summer house. Twin Oaks, West Washington. 

T 7 r,'" .,io yon > ( International Geoqraphic Conference held at 
July 2/-28, 189o. ■ ^, . i j.i a • -p n. o • * 

•^ ' ( Chicago under the Auspices of the bocietij. 

Morning session, July 27. 

The Conference was opened at 10 a m in the hall of Washing- 
ton, Art Institute building, on Michigan avenue. Honorable 
Gardiner G. Hubbard, President of the National Geographic 
Society, in the chair. Attendance, 400. 

General John Eaton, fornierly United States Connnissioner of 
Education, introduced President Hubbard, who read a paper on 
" The Relations of Air and Water to Temperature and life." 
Printed in this volume, p'p. 112-124. 

Honorable John Abercrombie, delegate from the Royal Scot- 
tish Geographical Society, spoke briefly on the general work of 
his society. Printed in this volume, pp. 102-104- 

General A. W. Greely, chairman of the Committee on Awards 
of Prizes of the National Geographic Society, made an announce- 
ment of the progr.ess of his committee, 

Mme Regina Maiiey, from La Sociedade de Geographia cle 
[jisboa, spoke briefly on the attitude of that society and of the 
Portuguese people toward the Conference. 

Ahdrad oj Minutes. xv 

General John Eaton read a paper on " The Relations which 
may or should exist between the National Geographic Society 
and geographic Instruction." Printed in this volume, pjj. 105-107 . 

Major J W. Powell, Director of the United States Geological 
Survey, spoke on the " Study of Geography." Printed in this 
volume, pp. 107-109. 

Colonel F. W. Parker, Principal of the Cook County Normal 
School, read a paper on " The Relations of Geography to His- 
tory." Printed in this volume, pp. 125-131. 

Captain Magnus Andersen read a paper on " Norway and the 
Vikings." Printed in this volume, pp. 132- 1S6. 

Afternoon session. 

The Conference was resumed at 3 p ni. Attendance, 200. 

Professor W. B.. Powell, Superintendent of Public Schools, 
Washington, D. C, read a paper entitled " Geographic Instruc- 
tion u\ the Public Schools." Printed in this volume, pp. 137-153. 

Professor T. C- Chamberlin gave an address on " The Relations 
of Geology to Physiography in our educational System." Printed 
in this volume, pp. 154--160. 

Professor William Libbey, Junior, delegate from the American 
Geographical Society of New York, read a paper on '' The Rela- 
tions of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current." Printed 
in this volume, pf). 161-166. 

Mr F. H. Newell, Secretary of the National Geographic So- 
ciet}^, read a paper on " The arid Regions of the United States." 
Printed in this volume, pp. 167-172. 

Evening session. 

At 8 p m the conference was resumed. President Hubbard in 
the chair. Attendance, 500. 

General A. W. Greely delivered an address entitled "■ Inter- 
national polar Expeditions." 

At 9:30 p m the C-bnt'erence adjourned, to meet next morning 
at the monastery of La Rabida, in the Columbian Exposition 
grounds, Jackson park, and afterward to continue the session at 
11a m in Recital Hall. 

Morning session, July 28. 

From 9 to 11 o'clock a m Mr W. E. Curtis, chief of the Latin- 
American department, and Captain John G. Bourke, United 

xvi National Geogrojphic Magaziiie. 

States Army, conducted the members of the Conference through 
the monastery of I^a Ral:)ida. 

At 11 a m the session was called to order in Recital Hall, and 
Miss E. R. Scidmore read a paper on " Recent Explorations in 
Alaska." Printed in this volume, pp. 17S-179. 

Dr Adolph Ernst, Venezuelan Commissioner to the World's 
Columbian ExjDosition delivered an address on "' Venezuela." 

Ensign Roger Welles, Junior, United States Navy, described 
"A Trip up the Orinoco River." 

Dr Emil Hassler, Paraguayan Commissioner to the Ex^DOsi- 
tion, was present, but asked to be excused from attempting an 
address in English. 

The Brazilian commissioners to the Exposition, Senor Graci- 
ano A. cle Azambuja and Baron de Marajjo, also made their apol- 
ogies for not participating more fulh". 

Afternoon session. 

President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 100. 

Captain John CI. Bourke. United States Army, read a paper 
on "The History of the old Monastery of La Rabida." 

Paul B. du Chaillu then spoke of his travels among the Norse- 
men and of the character of their ancestors, the Vikings. 

Captain Victor Maria Concas read a paper on " The Caravels of 
Columbus." Printed in this volume, }ip. 180-186. 

Mr F. A. Ober read a paper entitled " In the Wake of Colum- 
bus." Printed in this volume, pp. 187-196. 

Mr W. E. Curtis read a paper entitled " Recent Disclosures 
concerning pre-Columbian Voyages to America in the Archives 
of the Vatican." Printed in this volume, pp. 197-3-3^. 

At 5 p m tlie Conference adjourned sine die. 

October 23, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 600. 

Captain Magnus Andersen, of Norway, gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on the " Vikings." 

October 27, 1893. 84-th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. Vice-President 
Greely in the chair. Attendance, 300. 

Reverend George E. Post delivered an address on tlie " Physical 
Geography and Ethnology of Syria and Palestine." 

Ahstrad oj Mimdes. xvii 

November 9, 1893. ' Special meeting. 

Meeting held in Columbian University. Attendance, 400. 

Dr W. A. Croffut, of the United States Geological Survey, gave 
an account of "A Winter's Trip through the Tropics." His lec- 
ture was illustrated with lantern views. 

November 17, 1893. 85th m,eeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 30. 

The following amendment to the By-laws was proposed : 

In article V, second paragraph, omit. 

Article VI, second paragraph, change " December " to " May." 
Third paragraph, change to read as folloAVS : '' The last regular 
meeting in December shall be set apart for the President's an- 
nual address." Fourth paragraph, change " January " to " No- 
vember and December." 

The Board of Managers announced that it had been found im- 
possible for a volunteer to carry on the duties of Secretary, and 
that therefore a permanent Secretary, Mr Cyrus C. Babb, had 
been employed, to assume office November 1, 1894. 

The subject of the evening, " The future welfare of the So- 
ciety," drew out the following speakers : Messrs Ogden, Menden- 
hall, Newell, Loomis, Blount and Baker. 

November 24-, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. , Vice-President 
Greely in the chair. Attendance, 500. 

Mr J. R. G. Pitkin, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the Argentine Republic, delivered an illustrated 
lecture on the " Development, Resources and Possibilities of the 
Argentine Republic." 

December 1, 1893. 86th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
Vice-President Mendenhall in the chair. Attendance, 75. 

Honorable Edwin Willits read a letter from Mr Frederick 
Funston, special agent of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, now on the upper Yukon river, Alaska. 

Mr W. C. Hodgkins, of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, read a paper on the " Delaware boundary Survey." Re- 
marks were made by Messrs Marcus Baker and Gilbert Thompson. 

Ill— Nat. (teog. Mao., voi,. V, 1893. 

xviii National Geographic Magazine. 

Mr Henry Gannett exhibited some proofs of American maps 
recently taken from copper jilates engraved during revolutionary 

The chair announced that a present of an Ortelius atlas of 
date 1595 had been made to the Society by Mr H. L. Hall. 

December 8, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 450. 

Mme Alice Le Plongeon gave an illustrated lecture on '• Yuca- 
tan and the ancient Civilization of the Mayas." 

December 15, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held jointly with the American Forestry Association, 
in the National Rifles' Armory Hall. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 700. 

Honorable J. Sterling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture and 
President of the Forestry Association, in a short speech, intro- 
duced Mr B. E. Fernow, who delivered an address on " The Bat- 
tle of the Forest," illustrating his remarks with lantern views. 

December 22, 1893. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the National Rifles' Armory Hall. President 
Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 700. 

Professor William Libbey, Junior, of the College of New Jer- 
se}^, Princeton, New Jersey, delivered an illustrated lecture on 
the " Physical Geography of the Hawaiian Islands." 

December 29, 1893. 87th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 350. 

Mr Justice Harlan delivered an address on " The Bering Sea 
Arbitration Question." 

. January 5, 189J^. 88th (Gth annual) meeting. 

Meeting held in the Builders' Exchange Hall. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance,- 400. 

Professor W. B. Powell gave a talk on " Geographic Instruc- 
tion in the Public Schools." 

Mr W J McGee spoke on the " Geographic Development of the 
Atlantic Slope." 

^tajor J. W. Powell made a few remarks. 

Abstract of Minutes. ■ xix 

After a recess the 6th annual meeting convened. Attendance, 

By vote of the Society, the following amendments to the By- 
laws were adopted : 

Article V, second paragraph, omit. 

Article VI, second paragraph, change " December " to " May." 
Third paragraph change to read as follows : " The last regular 
meeting in December shall be set apart for the President's an- 
nual address." Fourth paragraph, change '' January " to " No- 
vember and December." 

The joint report of the Secretaries was presented and adopted. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was presented and referred 
to an auditing committee consisting of Messrs Rizer, Winston 
and Flint. 

By vote of the Society, the ofhcers elected this date are to hold 
over until the last regular meeting in May, 1895. 

The annual election of officers for the year 1894 was then held, 
with the following result : ^ 

President — -Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

. Vice-Presidents — T. C. Mendenhall (land) ; 

George W. Melville (sea) ; ■ 

A. W. Greely (air) ; 

C. Hart Merriam (life) ; 

W. B. Powell (art) ; 

Henry Gannett (commercial geograph}^- 

Treasurer — -C. J. Bell. 

Recording Secretary — Cyrus C. Babb. 

Corresponding Secretary — Eliza R. Scidmore. 

Managers — Marcus Baker, 
H. F. Blount, 
G. K. Gilbert, 
Everett Hay den, 
John Hyde, 
W J McGee, 
F. H. Newell, 
Edwin Willits. 


{Presented to the Society Janiuiry 5, 1S94) 

Membership. — The membership of the Society is now 955 as 
against 693 of one year ago. Examining in detail the member- 
ship, it is found that there are 664 active, 280 corresponding, 9 
life, and 2 honorary members. This shows an increase over last 
year's numbers of 188 active, 72 corresponding, 2 life and 2 hon- 

During the past year there have been 323 new members 
elected ; 34 have resigned, 22 have been dropped for non-pay- 
ment of dues, and 5 have died, as follows : 

Charles Junken, January 24, 1893 ; Henry C. Swain, March 
29, 1893 ; J. Henry Turner, June 12, 1893 ; Dr George Vasey, 
March 4, 1893 ; Eugene Willenbiicher, May 24, 1893. The net 
increase has therefore been 262. 

The death rate in large cities, according to the United States 
census, for ages corresponding to the average age of our mem- 
bers, is 17 per one thousand. Our death rate is 6, or i of the 
ordinary rate. This shows one of the many important advan- 
tages in holding membership in the National Geographic Society, 
and is a fact which, if enlarged on, should materially increase 
our membership. 

Meetings. — There have been 34 meetings or assemblies of the 
members of the Society. Of these 15 were regular meetings and 
19 special. The latter number includes one excursion on May 
1 down the Potomac river to Indian head and Marshall Hall, 
and a lawn party on June 28 at Twin Oaks, where, by the invi- 
tation of the President, 200 members and guests were entertained. 

One of the regular meetings was for the election of officers and 
transaction of business. At the remaining 31 meetings the total 
attendance was 10,110, averaging 326. 

In regard to the places of meetings, the hall of the Cosmos 
Club has been used 10 times, the Columbian University once, the 
National Rifles' Armory hall twice and the Builders' Exchange 
hall 18 times. 

Report of the Secretaries. xxi 

On July 27 and 28, in connection with the World's Congress 
of Education, a Conference of European and American geogra- 
phers was held at the World's Fair, Chicago, under the auspices 
of the National Geographic Society ; its proceedings were marked 
by a degree of interest and an attendance quite beyond the ex- 
pectations of the committee; and it is believed that it exercised 
a material and beneficial influence toward the study of geogra- 
phy in the United States. 

Managers. — The Board of Managers have held 22 meetings for 
the transaction of business of the Society. On June 2, 1893, a 
change in the By-laws was adopted, facilitating the transaction 
of business at the meetings of the Board of Managers. 

January 5, 1894, another amendment was adopted in con- 
formity with a resolution passed by the Board of Managers : 
" That hereafter the annual election of officers shall be held at 
the last regular meeting in May, and that the Society year, for its 
fiscal operations, publications and lecture courses, shall begin 
and end with the annual election meeting." 

Owing to the rapid growth of the Society, it has become im- 
possible for a volunteer to carry on the duties of Secretary, and 
the Board of Managers found it necessary to employ a perma- 
nent Secretary, to assume office November 1, 1893. 

Magazine. — Six brochures have been published during the 
year, two forming the last two numbers of volume iv and the re- 
mainder a portion of volume v. 

The Society has on its exchange list about eighty foreign and 
domestic geographic societies and its librar}^ is increasing 

Special mention should be made of various gifts to the Society 
library. Mr H. L. Hall, of Washington, District of Columbia, 
has presented an old and valuable " Ortelius atlas," of date 
1595. Honorable Gardiner G. Hubbard presented, among other 
things, an "Atlas of America," date 1776, and three volumes of 
Ramusio's " Navigationi et Viaggi," dates 1550, 1559 and 1565, 

From His Imperial Highness the Arch Duke Ludwig Salvator 
of Austria there have beeii received 20 volumes of his works 
devoted to geographic research. 

Cyrus C. Babb, 
Eliza R. Scidmore, 



(Presented to the Society January 5, 189^) 

To the President and Members of the National Geographic Society : 

I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report, show- 
ing receipts and disbursements for the year ending Januar}^ 5, 

The receipts for dues for 1898 amount to $2,626, an increase 
over the receipts for 1892 of $461. 

The assets of the Society are : 

Amount invested in American iSecurity and Trust 

Company 5 per cent bonds $300 00 

Cash witli Bell & Company 307 80 

Dues for 1893, unpaid 485 00 

$1,092 80 

The cash on hand includes $100, dues for two life member- 
ships, which sum is to be invested in accordance with instruc- 
tions from the Board of Managers. 

Very respectfully, C. J. Bell, 



Report of the Ti^easurer 



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(Presented to the Society January JS, I89J4) 

To the President and Members of the Nedional (reographie Society : 

We, a committee appointed at the annual meeting of the Society 
to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for the year ending January 
5, 1894, beg to submit the following report : 

The Treasurer's statement of the receipts, consisting of dues 
from members, interest on investment and sale of magazine, has 
been examined and found correct, as shown by the books of his 

The vouchers for expenditures and checks in payment therefor 
have been examined, compared and found correct. 

We have examined the bank book, sliowing the account with 
Messrs Bell & Co, and found the cash balance to be three hun- 
dred and seven dollars and eighty cents ($807.80), as stated. 

The three bonds for $100 each, registered in the name of the 
Society, wcn-e submitted to us for inspection. 

H. C. RlZER, 

Isaac Winston, 
Weston Flint, 




As AdOI'TJOI) with AmKNDMIONTS LIJ' to .lANUAliV (), 1(S1)4 

ARTICLl*] I. Name. 
Till! iiiuiK! of this Society is tiie " National (iKoditAi'inc Socikty." 


The ohjcH't of tliis Society is the increase and dill'iision of gcogr;ii)hic 

ARTTCLE TIT. Mkmhersiiii'. 

The members of this Society sluili be persons who ure interested in 
geographic science. There may be three classes of members — active, 
corresponding and honorary. 

Active members only shall be memhei's of the coriioratioii ; shall 1»(; 
entitled to vote and may liold otiice. 

Persons residing at a distance from the District of ("olnmbia may be- 
come corresponding meml)ers of the So(;iety. They may attend its meet- 
ings, take part in its procecsdings, and contribnte to its pnblications. 

Persons who have attained eminence by tlm promotion of gcograiihic 
science may become honorary members. 

Corresponding members maybe transferred to active membership, and, 
conversely, active members may l)e ti'ansAuTed to corresponding memlxir- 
shi]) by the Board (jf Managers. 

The e]ecti(ni of memb(;rs shall be t;ntrusted to the Board of Managei'S. 


The oflicers of the Society shall be a President, six Vice-Presidents, a 
Treasurer, a Recording Secretary and a Corresponding Secretary. 

The above-mentioned othci^rs, together with eight other members of 
the Society, known as Managers, shall constit^ite a Board (jf Managers. 
Otiicers and Managers shall be elected suniually, by ballot, a majority of 
the votes cast being necessary to an election; they shall h(jld odice until 
their successors are elected ; and shall have power to (ill vacancies ociuir- 
ring during the year. 

The President, or, in his al)S(;nce, one of the Vic(^-I'resideiits, shall pi-(^- 
side at the meetings of the Society and of tlu! l>oard of Managers; he 
shall, together with the Recording Secretary, sign all written contrac^ts 
and obligations of the Society, and attest its corporate! seal ; he shall de- 
liver an animal address to the Society. 

Each Vice-President shall represent in the Society and in tlu! I>oard of 
Managers a department of geographic! S(;ience, as tbllovvs : 

Geography of the Land ; Geography of the Sea ; Geography of the Air ; 
Geography of Life; Geographic Art; Conunercial Geography. 

IV— Nat. Geog. Mao., vol. V, 1803. (xxv) 

xxvi National Geographic Magazine. 

The Vice-Presidents shall foster their respective departments within 
the Society ; they shall present annually to the Society summaries of the 
■work done throughout the world in their several departments. 

They shall be elected to their respective departments by the Society. 

The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Society, shall col- 
lect the dues, and shall disburse under the direction of the Board of 
Managers ; he shall make an annual report ; and his accounts shall be 
audited annually by a committee of the Society and at such other times 
as the Board of Managers may direct. 

The Secretaries shall record the proceedings of the Society and of the 
Board of Managers ; shall conduct the correspondence of the Society ; 
and shall make an annual report. 

The Board of Managers sha,ll transact all the business of the Society, 
except such as may be presented at the annual meeting. It shall formu- 
late rules for the conduct of its business. Five members of the Board of 
Managers shall constitute a quorum at i-egular meetings and nine mem- 
bers at special meetings. 


The annual dues of active members shall be five dollars, and of corre- 
sponding members two dollars, payable during the month of January, 
(jr, in the case of new members, within thirty days after election. 

Annual dues may be commuted and life membership acquired by the 
paj'ment of fifty dollars. 

No member in arrears shall vote at the annual meeting, and the names 
of members two years in arrears shall be dropped from the roll of mem- 

ARTICLE YI. Meetings. 

Regular meetings of the Society shall be held on alternate Fridays, from 
November until May, and excepting the annual meeting they shall be 
devoted to communications. The Board, of Managers shall, however, 
have power to postpone or omit meetings, when deemed desirable. 
Special meetings may be called by the President. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers shall be the last regular 
meeting in May. 

The last meeting in December shall be set apart for the President's 
annual address. 

The reports of the retiring Vice-Presidents shall be presented in No- 
vember and December. 

A quorum for the transaction of business shall consist of twenty-five 
active members. 

ARTICLE VII. Amendments. 

These by-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present at a regular meeting, provided that'notice of the proposed amend- 
ment has been given in writing at a regular meeting at least four weeks 














His Exce[,lency Grover Cleveland, 

Washington, D. C. 

Don Christobal Colon de Toledo de la Cerda y -Gante, 
Duke of Veragua and Marquis of Jamaica, 

Madrid, Spain. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, 

28 Jermyu street, Loudon, England. 

Honorable Charles P. Daly, 

84 Clinton place. New York, N. Y. 

Dr George M. Dawson, 

Canadian Geological Survey, Ottavva, Canada. 

Emmanuel de Margerie, 

Io2 rue de Grenelle, Paris, France. 

John Murray, 

Challenger office, Edinbnrg, Scotland. 

Baron Adolf E. Nordenskiold, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 

Ferdinand, Freiherr von Richthofen, 

Kurfiirstenstrasse 117, Berlin W., Germany. 

His Imperial Highness the Archduke Ludwig Salvator 
of Austria, 

Wien, .'Vustro-Hungary. 
Dr D. Estanislao S. Zeballos, 

Legation of the Argentine Republic, Washington, D. C. 




a, original members, c, corresponding members. I, life members. 
In eases where no city is given in the address, Washington, D. C, is to he understood. 

Abbe, Professor Cleveland, «, I, 

Weather Bureau. 

Abert, S. T., 

722 Seventeenth street. 

AcKERMAN, Lieutenant A. A., U. S. Navy, 

Navy Department. 

AcKLEV, Lieutenant Commander S. M., U. S. Nav^^, 

Navy Department. 

Adams, Cyrus C, 

512 Madison street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Adams, F. G., r, 

state Historical Society, Topeka, Ivans. 

Adams, Miss Julia M. , 

Fourth Auditor's office. 

Addison, A. D., 

808 Seventeenth street. 

AdleRj Dr Cyrus, 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Aitern, Lieutenant Geo. P., LT. S. Army, c, 

College of Montana, Deer Lodge, Mont. 

Ahern, Jeremiah, c, 

(jCil Market street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Alden, Colonel C. H., U. S. Army, 

War Department. 

Allen, Andrew H., 

State Department. 

Allen, Miss A. Augusta, 

15 Coulter street, Germantovvn,'Pa. 

Allen, Dr J. A. , 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

Alton, Edmund, 

Wormley's Hotel. 

Alvord, Major Henry E., 

\ 932 New York avenue. 

Anderson, Mary L., c, 

P. O. box 977. Salt Lake, Utah. 
V— Nat. Geog. Mag., vot.. V, 1893. (xxix) 

5CXX National Geographic Magazine 

Andrews, C. L., c, 

Andrews, Ensign Philip, U. S. Navy 

Andrews, Wells F., 

Aplin, S. a., Junior, /, 

Ashley, Osborn, 

AspiNWALL, Reverend J. A., 

Auhagen, Wilhelm, 

Austin, Professor E. P., o, 

Avery, Robert S., 

Aydelotfe, Wm. , 

Ayres, H. B., 

Ayres, Miss Susan C, a, 

Babb, Cyrus C. , 

Babb, Cyrus K., c, 

Babcock, Major J. B. , U. S. Army, 

Barer, Honorable George, 

Baber, Miss Zonia, r. 

Bacon, Mrs E. O., 

Badger, Commander O. C. , U. iS. Navy, 

Bagg, R. M., Junior, c, 

Bailey, Vernon, 

Baker, David, c, 

Baker, Lucius, c, 

Baker, Marcus, ((, 

p. O. box 106, Fremont, Wash. 

Navj' Department. 

Chief Clerk's office, Treasury Department. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

513 Fourth street. 

17 Dupont circle. 

•Naval Observatory. 

964: West Fourth South street, Salt Lake, Utah. 

320 A street S. E. 

Loan and Trust buildina;. 

Allamuchy, N. J. 

1813 Thirteenth street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

12 Somerset street, Boston, Blass. 

2005 G street. 

937 K street. 

0840 Perry avenue, Englewood, III. 

915 Sixteenth street. 

1517 Twentieth street. 

Johns Hoplvins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Agricultural Department. 

Sparrow Point, Md. 

P. O. drawer T, Fre.«no, Cal. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Members of the Society. 


Baldwin, A. L., 

Baldwin, H. L., Junior, a, 

Baldwin, Wm. D., 

Ball, Charles B., 

Balloch, General G. W., 

Bancroft, Dr C. F. P., c. 

Barber, A. L., 

Barker, Captain A. S., U. S. Navy, 

Barnard, E. C, a, • 

Barnard, Job, 

Barnes, Charles A.^ c, 

Barrington, Wm. L., 

Barrington, Wm. M., 

Barroll, Lieutenant H. H., TJ. S. Navy, c, 

Barry, Charles E., 

Bartle, R. F., 

Bartlett, Miss E. M., 

Bartlett, Captain J. R., U. S. Navy, a, 

Barton, George H., c, 

Barton, Miss Mary L. , 

Bassett, C. C, a, 

Batchelder, Dr C. F., c, 

7 Kirkland street, Cambridge, Mas 

Batchelder, General R. N., U. 8. Army, 

722 Sixth street N. E. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
25 Grant place. 
942 T street. 
P. O. box 557. 
PJiillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 
802 F .street. 
Navy Department. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1306 Rhode Island avenue. 
P. O. box 1198, Seattle, Wash. 
3514 N street. 
Sun building. 
Navy Department. 
1421 G street. 
947 Virginia avenue S. W. 
1012 Twelfth street. 
Lonsdale, R. I. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Treasury Department. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Bates, Dr Henry H. 

War Department. 
The Portland. 

xxxii National Geographic Magazine 

Bates, Dr Newton L., U. S. Navy, 

Bayley, Dk W. S., c, 

Baylis, Jerome Z., c, 

Beaman, Wm. M., 

Beardslee, Captain L. A., TJ. S. Navy, c 

Beckham, Miss Blanche, 

Bell, Dr A. Graham, a, 

Bell, Professor A. Melville, 

Bell, C. J., a, 

Bell, J. Lowrie, 

Belt, Dr E. Oliver, 

Benton, Frank, 

Bergmann, H. H., 

Bernadou, Lieutenant J. B., TJ. S. Navy, c, 

Berthoud, Edward L., c. 

M. AV. Beveridge, 

BiBBiNS, Arthur, c, 

BiEN, Julius, o, 

Bien, Morris, a, 

BiGELOW, Professor Frank H., 

BiGELOw, Otis, 

Birch, Charles E., 

BixBY, Captain W. H. , U. S. Army, c 

Blair, H. B., a, 

The Shoreham. 

Colby University, Waterville, Me. 

Case Seliool Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Naval station. Port Royal, S. C. 

2721 N street. 

1331 Connecticut avenue. 

1.525 Thirty-fifth street. 

1405 G street. 

2017 O street. 

The Albany. 

Agricultural Department. 

511 Seventh street. 

Navy Department. 

P. O. box 45, Golden, Colo. 

1618 H street. 

Woman's College of Baltimore, Baltimore, Md. 

140 Sixth avenue, New York, N. Y. 

General Land Office. 

1625 Massachusetts avenue. 

1501 Eighteenth street. 

Hydrographic Office. 

U. S. Engineer's office, Newport, R. I. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

^lembers of the Society 
Blount, Henry F., 
Blount, Mrs L. E., 
Blout, H. L., 
BoDPisH, Sumner H., a, 
Bond, Miss Mary E., 
BouRSiN, Henry, 
Bower, R. A., c, 
Bowers, Dr Stephen, c, 
Boyce, Silas, 

Bradley, Honorable A. C., 
Bradley, George L., 
Bradley, Mrs J. M., 

Branner, Dr J. C, 

Leland Stanford Junior University, Cal. 

Breckinridge, General J. C, U. S. Army, 


3101 U street. 

3101 U street. 

24 Grant place. 

58 B street N. E. 

813 First street. 

Slaclv block, Everett, Wash. 

1G6 Adams street, Chicago, III. 

Ventura, Cal. 

917 R street. 

2013 Q street- 

2035 P street. 

816 K street. 

Brewer, Miss Clara G., 
■ Brewer, Miss Kate, 
Brewer, Professor Wm. H., 
Brigham, Professor A. P., c, 
Bright, Richard R., 
Briton, A. T., 

Broadhead, Professor G. C, c, 
Brooks, Newton M., 
Brooks, Alfred H., c, 
Brooks, Major T. B. , c. 

War Department. 

1009 Thirteenth street. 

U09 Thirtieth street. 

418 Orange street, New Haven, Conn. 

Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

130 B street N. E. 

622 F street. 

Columbia, Mo. 

233 Second street S. E. 

404 Harvard street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Newburg, K Y. 

xxxiv National Geographic Magazine. 

Brown, Edward J., 

Brown, Miss Jennie A., 
Brown, Will Q.. c, 
Browne, A. B., 
Brownell, Ernest H., c, 
Bryan, Samuel M., 
Buck, Miss Ada P., 
Buckley, Miss M. L. , 
Buckley, Fred. G., c, 
Burchell, N. L., 
Burr, J. H. Ten Eyck, c, 

820 Twentieth: street. 

Howard avenue, Mount Pleasant. 

Riddles, Ore. 

022 F street. 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

2025 Massachusetts avenue. 

635 Maryland avenue N. E. 

Bureau of Pensions. 

Aspen, Colo. 

1102 Vermont avenue. 

Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Burton, Professor A. E., a, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Butler, Miss Ella C. , 

1107 Eleventh street. 
1401 Massachusetts avenue. 
136 C street S. E. 

Cabell, Professor Wm. D. , 
Campbell, Miss J. S., 

Campbell, M. R., 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Cantwell, Lieutenant J. C, U. S. Revenue Marine, c, 

1818 Sacramento street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Rockport, Me. 

Carleton, p. J., c, 

Carman, Miss Ada, 

Carpenter, Frank G., 

Carr, General E. A. , U. S.' Army, 

Carroll, Captain James, c, 

Catlin, Captain. Robert, U. S. Armj' 

Chamberlin, Professor T. C, c, 

1351 Q street. 

1318 Vermont avenue. 

The Richmond. 

.luneau, Alaslca. 

1428 Euclid place. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Members of the Society. 


Chapman, D. C. , 
Chapman, R. H., «, 

Chatard, Dr T. M., «, 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

1758 K street. 

Chenery, Lieutenant Commander L. , U. S. Navy, c. 

University Clnh, New Yorlj, N. Y. 

Cherry, Charles H., 

1115 S street. 

Che>ster, Commander C. M., U. S. Navy, c, 

U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Chester, Miss J. M., 
Childs, Professor T. S. , 
Chilton, William B., 
Chisholm, C. F., 
Christie, Alkx. S., 
Christie, P. H. , 
Clapp, George H., c, 
Clark, Charles S. , 
Clark, Dr Egbert A., 
Clark, E. B., a, 
Clark, Professor Isaac, 
Clark, Miss May S., 
Clark, Miss S. H., 
Clark, Dr W. B., c, 
Claypole, Professor E. W. , c, 
Clements, Miss L. H., 

1016 Eleventh street. 
1308 Connecticut avenue. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
87 Patent Office. 
115 Fourth street N. E. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
116 Water street, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Gales .school. 
1756 M street. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
Howard University. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
931 French street. 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Buchtel College, Akron, Oliio. 
1610 Q street. 

Clover, Lieutenant Commander R., TJ. S. Navy, 

1535 New Hampshire avenue. 

Cogswell, Mrs T. F., 

Treasury Department, 

XXX vi • National Geographic Magazine. 

Colby, Honorabi,e Lkonard W., 

1^25 Tenth street. 

Cole, T. L., 

Corcoran bnikling. 

Coleman, Major F. W., 

The Richmond. 

Collie, Profrssor G. L., c, 

Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 


i;« B street N. E. 

CoLTON, Francis, 

IG;!,') Connecticut avenue. 

CoMSTocK, Mrs S. C, 

14C4 Rliode Island avenue. 

CoMSTOCK, Professor T. B., c, 

University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Con LEY, Miss M. J., r, 

Cohoeton, N. Y. 

Connolly, Miss Louise, 

MKi Si\tli street. 

Cook, Fred. W., c, 

r>\h Power huildinp, Helena, Mont. 

Coo LEY, Miss Grace E. , c, 

Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Coon, Charles E., 

1708 H street. 

CoPELiN, Miss E. G., 

Kendall Green. 

Corson, Miss Ida, 

914 Farragut square. 

CoTTMAN, Lieutenant V. L., U. S. Navy, c, 

Navy Department. 

CouES, Dr Elliot, 

Smithsonian Institution. 

CoviLLE, Frederick V., 

Agricultural Department. 

Cox, Miss Alice C, 

1454 Rhode Island avenue. 

Cragin, -Professor F. W., c, 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Craighead, Dr J. G., 

The Concord. 

Crane, Augustus, Junior, 

1344 F street. 

Cresson, Dr H. T., c, 

Tlie Gladstone, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Croffut, W. a., 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Jl<.iii()(.r>i of flic iSocich/. wxvii 

Ckoss, WinTM ant, 

IT. >S, G('olo,iiic;il Sm-v.\v, 

Ckoutkr, a. L. K., c, 

" Mount Airy," I'liilMdolpliin, V:\. 

VUOWVAA., IMus A. S., C, 

lU Norlli 'Pwouty-t'ourMi slnM>t, Omnha, Xoli. 

Cn.MKIfl'SON. Dk I<jMi\IA 1>., (\ . 

:v.\ Nowlnii'y siriH't, Hostun, i\l:iss. 

(U'l.vm;, TiioKKssoiMi. M. c, 

>s;!ri Harrison nvonno, I'u'loil, Wis. 

Cl'MMlN, IvOMKUT D., (l, 

IT. S. (;oolos;-ii'.'il Survey. 

ClIMMlN(;S, I'koKKSSOU (iK(1H(!K .1., 

lIo\v;U'd Uiiivorsity. 

C^UMMINCJS, Miss M. L)., 

,V-'(1 Sixth street. 

Cu.MMlNdS, IMlSS S. Vj., 

."iL'll Sixth siroci, 

CiTNNiNtsuAji, John M., c, 

Cosnnis Cliili, S;m I'^riincisco, ('.'ij. 

CtTNNINUHAM, MUS ^^'. ()., 

172:! I\ street. 

CVMRW .1. I.. M., 

17:i(l M street. 

CUKKV. W. W., 

l,"il(i X'intli stroet. 

Cmrns, (i. Caukoll, c, 

OS TliiiyiM- linll, Caniln-id.ut', Muss. 

(^Uin'IS, WlLI.IAAl Vu, (I, 

ISOl Connoetieiit avenue. 

('I'SUINC, j\[lSS S. ('., 

:U(i 1 Milian.'i aveiuu'. 

(\isTis, dki;. w. n., 

112 Kast t'apitol street. 

(HiTTUlS, W. J\, 

.\i;ri('ultural l>e|iartniont. 

Dahxioy, Dm C. W., .Iunioi!, 

Ai;rieullural l>epartnient. 

|)A(;(iKTT, Mits M. S., 

l.")01 R stvoot. 

1~)ali., iMks Caroline H., 

ir>2() Ki^'hteonth street. 

DAI.L, \vm. ir., 

Sruithsoniun Iii.stitutiou. 

DaI;V, Honorable CriAULRs P, , 

8-t Clinton place, New York, N. V. 

I)aly, HE(;iN'ALn A,, c, 

10 Mclien atriH^., Cnmhridgo,, 

VI— Nat. Okiki. M.\«., vol. V, LSiKi. 

xxxviii National Geographic Magazine 

Daeton, N. H., 

Davidge, Walter D., Junior, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
1 Corcoran building. 

Davidson, Professor George, o, c, 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, San Francisco, Cal 

Davies, Charles, 

Davis, Miss Adelaide, 

Davis, Arthur P., ,a, 

Davis, Mrs J. T. 

Davis, Walter W., 

Davis, Professor Wji. M. , a, 

Davis, AV. T., c, 

Dawson, Miss A. B., 

Dawson, Thomas F., 

Day, C. a.. 

Day, Dr David T., 

Day, E. Warren, 

Denney, Miss E. A., 

Denny, Arthur A., e, 

Detweiler, F. M., 

DicKiNS, Commander F. W., U. S. oSTavy 

DiLLER, J. S., a. 

Dodge, R. E., c, 


Dole, Mrs E. G., 

DoLLEY, Dr Charles S. , c, 

1915 Sixth street. 
11.0 B street S. E. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1126 Thirteenth street. 
714 A street N. E. 
2 Bond stieetj'Cambridge, Mass. 
American Bank building, Kansas City, Mo. 
IJ. S. Geological Survey. 
U. S. Senate annex. 
National Safe Deposit Company. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
War Department. 
707 Thirteenth street. 
i:-i28 Front street, Seattle, Wash. 
420 Eleventh street. 
Navy Department. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
22 Stoughton Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 
1014 Fourteenth street. 
3707 Woodland avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

3Iembers of the Society 
Douglas, E. M., a, 
DouNAN, Mrs G. W. , 
Drewry, W. S., c, 
Dryer, Dr Charles R., c, 
Du Bois, Colonel J. G., •" 
Duncklee, John B., 


DuTTON, Major C. E., U. S. Army, a, 

Dyer, Lieutenant G. L.,- U. S. Navy, c. 

Easterling, H. v., 

Eastman, Charles R., c, 

Eaton, Professor D. G. , c, 

Eddy, Mrs Mary H., 

Edmands, Professor J. R. , 

Edson, John Joy, 

Edson, Joseph R., a, 

Edson, Honorable Obed, c, 

Eglhston, Dr N. H., 

Eijibeck, William, 

Eldridge, George H., 

Eliot, Charles, 

Elliott, Miss Elizabeth, ' 

Emerson, Dr B. K., c, 

Emmons, Lieutenant George T., U. S. Navy, 


U. S. Geological Survey. 

1227 I street. 

Surveyor General's Office, Victoria, British Columbia. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 

1428 Chapin street. 

940 Westminster street. 

State Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Record and Pension Office. 

297 Laurel avenue. Saint Paul, Minn. 

.55 Pineapple street, Broolvlyn, N Y. 

The Shoreham. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

1003 F street. 

927 F street. 

Sinclairville, N. Y. 

1530 Sixteenth street. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Broolvline, Blass. 

1U4 Fifteenth street. 

Amherst, Mass. 

"Edgehill," Princeton, N. J. 

xl National Geograpldc Magazine 

Ekb.vch, John, 

Evans, H. C. , 

Evans, Mrs John U., 

Evans, Samuel G., c, 

Evans, Dr W. W., 

EvERMANN, Professor B. W., 

Ewing, Charles, 

Eyerman, John, r, 

EzDORF, Richard von, 

Fairchild, Professor H. L. , c, 

Fairchild, John F., c. 

Fairfield, George A., ((, 
Fairfield, W. B., a, 
Faris, E. L., 
Farquhak, Henry, 
Fenxewan, N. M., c, 
Fernow, B. E., o, 
Ffoulke, Charles M., 
Fischer, E. G., «, 
Fischer, Louis A., 
Fisher, Mrs A. B., 
Fisher, Robert J., 
Fitch, Charles H,, a, 
Flejier, J. A., 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Central National Banli building. 

1210 Sixteenth street. 

211 Main .street, Evans ville, Ind. 

1756 M street. 

1859 Harewood avenue. 

11)10 Riggs place.. 

■' Oakhurst," Easton, Pa. 

918 N street. 

University of Rocliester, Rochester, N. Y. 

Banli building, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

1407 Stougliton street. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Coast and Cieodetic Survey. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Greeley, Colo. 

Agricultural Department. 

2013 Massachusetts avenue. 

U. S Coast and Geodetic Survev. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

902 Massachusetts avenue N. E. 

614 F street. 

3025 N street. 

414 A street S. E. 

Meiihhers of the iSoelety 

Fl.KTCHEK, L. C, (I, 

Fletcher, Dk Rouekt, ((, 
Flint, Charles, 


F'^LiNT, Dr Weston, 
Flynn, Harry F., 
Flynn, p. J., (■, 
FoRUErt, W. H., c, 
FORN E Y , S'l'EH M A N , 

F'oRREST, Julius C, 
F\)SHAY, Dr P. Max, c, 
Foster, Honorable John W., 
F^osTER, Professor Richakd, 
Fowler, Francis, 
F^itANK, George W., c, 
Fraser, Daniel, 
F'rench, Dr Cxeorge N., 
F'rench, Owen B., 

Fuller, Miss A. H., 

Fuller, Thomas J. D., 

Gage, N. P., a, 

Gannett, Henry, a; 

Gannett, S. S., «, 

Gane, H. S., c, 

Ganon(;, Professor W. F., r, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
Army Medical Museum. 
1519 O street. 
1101 K street. 
V. S. Coast aud Geodetic Survey. 
P. 0. box 916, Los Angeles, Cal. 
!:« Chestnut avenue, .Jairiaica Plain, Mass. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Hydrographic Office. 
282 Prospect street, Cleveland, Ohio. 
140.5 I street. 
Hovi-ard University. 
1449 Q street. 
Kearney, Neb. 
458 Pennsylvania avenue. 
1834 I street. 
2212 F street. 
1321 Rhode Island avenue. 
1509 H street. 
Seaton school. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
.Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
119 Oxford street, Cambridge, Mass. 

xlii National 

Gantt, Miss Clare, 
Gardner, C. L., 
Gardner, John L., 2d, 
Garnett, Henry Wise, 
Garnier, Miss M. A., 
Garrett, H. G, c. 
Garrison, Miss C. L., 
George, Jno. C, 
GiBBS, Miss H. H., 
Gilbert, G. K., a, 
GiLMAN, Dr D. C., a, 
Glavis, George 0., Junior, 
Goode, Dr G. Brown, «, 
Goode, R. U., a, 


Goodrich, Harold B., 
Gorman, M. W., c, 
Graether, Leonard F., 
Graham, Miss Agnes M., 
Graham, Andrew B., 
Granger, F. D., 
Grant, Miss A. L., 
Grant, Ulysses S., r, 
Graves, Louis B., 

(jreograj) hie Magazin e. 

1705 N street. 

"173a Q street. 

22 (longress street, Boston, Mass. 

1319 New York av&nue. 

Grant place. 

Orlando, Fla. 

1228 Thirteenth street. 

3(3 South Gay street, Baltimore, Md. 

2905 N street. 

(J. S. Geological Survey. 

Johns Hopkins Universitj^ Baltimore, Bid. 

1353 Q street. 

U. S. National IMuseum. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

75 North Fourteenth street, Portland, Ore. 

1135 Fifth street N. E. 

1710 Fifteenth street. 

1230 Pennsylvania avenue. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

321 East Capitol street. 

State Geological Survey Minneapolis, Minn, 

2501: Fourteenth street. 

Members of the Society 
(traves, Waltek H., 
Gkeely, General A. W., U. S. Army, a, 
Green, Bernard R., 
Greene, Roger S., Junior, c, 
Gregory, E. J., c, 
Griffith, G. Berkeley, 
Grimsley, G. p., c, 
Grinnell, Dr George B. , c, 
Griswolu, L. S., c. 


Crow Indian reservation, Mont. 

Klo G street. 

1738 N street. 

.Seattle, Wash. 

Fort Collins, Colo. 

Gris\vold, W. T., a, c, 

Groeger, G. G., (■-, 

Gulliver, F. P., e, 

GuYER, Miss C. C. , 

Hackett, Merrill, a, 

Hagadorn, Lieutenant C. B., U. S. Array, c, 

Hagan, Mrs Cornelia J., 

Halderman, General John A., 

Hall, Reverend Edward H., c, 

Hamilton, William, 

Hamlin, Dr Teunis S., 

Hance, DrT. F., 

Hanford, Levi, 

Hansen, John, 

Hanvev, Frank L., 

Itao Rhode Island avenue. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

.318 Broadway, New Yorli, N. Y. 

238 Boston street, Dorchester, Mass. 

U. S. Geological Survey, Portland, Ore. 

310 Chamber Commerce building, Chicago, 111. 

1686 Cambridge street, Cambridge, Mass. 

1754 M street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Springfield, Mas.s. 

Treasury Department. 

Metropolitan Club. 

G Ash street, Cambridge, Mass. 

U. S. Bureau of Education. 

1306 Connecticut avenue. 

Bureau of Pensions. 

1817 Ninth street. 

605 H street. 

234 New Jersey avenue. 

xliv National Geographic Magazine. 

Harding, Miss Gena R. , 

Hardy, Edward D., 

Harrington, Professor Mark W., 

Harris, Dr T. A¥., c, 

Harrison, Professor Thomas F. , c 

Harkod, Major B. M., 

Hart, Professor A. B., 
Hart, Amos W., 
Harvey, F. H., c, 
Hasbrouck, E. M., 
Haskell, E. E., a, c, 
Hastings, John B., c, 
Hawkins, George T., 

The Shorehani. 

Howard University. 

U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

221 West Forty-fifth street, New Yorlc, N. Y. 

City Engineer's office, New Orlean.s, La. 

15 Appian way, Cambridge, Mass. 

712 Tenth street. 

Gait, Sacramento county, Cal. 

l.H A street N. E. 

U. S. Engineer's office, Sanlte de Sninte Marie, Mich. 

Boise, Idaho. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Hawley, Lieutenant J. M., U. S. Navy, c, 

U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Haworth, Professor Er.vsmus, c. 

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 
Hayden, Lieutenant Everett, U. S. Navy, a. 

Hay, Professor Robert, 
Hayes, Dr C. Willard, 
Hayes, Professor Ei^len, c, 
Haynes, F. J., c, 
Hays, Mrs L. J. 
Hayward, H. a., 
Hazard, Daniel L., 
Heaton, a. G., 

1802 Sixteenth street. 

P. O. box 5G2, Junction Citjr, Kans. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

W^ellesley College, Wellesley, Mas.s. 

392 Jacl?son street, Saint Paul, Minn. 

1718 Corcoran street. 

Mint Bureau, Treasury Department, 

U. S, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

1C18 Seventeenth street. 

Members of the Society 
Hedrick, H. B., 
Heilprin, G. F., 
Henderson, J. B., Junior, 
Henderson, -^Mrs Julia, 
Hendges, Matthew, 
Henry, A. J., a, 
Henshaw, H. W., a, c, 
Herbert, Honorable Hilary A., 
Herrle, Gustave, a, 


Herron, William H, a, 

Hewett, G. C, 

HicKEY, Miss S. G., 

HiGHT, Sherman, 

Hill, Harry C, c, 

Hill, Robert T., 

Hillebrand, Dr AV. F. , 

Hills, Charles W., 

Hills, Victor G., c, 

Hinman, Eussell, 

Hitchcock, Professor 0. H., c, 

Hrrz, John, 

HoBBs, Dr W. H., f, 

HoDGiN, Professor Cyrus W., c, 

HoDGiciNS, Professor H. Jj., a, 

VII— Nat, Gkqg, l\f ag., vol. V, 1893, 

Nautical Almanac Office. 

1227 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Sixteenth street and Florida avenue. 

1826 G street. 

General Land Office. 

948 S street. 

Chico, Cal. 

Navy Department. 

Hydrographic Office. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

1744 Corcoran street. 

1322 Ninth street. 

1426 F street. 

P. O. box 1040, Salt Lake, Utah. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

1453 Massachusetts avenue. 

P. O. box D, Cripple Creek, Colo. 

806 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. K. 

Thirty-fifth and Q streets. 

University of Wisconsin, Bladison, Wis. 

Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

Columbian University, 

xlvi National Geographic Magazine. 


U. S. Coast, and Geodetic Survey. 

1417 G street. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

The Hollenden, Cleveland, Ohio. 

9 Saint John street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

13G0 E street. 

University of North Carolina, Cliapel Hill, N. C. 

Takoma Park, D. C. 

Hooper, Captain 0. L., U. S. Ee venue Marine, c, 

716 Tenth street, Oakland, Cal. 


HoLDEN, Charles F., c, 
HoLDEN, Mrs L. E. , 
HoLDEN, Luther L., 
Hollerith, Herman, 
Holmes, Professor J. A., c. 
Holt, H. P. R., 

Hore, Captain E. C, c, 
Hornaday, W. T., a, 


HoRSFORD, Miss Cornelia, 
HosKiNS, Professor L. M. , c, 
HosMER, Edward S., I, 
HoTCHKiss,. Major Jed., 
Hough, Miss Helen M., 
Hough, Walter, 
HOVEY, Dr H. C, 

Queensland chambers, Sydney, N. S. W. 

325 Humboldt parkway, Buffalo, N. Y. 

1402 M street. 

27 Cragie street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Leland Stanford Junior University, Cal. 

29 Nassau street. New York, N. Y. 

Staunton, Va. 

202 Indiana avenue. 

U. S. National Museum. 

60 High street, Newburyport, Mass. 

Howard, Ensign W. L., U. S. Navy, c, 

Carnegie-Phipps Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Howe, Edward G., c, 
Howe, Frank D., c, 
Howell, D. J., a, 
Howell, E. E., a, 

304 Columbia avenue. Champaign, Ul. 

P. 0. box 1S4, Aspen, Colo. 

918 F street. 

612 Seventeenth street. 

Members of the Society 
HowisoN, Captain H. L., TJ. S. Navy, c, 
HoxiE, Captain R. L., U. S. Army, c, 
HoYT, Honorable John W. , 
HuBBAED, Honorable Gardiner G., a, 
Hubbard, W. H., c, 
HuBERiCH, Charles H., c, 
Hunt, C. B., 

HuRD, Dp Arthur W., c, 
HuRD, Dr Henry M., 


Hutchinson, John, 
Hutchinson, W. J., 
Hyam, Miss V. W., 
Hyde, Miss E. R., 
Hyde, G. E., 
Hyde, John, 
Iardella, C. T., a, 
Iddings, Professor J. P., c, 
Ingen, Gilbert van, c, 
Ingraham, Professor E. S., c 
Irish, Charles W. , 
Jackson, Reverend Sheldon, 
Jackson, Mrs S. V., 
Jacobs, Joseph, c 

Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 
P. O. box 1240, Pittsburg, Pa. 
1234 Massachusetts avenue. 
1328 Connecticut avenue. 
904 " Tlie Eool^ery," Cliicago, 111. 
P. O. box 640, San Antonio, Tex. 
District building. 
Buffalo State Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md. 
1524 P street. 
1707 Massachusetts avenue. 
1314 S street. 
1326 I street. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1502 KenesavF avenue. 
U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Agricultural Department. 
The Concord. 
933 Rhode Island avenue. 

80 East One hundred and sixteenth street, New York, N. Y. 

Jaggar, T. a.. Junior, c, 

8 Weld hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

xlviii National Geographic Magazine 

James, John N., 
James, Mrs J. F., 

7 Cooke place, Georgetown. 
1475 Kenesaw avenue. 

Jarvis, Lieutenant D. H. , TJ. S. Eevenue Marine, 

23 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Jennings, Miss H. R., 
Jennings, J. H., a, 
JE\yELL, Claudius B., 
Jewett, W. p., c, 
Johnson, Miss A. B., 
Johnson, A. B., a, 
Johnson, E. Kurtz, 
Johnson, Dr H. L. E., 
Johnson, Mrs Mary D., c, 
Johnson, J. B., 
Johnson, James L., 
Johnson, Theo. H., 
Johnson, Willard D., a, 
Johnston, Dr W. W., 
Jones, Dr Edward S. , 
JuDD, John G., 
JuDSON, Egbert, e, 
JuLiAND, Miss Emma E., 
Kasson, Honorable John A., 
Kauppmann, S. H., a, 
Kavanaugh, Miss Katherine, 

1714 Johnson place. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1324 Vermont avenue. 
180 East Third street, Saint Paul, Minn. 
501 Maple avenue. 
Light House Board. 
1600 Massachusetts avenue. 
1400 L street. 
Sitka, Alaska. 
Howard University. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1115 S street. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1603 K street. 
1505 R street. 
420 Eleventh street. 
402 Front street, San Francisco, Cal. 
18 Iowa circle. 
1726 I street, 
1421 Massachusetts avenue. 
Sixth Auditor's OfHee. 


U. S. Geological Survey. 

715 East Capitol street. 

710 Havemeyer building, New York, N. Y. 

Oberlin, Ohio. 

Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 

Care J. B. Pond, Everett House, New York, N. Y. 

179 Prospect avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

3Iembers of the Society 
Keith, Arthur, 

Kelly, Miss Mary G. , jl 

Kelley, W. D. , 

Kenaston, Professor C. A., a, c, 
Kendall, Miss Elizabeth, c, 
Kemp, Professor J. F. , c, 
Kennan, George, a, 
Kennan, K. K., c, 

Kennedy, Dr George G., I, 

284 Warren street, Roxbury, Mass. 

Kennon, Lieutenant L. W. V., U. S. Army, 

Kent, Miss Priscilla, 

Kerr, H. S., c, 

Kerr, Mark B., a, 

Kerr, W. H., c, 

Keyser, Miss A. K., 

Kimball, E. F., 

Kimball, Dr E. S., 

Kimball, Honorable S. I. , a, 

King, George A., 

King, Professor Harry, a, 

King, William B., 

King, Professor F. H., 

King, W. F., c, 

Kingsbury, E. A., 

1016 Vermont avenue. 

1311 Connecticut avenue. 

Salt Lake, Utah. 

Tumaco, U. S. Colombia, South America. 

Ilcliester, Md. 

2019 Massachusetts avenue. 

1316 Rhode Island avenue. 

1107 G street. 

Life Saving Service. 

1420 New York avenue. 

General Land Office. 

1328 Twelfth street. 

1500 University avenue, Madison, Wis. 

Department of Interior, Ottawa, Canada. 

248 Third street. 

1 National Geographic Magazine. 

IvLAKRiXG, Alfred, 


Klotz, Otto J., c, 

KUBEL, S. J., 

KtJMMELL, Henry B. , c, 

Ladd, George E., 

Lamb, Miss Lavixia, c, 

Lambert, M. B., 

Lamboex, Dr E. H., 

Lamborx, "William, 

Laxder, Mrs J. INI. D., 

Laxgley, Professor S. P. , 

Lawsox, Miss Jeaxxe W., 

Le Breton', Albert J., 

Leiter, L. Z., J, 

Leonard, A. G., c, 

Leverett, Feaxk, c, 

Leverixg, Thomas H., 

Lewis, Jesse, c, 

Lewis, J. Y., c, 

Libbey, Professor William, Junior, c 

Lichty, M. B. , 

LiDDELL, Dr Henry, c, 

Lincoln, Colonel Charles P., 

Lincoln, John J. , 

Hydrographic Office. 

•137 Albert street, Ottawa, Canada. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

SI Oxford street, Cambridge, Mass. 

5.79 Broadway, Saint Paul, Minn. 

326 Clinton street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

32 Nassau street, New York, N. Y. 

1510 S street. 

45 B street S. E. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

1231 New Hampshire avenue. 

1914 Sixteenth street. 

Dupont circle. 

Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines, Iowa. 

4103 Grand boulevai-d, Chicago, 111. 

1450 Corcoran street. 

Warrensburg, Missouri. 

1014 Linden avenue, Baltimore, Md, 

20 Bayard avenue, Princeton, N. J. 

3219 P street. 

809 T street. 

1728 Corcoran street. 

Elkhorn, AV. Va. 

Members of the Society 


LiNDSLEY, William L., c, 


LooKwooD, Mrs J. B., 

Long, Captain Oscar F., U. S. Army, 

Looker, Henry B, 

Looker, Thomas H., U. S. Navy, 

LooMis, Miss Annie E., 

LooMis, Henry B., c, 

LooMis, Dr Lafayette C. , 

LovEJOY, Miss M. N. , 


Lowe, Chief Engineer John, U. S. Navy, 
LuDiNGTON, Lieutenant Colonel M. L, U. S. Army, 
Lynch, John A., 

Lyons, Joseph, 
McArthuk, J. J., c, 
McCeney, Miss Mary E., 
McCoRMicK, L. M., 
McCracken, R. H., c, 
McCulloch, Miss Mary, 
McCullough, Mrs L. V., 

state Museum, Springfield, 111. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

115 Republican street, Seattle, Wash. 

928 Twenty-third street. 

Charlton heights, Md. 

War Department. 

918 F street. 

1312 Thirtieth street. 

1437 Kenesaw avenue. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Winthrop heights. 

902 Twelfth street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

203 East Capitol street. 

The Cochran. 

248 Delaware avenue. 

1003 F street. 

Topographical Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 

The Shoreham. 

612 Seventeenth street. 

P. O. bo.K 495, San Antonio, Tex. 

P. O. box 646. 

820 Twelfth street N. E. 

lii National Geographic Magazine. 

McCrKDY, Arthur W., 

McCl'rdy, George G., c, 
McDowell, William 0., c, 
McGee, "\Y J, a, 
IMcGiLL, ]Mrs J. H., 
McGiLL, Miss M. C. , 
McGrath, Johx E., 
McGuire, F. B., 
McIxTiRE, Mrs L. P., 
McKee, Hexry H., 
McKke, Redick H.,a, 
McLaxahax, G. "\V., 
McLaughlin, ^Iajor Fraxk, c, 
McLaughlix, Dr T. X., 
McLeax, Miss N. E. L. , 
McPhersox, Mrs I\Iary E., • 
^Iacfarlaxd, Joseph, 
^Iack, Miss Xellie M., 
MacKaye, James M. , e, 
Mackixder, Professor H. J., c, 
Magruder, Joiix H., 
Maher, James A., a, c, 
Mahox, MrsM. H. B., 
Mallett, ]Miss Axxa S., 

1331 Couaeeticut avenue. 

3 College house, Cambridge, Mass. 

Lincoln Park, Newark, X. J. 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

1915 Third street. 

1447 Q street. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

1333 Connecticut aventie. 

Register's Office, Treasury Department. 

1-37 Fourth street S. E. 

U. S. Geological Survey, Seattle, Wash. 

1601 Twenty-first street. 

Oroville, Cal. 

122G N street. 

940 New York avenue. 

1227 I street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

624 A street S. E. 

Shirley, Mass. 

1 Bradmore road, Oxford, England. 

1644 Twenty-first street. 

P. O. box 3o, Johnson City, Teun. 

1329 Corcoran street. 

1454 Rhode Island avenue. 

Members of tlie Society., MissM. J., r, 
Maltby, Mrss M. E., c, 

Maxderson, Honorable CiiAitMDs F. , U. S. Senate, 
Mann, Dr H. L., 
Mann, J. B., 
Mann, Mrss Mary PI, 
Manning, Van II., a, 
Marhut, Curtis F. , c, 
Marcv, Professor Oliver, c, 
Marindin, Henry L., 
Marks, Dr A. J., c, 
Marsh, Lieutenant C. C, U. 8. Navy, 
Marsiia].l, R. B., 


Hyattsville, Md. 

" In Europe." 

1233 Seventeenth street. 

334 Indiana avenue. 

1010 Massachusetts avenue. 

473 Seventh street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Jefferson City, Missouri. 

703 Chicago avenue, Evauston, III. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

419 Madison street, Toledo, Ohio. 

1808 Riggs place. 

IJ. S. Geological Survey, San Francisco, Cal. 

Martin, Artemas, 

Martin, Miss Frances, 

Martin, Miss Louise, 

Marvine, Mrs A. K., 

Mason, Professor Otis T., 

Mason, Victor L. , 

Mathews, Pjioi^essor Siiailer, c, 

Mati'hews, Dr Washington, U. S. Army, a. 

Mattingly, William F., 

Maxcy, Dr F. E., 

Maynard, Comjiaxder W., U. S. Navy, 

VIII— Nat. Gkog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

1534 Columbia street. 

1205 Q street. 

1205 Q street. 

1404 Rhode Island avenue. 

1777 Massachusetts avenue. 

1324 Corcoran street. 

Colby University, Waterville, Me. 

Fort Wingate, N. M. 

435 Seventh street. 

18 Iowa circle. 

Navy Department. 

liv National Geographic Magazine. 

Mayo, George V.. 

Meade, Commodore R. AV. . V. S. Xavy, 

Mei.i.. Professor p. H., c, 

IMelvii.t.e. Chief ExgixeerG. W., JJ. S. Navy, a, /, 

Mexdexhall, Dr T. C. . 

14?1 Rhode Island avenue. 

' 1406 L street. 

.\uliuvn. Ala. 

>'avy Department. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Mexocal, Civil Exgixeer A. G.. U. S. Xavv. a. 

Mekria:m, Dr C. H.vrt, a, 
Merriam. Walter H., 
^Ierrill. Charles A., r. 
Merrill. F. J. H.. c, 
Merrill, Professor J. A., c, 
Mestox, R. D., 
Metzger. F. p., 
3I1DDLETOX. .Teffersox, 
Mitchell. Professor IIexry. a, 
Mox.iEAr, Cleophas, <•, 
MoxTAGUE, Professor A. P., 


MoRGAx, Dk Fkaxcis p., 
Morris, Miss L. W., c. 
morrisox, w. c, 
Mortox, Hoxorable J. Sterlixg, 

MOSMAX. A. T.. (7, 

^IriR. Professor .Tohx, 

Norfolk Navy Yard, Va. 

Agricultural Department. 

209 West Fifty-sixth street, New York, N. Y. 

Holden, Mass. 

State Jluseum, .\lbany, N. Y. 

AVarrensburg, 3Io. 

\ii~ L street. 

U. S Geological Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

no Buckingham street, Cambridge, Mass. 

I^riddletown, Ohio. 

1.514 Corcoran street. 

.\llegheny College. Meadville, Pa. 

loiiS Ninth street. 

lUT Milan street. Shreveport, La. 

141? Rhode Island avenue. 

Agricultural Department. 

P. O. box S-2, San Diego, Cal. 

Martinez, Cal. 

Members of the Society. 



MuxROE, Hersey, 


Murray, B. P., 

Mytinger, Miss Caroline, 

Newcomb, Professor Simon, U. S. Nav^^ 

Newel I,, F. H., 

1510 H street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

10 Third street N. E. 

1214 O street. 

■ 1020 P street. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

NiLES, Professor William H., 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass 

NiTZE, H. B. C, c, 

11 South street, Baltimore, Mel. 

314 Saint Louis street, Springfield, Mo. 

Coronado, Cal. 

Devonshire Club, Saint .James street, London, England. 

Senate post office. 

The Evening Star. 

The Evening Star. 

Kearney, Nebraska. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

810 H street. 

14ii5 L street. 

V.i7 Jennings avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ni.xoN, Dr J. H., c, 
NoRDHOFF, Charles, a, 
Norman-Neruda, L., c, 
northup, c. g., 
NoYEs, Crosby S., 
No YES, Theodore W., 
0' Brian, J. T., c, 
Ogden, Herbert G. , a, 
Olberg, Charles R., 
Oldrini, Professor a. A., 
Olney, Charles F., 
Oi'penheim, Mrs Ansel, c, 

277 Summit avenue, Saint Paul, Minn 

Osborn, Lieutenant A. P., U. S. Nav\^, c, 

Osborne, Dr George L. , -c, 
Otis, Hamilton, c, 

Navy Department. 
State Normal School, Warrensburg, Mo. 
Cazadero, Cal. 

Ivi National Geogvapliic Magazine 

Owen, W. 0.,c, 

Painter, Mrs U. H., 

Palmer, T. S., 

Pancoast, Miss M. E., 

Parke, General John G., U. S. Army, 

Parker, E. W., 

Parker, Colonel Francis W. , r, 

Parker, Miss L. M., 

Laramie, Wyo. 
000 Fourteenth street. 
Agricultural Departmeut. 
1507 Corcorau street. 
10 Lafayette square. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
6640 Honore street, Englewood, III. 
IIOO M street. 

Parker, Myron M., 

Parmelee, H. p., c, 

Parsons, F. H., u, 

Patterson, Miss M. E., 

Paul, Mrs D'Arcy, 

Payne, James G. , 

Peabooy, AV. F., 

Peale, Dr a. C, a, 

Peary, Civil Engineer R. E., U. S. Navy 

Peckham, Dr Grace, c, 

Pellew, Henry E., 

Penrose, Dr R. A. F. , Junior, 

Perkins, E. T., Junior, a, 

Perkins, Honorable G. C, 

Peters, Eugene, 

Peters, Lieutenant G. H., U. S. Navy, «, 

1020 Vermont avenue. 

Hillsdale, Mich. 

210 First street S. E. 

1100 Vermont avenue. 

1129 North Calvert street, Baltimore, Md. 

2112 Massacliusetts avenue. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

1451 Stougliton street. 

2014 Twelfth street. 

The Madison, New Yoric, N. Y. 

1637 Massachusetts avenue. 

13.31 Spruce street, Pliiladelphia, Pa. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Senate. 

458 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Navy Department. 

Members of the Society 
Peters, William J., a, 
Petty, Professor W. ,T., c, 
Phillips, R. H., 
Pickering, Professor E. C, 
Picking, Captain H. F., U. S. Navy, 
Pierce, Josiaii, Junior, 
Pilling, J. W., 
PoLLOK, Anthony, 
Pond, «Mrs E. J., 
Poole, Major D. C, U. S. Army, 
PooRE, Howard W., c, 
Powell, Major J. W., n, 
Powell, Professor W. B., a, 
Power, George C, c, 


Powers, Fred Perry, c, 

Prang, Louis, 

Prentiss, Dr D. W., a, 

Preston, H. L., 

Price, Joseph M. , 

Priest, W. E., 

Prince, Dr John D., c, 

Prince, Honorable L. Bradford, c, 

Prout, Miss N. S., 

Raines, T. Raleigh, c, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
Bradfoid, Pa. 
1-122 New York avenue. 
Harvard Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. 
Navy Department. 
1325 B'lassachusetts avenue. 
1301 Massachusetts avenue. 
G20 F street. 
420 C street S. E. 
1724 Corcoran street. 
Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass. 
910 B'l street. 
Franklin school. 
P. O. box E, Ventura, Cal. 
.32 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
040 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 
1101 Fourteenth street. 
612 Seventeenth street. 
T712 Corcoran street. 
001 French street. 
9 East Tenth street, New York, N. Y. 
Santa Fe, N. M. 
ITfiS N street. 
P. O. box 6, Hickory, Miss. 

Iviii National Geographic Magazine. 

Rand, Dr Chakles F. , 

1228 Fifteenth street. 

Rankin, Dr J. E. , 

Howard University. 

Rankin, John M. , 

.\tlantic building. 

Ravenburg, Miss M. G., 

i:iU8 W street. 
Raymond, Edward S., 

527 Tvvelftli street. 

Raymond, Mrs Edith L., 

151.5 Seventeentli street. 

Read, Motte A., c, 

22 StoLightou liall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Reclus, ElISEEjC, 

Bourg la Reine, Paris, France. 

Redway", Captain George, 

131G Twelfth street. 

Reed, Lieutenant B. L., U. S. Revenue Marine, 

Life Saving Servi(3e. 

Reed, Miss Temperance P., 

1616 Rhode Island avenue. 

Reese, Miss Ella, 

Brookland, D. C. 

Reid, Professor Harry F. , c, 

.Johns Hopliins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Reiter, Commander G. C, U. S. Navy, c, 

Light-house inspector, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reynolds, General J. J., U. S. Army, 

1601 S street. 

Rice, Professor William North, c, 

Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

Richardson, T. J., c, 

731 East Fifteenth street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Richardson, Dr C. W. , 

1102 L street. 

Richmond, Charles W., 

1.307 T street. 

RiCHTER, Miss Clara M., 

330 A street S. E. 

RicKSECKER. Eugene, a, c, 

P. O. bo.'c 289, Seattle, Wash. 

Rtordan, D. M., r, 

Flagstaff, Arizona. 

RiTTER, Homer P., a. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

RizER, Colonel H. C, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Members of the Society. 


RoBBixs, Arthur G., r, 

Roberts, A. C, a, 

Rochester, Gexerai, W. B., U. S. Army 

Rock, Miles, 

RocKwooD, Professor C. G., Junior, c, 

Rotcit, a. Lawrence, 

ROTHROCK, Dr J. T. , c, 

RusBY, Dr Henry H., c, 

Rusk, James M., c, 

Russell, Captain A. H., U. S. Army, 

RussEL, Lieutenant Edgar, U. S. Army, c, 

Russell, E. E., 

Russell, Professor Israel C, a, r, 

Safford, Dr M. Victor, c, 

Salisbury, Professor R. D., c, 

Sampson, Mrs M. I. , 

Sanders, Henry P., 

Sands, Miss Marie, 

Saroent, Miss A. L., 

Sargent, Professor C. S., a, 

Sawyer, Mrs C. B., 

Sawyer, Mrs N. C, 

Scaife, Walter B., 
Schaap, C. H., c, 

Massachusetts Institute of Techiiolog}% Boston, Mass. 

Hydi'ographic Office. 

1320 Eighteenth street. 

1327 Spruce street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

34 Bayard avenue, Princeton, N. J. 


Westeliester, Pa. 

222 West 132nd street, New York, N. Y. 

MeConnellsville, Ohio. 

War Department. 

West Point, N. Y. 

904 S street. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Midi. 

218 East Thirty-fourth street, New Yorlv, N. Y. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

914 S street, 

1504 Twenty-first street. 

1222 Connecticut avenue. 

945 Rhode Island avenue. 

Brookline, Mass. 

Globe House. 

1218 Sixth street. 

143 North avenue. Allegheny, Pa. 

P. O. box 32, Sitka, Alaska. 

Ix National Geographic Magazine. 

ScHi.EY, Captain W. S., U. S. Navy, a, 

P. O. box 212S, New York, N. Y. 

Schmidt, Ferdinand, 

urn Wiillach place. 

Schmidt, Feed A., 

504 Ninth street. 

SciiOBiNGER, John J., c, 

Morgan park, Cook eonnly, 111. 

SciiOEPF, W. Kesley, 

Eekington, D. C. 

ScHouLER, Commander John, U. S. Navy, 

Navy Department. 

OS Thayer hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Tai'oma, Wash. 


Schulze, Paul, 
SciDiMORE', Miss Eliza R., 
Scott, Miss Fannie T., 
Scott, Dr S. I., 
Scott, ^Y. O. N., 
Scott, George M., c, 
Seaman, Dr AVilijam H., 
Seavey, Miss J. M., 
Sedcjley, Miss Isabel, 
SE^VALL, Reverend Frank, 
Siialer, Professor N. S., «, 
SHA^v, George Ci.y.mer, 
Shaav, Dr John W., 
Shepard, Professor E. M. , r, 

Shepard, J. L. N., r, 

402 Front street, San Franeiseo, Cal. 

Shepard, Captain L. G., IT. S. Revenue IVIarine, 

Treasury Department. 

Shtdy, Leland p., 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sui'vev. 

Wormley's Holel. 

Tlie Shoreham. 

1011 H street. 

1711 Connecticut avenue. 

KIS Main street, Salt Lake, Utah. 

1424 Eleventh street. 

Internal Revenne Office. 

1779 Massacluisetts avenue. 

1()18 Riggs place. 

25 Quincy street, Cambridge, Mass. 

707 Massachusetts avenue N. E. 

90S Fifteenth street. 

Drury College, Springfield, Mo. 

Mem.hers of the Society. 
Siegfried, Du C. A., U. S. Navy, c, 


Pooi'ia, 111. 

Sill, Lieutenant James L., U. S. Revenue Marine, c,' 

U. S. steamer Boutwell, Savannah, Ga. 

Sinclair, C. H., 

Sinclair, J. C, 

Sites, C. M. Lacey, 

SizER, Frank L., 

Slevin, Thomas E., c, 

Sloane, Charles S., 

Smilie, Edward S., c. 

Smith, Charles G., 

Saiith, General C. H., U. S. Army 

Smith, Mrs E. L., 

SxMiTH, Reverend Ernest C, c, 

Smith, Professor Eugene A., c, 

Smith, Jacob, c, 

Smith, Lincoln A., 

Smith, Middleton, a, 

Smith, General William, U. S. Army, 

Smock, Dr John C, c, 

state Geological Survey, Trenton, N. J. 
Snowden, Lieutenant Thomas, U. S. Navy, f. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
718 Arch street, Philadelphia, Pa, 
1315 Clifton street. 
Helena, Mont. 
2413 Sacramento .street, San Francisco, Gal. 
1605 Marion .street. 
Eliot block, Newton, Mass. 
1032 Riggs place. 
' 1728 Q street. 

1032 Riggs place. 
Framingham, Mass. 
University of Alabama, University, Ala. 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. 
1031 Massachusetts avenue. 
P. O. box 572. 
1600 K street. 

Snyder, W. H., c, 
SoxMers, Mrs E. J., 
SOMMER, E. J., a, 
Spencer, James W., 

IX— Nat. Gkog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

Navy Department. 

Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass. 

1100 M street. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Ixii National Geographic Magazine 

Squire, Honorable Watson C, 

Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 

Stanwood, James H., c, 

Stavely, Dr Albert L. , 

Stearns, Dr Henry P., c, 

Stedman, John M. , c, 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 
Steever, Captain E. Z., U. S. Army, 

U. S Senate. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Garfield Memorial Hospital. 

190 Retreat avenue, Hartford, Conn. 

Steiger, George, 

Stein, Robert, 

Stellwagen, Edward J. , 

Sternberg, General George M., U. S. Army, 

Stevens, Honorable Moses T. 

Stevenson, Honorable A. E., 

Stevenson, Mrs M. C, 

lOlG Vermont avenue. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

1214 F street. 

War Department. 

U. S. House of Representatives. 


' U.S. Senate. 

1510 H street. 

Stockton, Commander C. H., U. S. Navy, a, c, 

U. S. Naval War College, Newport, R. I. 

Stone, James S., c, 

Stone, DrI. S., 

Stoner, Miss Lillian, 

Strider, Mrs L. C, 

Sutton, Frank, 

Swan, Honorable James G. , c, 

SwANN, Mrs Thomas, 

Sweat, L. D. M., 

Tainter, Charles S., 

131 Vernon street, Newton, Mass. 

2936 Fourteenth street. 

1918 I street. 

1450 Rhode Island avenue. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Port Townsend, Wash. 

1415 I street. 

Hotel Normandie. 

1360 E street. 

Members of the Society. 
Talbott, Mrs L. 0. , 
Talcott, William A., c, 


Tarbell, Horaces., c, 
Tare, Ralph S., c, 
Taylor, Daniel F., 
Taylor, John M., c, 
Thalheimer, Wm. C, c, 
Thayer, Rufus H. , 
Thomas, Miss M. V. E., a, 
Thompson, Professor A. H., a, 
Thompson, Major Gilbert, a, 
Thompson, J. B., 
Thompson, John W. , 
Thompson, Laurence, a, 
Thompson, Miss M. Ida, 

Tillman, Colonel S. E., U. S. Army, c, 

TiSDEL, Willard p., 

TowNSEND, Mrs J. C, 

Traub, Lieutenant, p. E., U. S. Army, c, 

Trautwine, John C, Junior, c, 

Tucker, Professor AVm. J., c, 

TuppER, J. B. T., 

Turner, H. W., 

Turtle, Major Thomas, U. S. Army 

927 P street. 
408 North Main street, Roekford, 111. 
City Hall, Providence, R. I. 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
918 -F street. 
Idaho Falls, Idaho. 
"Avondale," Cincinnati, Ohio. 
930 F street. 
1309 N street. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
1756 Corcoran street. 
National Metropolitan Bank. 
Care 1628 S street. 
1419 I street. 
West Point, New York. 
1323 Thirteenth street. 
1430 Chapin street. 
West Point, New York. 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Andover, Mass. 
1316 Nineteenth street. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
Room 120, War Department. 

Ixiv National Geographic Magazine. 

TwEEDALE, John, 

Tweedy, Frank, a, 
Tyrer, Mrs Theo. W., 
Ulrich, J. C, c, 
Upham, Warren, c, 
Urquhart, Charles F., a, 
Utter, Reverend David, c, 
Van Dyke, W. M., 
Van HisE, Professor C. R. , /, 
Vasey, Mrs George, 
Verges, Louis F., c, 

Vermeule, C. C, c, 

Vilas, Honorable William F., 

ViNAL, W. Irving, a, 

Waddey, John A. , 

Wadhams, Lieutenant A. V., XJ. S. Navy, c, 

Wagner, C. W., c, 

AVainwright, D. B., 

Waite, Miss Mary F., 

Walcott, Charles D., a, 

Walker, Albert M., 

Walker, E. D., c, 

Wall, Colonel William, 

Wallace, Mrs E. R. , 

War Department. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

1806 New Hampshire avenue. 

P. O. box 1291, Denver, Colo. 

124 State street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Salt Lake, Utah. 

1111 N street. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

1307 Riggs street. 

37 Central street, Boston, Mass. 

71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

U. S. Senate. 

1106 East Capitol street. 

Hydrograpliic Office. 

Navy Department. 

Madison, Minn. 

2510 Fourteentli street. 

1616 Rhode Island avenue. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

447 Rialto building, Chicago, 111. 

1918 N street. 

1321 Massacliusetts avenue. 

Members of the Society. 


Wallace, George Y., c, - 
Wallace, William J. , 
Walters, William T. , I, 
Wanamaker, Honorable John, 
Ward, H. P., 

Ward, Professor H. A., c, 
Ward, L. B., c, 
Ward, Robert De C, 
Warder, Mrs R. B., 
Warman, p. C, 
Warner, B. H., 

Warren, William M., c, 

Washburn, Professor F. L., e, 

Watkins, J. Elfreth, 

Webb, W. H., 

Webster, Major William H., 

Weeks, Joseph D. , c, 

Weir, John B.,a, 

AVeld, George F., 

Welker, p. a.. 

Welling, Dr James C, cf, 

Wellman, Walter, 
Wells, E. Hazard, 
Wells, William H., Junior, c, 

Salt Lake, Utah. 
1107 E street. 
16 Chamber of Commerce, Baltimore, Md. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
The Hamilton. 
16 College avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 
Taylor's Hotel, Jersey City, N. J. 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Howard University. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
2100 Massachusetts avenue. 
329 Broadway, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Corvallis, Oregon. 
1801 Thirteenth street. 
415 Fifth avenue. New Yorlj, N. Y. 
Civil Service Commission. 
P. O. box 1059, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Fredonia Hotel. 
Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, Norfolk, Va. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
1302 Connecticut avenue. 
1.336 Massachusetts avenue. 
Cincinnati Post, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
274 Ashland avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Ixvi National Geographic Magazine 

West, Peeston C. F., c, 

Westgate, Lewis G., c. 

White, Dr C. H., U. S. Navy, 

White, David, 

White, George H. B., 

White, Professor I. C, I, 

Whiting, Henry L., 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, West Tisbury, Mass 

Whitney, Professor Milton, e, 

Caftimet, Mich. 

1303 Chicago avenue, Evanston, III. 

Naval Laboratory, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

U. S. National Museum. 

National Metropolitan Banli. 

Morgantown, West Va. 

Whitney, Joseph N., 
Whittemore, AV. C, 
Whittle, C. L., c, 
Wight, E. B., 
Wight, John B. , 
Wilbur, Miss F. Isabel, 
Wilder, General J. T., a, I, 
Wilkes, Miss Jane, 
WiLLARD, D. E. , c, 
Willenbucher, William C, 
Williams, Mrs A. B., 
AViLLiAMs, Charles A., 
Williams, Professor George H., 
Williams, Professor H. S., c, 
AVilliams, William, c, 
Williamson, Miss Haidee, 

Johns Hopliins University, Baltimore, Bid. 

. 1403 H street. 

1526 New Hampshire avenue. 

West Medford, Mass. 

1333 F street, 

1410 G streets 

1719 Fifteenth street. 

Johnson City, Tenn. 

S14 Connecticut avenue. 

391 Fifty-fifth street, Chicago, 111. 

428 New Jersey avenue S. E. 

1335 Eleventh street. 

1301 Eighteenth street. 

Johns Hoplvins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

University Club, New York, N. Y. 

1805 Nineteenth street. 

Members of the Society 
Willis, Bailey, a, 
Willis, F. I., 

WiLLiTS, Honorable Edwin, 
Wilson, H. M., a, 
Wilson, Honorable James F., 
Wilson, Joseph F., 
Wilson, Dr Thomas, 
Winchell, Horace V., c, 
WiNCHELL, Professor N. H., f 

Wines, Marshall W., 

WiNSLOw, Professor Arthur, 

Winston, Isaac, 

Winter, Dr John T., 

Wood, F. F., c, 

Woodward, Professor R. S., a, c, 


AVooDWOKTH, Milton, 
WooLwoRTH, James, 
Wooster, Dr W. M., 


Wright, Ensign Benjamin, U. S. Navy, 
Wright, Professor G. Frederick, c, 
Wright, George M., e, 


U. S. Geological Survey. 
War Department. 
Loan and Trust building. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
The Oxford annex. 
181.5 Clifton street. 
1218 Connecticut avenue. 
1306 Southeast Seventh street, Minneapolis, Minn. 
120 State street, Minneapolis, Minn. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
State Geological Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 
1325 Corcoran street. 
1528 Ninth street. 
Black Earth, Wis. 
Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 
7 Rutland square, Cambridge, Mass. 
1424 S street. 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
1228 Fourteenth street. 
2015 Massachusetts avenue. 
G37 Exchange building, Boston, Mass. 
Navy Department, 
n Elm street. Oberlin, Ohio. 
Akron, Ohio. 

Ixviii National Geographic Magazine. 


Yeates, Charles M. , c, 
Young, F. A., 
Young, John R., 

The Cochran. 
Fayettville, Ark. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
1314 B street S. W. 


Honorary members . . . . . . . 11 

Active members 656 

Corresponding members ". 268 

Life members 10 

Total 945 

Vol. V, pp. 1-20, pls. 1-5 

April 7, 1893 







Published by the National Geographic Society 

Price 50 cents 


VOL V, 1893, PL. I. 


Vol. V, pp. 1-20 April 7, 1893 




Annual Address by the President 


{Presented before the Society January 13, 1893) 

It is appropriate that we should take as the theme of our an- 
nual address for the year 1892 the discoverers of America. 

The discovery of America was the work, not of one explorer 
hut of many, carried on during a long series of years, beginning 
with the Northmen, continued by Columbus, VesiDUcius, Magel- 
lan and Drake, and ending only with the nineteenth century. 

Before we speak of the discoverers let us hastily review the 
condition of the old world prior to the discovery of the new. 

Two thousand years ago philosophers generally iDclieved the 
world to be round, and the most noted of ancient geographers, 
Eratosthenes, computed its circumference at 25,200 geographic 
miles. The true figure is 21,600 geographic miles or 24,899 
English miles. 

Ptolemy, two hundred years later, estimated it at 18,000 geo- 
graphic miles, and made a series of twenty-six maps, showiiig the 
the equator and the zones north of the equator, with parallels of 
latitude and meridians of longitude. As his base-line was too 
short and his knowledge of places was generally derived only 

1— Nat. Geog. IMag., vol. V, 1S93. 

2 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

from seamen who had no accurate means of determining dis- 
tances, his maps, though showing most of the countries of Eu- 
rope, Asia and northern Africa (plate 1*), were inaccurate and 
unreliable, though vastly superior to those of a later date. These 
maps were either entirely lost sight of or so changed by the pic- 
torial extravagances of the map-makers of succeeding ages as to 
be of little value (plates 2t and 4). 

St Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and other fathers of the church 
believed the earth to be a vast plain. They said with Isaiah, that 
the heaven which embraces the universe is a vault ; with Job, 
that it is joined to the earth ; and Avith Moses, that the length 
of the earth is greater than the breadth. This they insisted was 
the teaching of the word of God and must be accepted. Those 
who believed that the world might be round declared that there 
could be no inhabitants on the other side, for that Christ said "All 
tribes of the earth shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds 
of heaven with power and great glory." 

The famous bull of Alexander VI, published in 1493, Avhich 
gave all newly discovered land one hundred leagues west of the 
Azores to the Spaniards and all east of that line'j to Portugal, im- 
plied that the earth was a plain. 

For 1,500 years science and the church were in opposition as 
to the shape of the earth, and there were very few, whatever might 
be their convictions, who dared question the infallibility of the 
church. Thus all progress in natural science was checked, and 
geography and map-making practically ceased to exist. 

Early in the fourteenth century Marco Polo's book of travels 
appeared. This greatly increased geographic knowledge and had 
a direct and strong bearing on the discovery of America. 

In the preceding century the father and uncle of Marco Polo, 
merchants of Venice, made two journeys to the court of the great 
Khan Kublai, in eastern China. On the second journey Marco 
Polo accompanied his father and uncle. They went by Persia, 
over the Pamir mountains, through Turkestan, across the great 
desert of Gobi, and through Mongolia to China. There they re- 
sided for many years, sent by the Khan on several missions and 

* Claudius Ptolemy's maj) of the world (circa A D 150), forming the 
accompanying plate 1, is reproduced from "The Discovery of America," 
by John Fiske, 1892, vol. i, p. 263. 

t Photolithographed directly from the "Chronicon Nurembergense " 
(auctore Hartman Schedel), 1493, fol. xiii. 

J Shown in the Juan de la Cosa map, plate 4. 

Travels of Marco Polo. 3 

occupying important positions. On their return they sailed 
through the China sea and Indian ocean to India, stojjping at 
the Philippine and Spice islands, Sumatra and Ceylon ; from 
India they traveled 1)}^ land through Persia and Asia Minor, and 
by the Black and Mediterranean seas to Venice. Soon after his 
return Marco Polo was taken prisoner by the Genoese, and during 
his captivity wrote an accurate description of the countries 
through which he traveled and in which he had lived so many 
years, and of the island of Cipango or Japan,with its inexhaustible 
riches of gold and pearls, 500 miles east of China. He also de- 
scribed the voyages of the Chinese to the islands of the Pacific, to 
Ceylon, and to India, and of the rich trade carried on by the Mo- 
hammedans Ijetween the Spice islands, India and the Mediterra- 
nean. These travels became gradually known to geographers, and 
in the fifteenth century gave a new impulse to geographic study. 

About the same time the old maps of Ptolemy, which had been 
hopelessly obscured by thegraj^hic fancies of thecosmographers 
of the dark ages, were, with his writings, brought from the East 
to Italy. The maps of the dark ages showed the Mediterranean 
and the countries around it, Arabia, Persia, Media, Gog and Ma- 
gog, and a little of northern Africa ; but so vaguely and incor- 
rectly that today one would scarcely recognize these countries 
on existing maps. . - 

Toscanelli, an Italian, ^jrepared a map about 1474, taking the 
travels of Marco Polo as his guide. On other maps Cathay, or 
China, had been delineated as east of Europe ; Toscanelli 's trans- 
ferred it to the west. His map shows the Atlantic ocean, Cipango 
100° west of Europe, and still further westward, Cathay. He 
sent a copy of this map to the king of Portugal, and subsequently 
another to Columbus, urging him to make his contemiDlated voy- 
age to '■ The land Avhere the spices are born, where the temples 
and royal palaces are covered with planks of gold " (plate 3*). 

Let us consider the condition of Europe at the time of the voy- 
ages of the Northmen to America, and the great changes which 
were gradually preparing the way for the colonization of America. 

FiDr nearly one thousand years B C the shij^s of TyxQ and 
Sidon, Alexandria and Greece, sailed through the Mediterranean 
into the Atlantic ocean as far as Britain. The early sailors were 
more adventurous and their ships more seaAVorthy than those of 

* Reproduced from Fiske, op. cit., p. 357. 

4 Gfardiner G. Iluhbard — Discoverers of America. 

Columbus, but as the mariners' compass was not'knoAvn they 
rarely ventured out of sight of land. 

When Rome became the imperial city commerce, as well as do- 
minion and authority, centered in Rome, and with her decline and 
fall shipping and commerce disappeared from the Mediterranean. 

Then, far awa}^ in the north on the Baltic sea, the Northmen 
began to sail the ocean, not for discovery or commerce but to 
plunder and ravage richer countries than their own. The vik- 
ings became noted as bold rovers of the sea, pillaging every 
country they could reach by water. Sailing southwestward, they 
landed on the coast of France and made a permanent settle- 
ment in Normandy. They coasted along the shores of France 
and Spain, plundering as they went ; passing the Pillars of Her- 
cules intQ the Mediterranean, they ravaged the coast of Italy and 
established colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. Sailing west- 
ward, they conquered and colonized the eastern coast of England 
and Scotland, the Shetland, Orkney and Faroe islands, and from 
these islands, in A D 850, they sailed 300 or 400 miles northwest- 
ward to Iceland, where they made settlements which have contin- 
ued until our day. One of the early settlers of Iceland was driven 
by adverse winds to Greenland, Avhere he was comjielled to Avinter, 
returning in the spring Avith an account of his discovery. About 
986, Eric the Red, an outlaAV, fled from Iceland AAdth a feAV friends 
to Greenland. Prevented by the icebergs from landing on the 
eastern coast, they sailed around cape Farewell to the Avestern 
coast Avhere they founded two small colonies near Juliansburg, 
Avhich existed for four hundred years until, forgotten and neg- 
lected by the mother country, overcome by Avant and hunger, 
they succumbed to the climate and the attacks of the Eskimo. 
Shortly after Eric had colonized Greenland, Bjarni, another 
Northman, sailing for Greenland, AA'as driven by northeasterly 
winds continuing for many days far southwestward, to a land 
covered with dense Avoods. There is every reason to believe 
that this'was America, and that Bjarni Avas its first discoverer. 
It Avas not the land of ice and glaciers he was seeking, so he sailed 
northeastAvard again, and in ten days reached Greenland. 

Leif Ericsson, one of the Norse Adkings, hearing of this land of 
woods, about the year 1000 sailed from Greenland in search of 
it. Passing the barren coasts of Labrador and NcAvfoundland, 
Avhich he called Helluland, his party reached Nova Scotia, or 
Markland, and sailed southAvard to a place Avhere the}'' found 
grapes, and hence called it Vinelancl. They Avere surprised at the 


VOL. V, 1893, PL. 3. 


Tlie Voyage of Leif Ericsson. 5 

length of the winter days, which were nine hours long. The na- 
tives the}'' described resembled our Indians and not the Eskimo 
of northern latitudes, and from these statements and the calcu- 
lation of latitude from the length of the day, it is believed that 
it was New England. There they founded the colony of Norum- 
bega, but after a few years it was abandoned, as the settlers were 
unable to withstand the attacks of the natives. All original rec- 
ords of the discovery of Vineland have perished, and our present 
knowledge is derived from the sagas of the Northmen, written 
at least one or two generations after Vineland had been aban- 
doned. These legends bear the imj^ress of truth, and there is no 
reasonable doubt that Leif Ericsson is a real character and Vine- 
land his discovery. The sagas were lost, or laid away and for- 
gotten in the libraries of Norway and Sweden. In our day some 
of them have been unearthed, and we know more of the work of 
Leif Ericsson and his Northmen than was ever known before. 

This discovery was not known beyond Greenland and Iceland 
except to a few men in Scandinavia, for this was the darkest age 
in the history of Europe. 

When the Northmen were making their settlement in Green- 
land, Peter the Hermit appeared in southern Europe, mus- 
tering his forces for the first of those crusades which in their 
ultimate results accomplished a work of vastly greater imj^or- 
tance than the redemption of the holy places from the Mo- 
hammedans. The transportation of pilgrims to and from the 
Holy land gave emjjloyment to the ships of Venice and Genoa 
and restored commerce to the Mediterranean. Their vessels 
brought the treasures of the Orient and the science and art of 
Greece and Asia Minor to Venice and Genoa, whence they were 
distributed through Italy and Europe. The feudal system was 
broken down and the renaissance brought in. Europe awoke 
from the long sleep of the dark ages to new life and energy ; 
progress in art and science became rapid, and the world entered 
upon an era of invention and discovery. 

By the middle of the fifteenth century, Brunelleschi had fin- 
ished the Duomo at Florence, where Savonarola was preaching 
and Michael Angelo was studying. Faust and Gutenberg were 
inventing movable types at Frankfort, upon which the Bible — 
the first book ever issued from the printing press — was printed. 
. Gunpowder and the mariners' compass were just coming into use 
in European countries, though both had been discovered earlier. 

In England, the Wars of the Roses Avere over. Henry VII 

6 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

was king, and with him the reign of the Tudors and the pros- 
perity of England commenced. 

In Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella Avere preparing for that Avar 
Avith the Moors Avhich resulted in their expulsion from the Sjian- 
ish dominion. 

In eastern Europe, the Turks had a short time before captured 
Constantinople and destroyed nearly all the commerce of Venice 
and Florence, and AA^ere noAA^ raising an army to ravage Austria 
and Hungary. 

In Portugal, Prince Henry the Navigator Avas making those 
vo5^ages to the coast of Africa for discover}^ and trade Avhich made 
Portugal for one hundred and fifty years the greatest maritime na- 
tion of the Avorld. Each year these expeditions sailed further and 
further soutliAvard, passing the Gold coast, the equator, the river 
Congo. They sailed out into the ocean and rediscovered the 
Azores, Madeira and the Canary islands, formerly knoAvn to the 
Phenicians. In 1442 their ships brought home African negroes 
to be sold as slaves in Lisbon, the beginning of the African slave 
trade. In 1486 Diaz rounded the southern extremity of Africa 
and called it the Stormy cape, though Prince Henry named it 
the cape of Good Hope. Greater discoveries Avere made during 
the lives of men contemporary Avith Columbus than in all times 
preAious or subsequent. 

Columbus is for us the princi])al figure in this ncAV Avorld. He 
Avas born in Italy about 1446, though we know with certainty 
neither the place nor time of his birth and but little of his early 
life. He folloAved the sea for many years, sailing to Africa, Eng- 
land, and probably Iceland. About the year 1470 he is found in 
Portugal, Avhere some say he Avas shipAvrecked on the coast while 
on a piratical voyage. Here he married a Portuguese lad}^, Avhose 
father had been governor of one of the islands off the coast of 
Africa ; and there he resided for several years, making maps and 
pursuing those studies Avhich fitted him for his great vo3'-age of 
discovery. He knew that the spices from the islands of the 
Indian ocean, the silks, diamonds and pearls of India, av ere car- 
ried by the Arabs through the Red sea or up the Euphrates in 
boats and thence by caravans to the Mediterranean and Black 
seas, Avhere tliey Avere exchanged Avith the merchants of Venice 
and Genoa for the goods of Europe. 

He Avas convinced by the study of Marco Polo not only of the 
wealth of Cipango and Cathay and of the great trade betAveen the 

Life 'and Character of Columbus. 7 

Orient and the Mediterranean, but also of the possibility of 
reaching those countries and obtaining that trade for Spain by 
sailing west rather than by circumnavigating Africa. The actual 
distance from Europe in a due west line to Cipango is nearly 
tAvelve thousand miles ; Toscanelli estimated it as 100° or nearly 
five thousand miles, but his map showed islands on the route 
which would reduce the distance between any two lands to about 
2,000 miles/^ 

Columbus Avas a devout Catholic, holding to the teachings 
of the church. In the book of Esdras he read that God on 
the third day of the creation made the earth, six parts of land 
and one-seventh water. He knew the vast extent of the Atlantic 
north and south, and reasoning from these facts he thought it 
could not be over 2,000 or 2,500 miles to Cipango, though he 
actually sailed 3,230 miles before he reached a new world. 

After Columbus determined to cross the Atlantic he applied 
for help to the king of Portugal. He wrote, " They took my 
charts and writings from me, saying they would ponder them, 
but secretly they sent out the ships they had denied me. God 
drove them back on their own coasts and punished their 
treachery, but I could no longer trust them." He therefore left 
Portugal for Sjjain. Las Casas describes him at this time as a 
man of noble and commanding presence, tall and well built, with 
a ruddy complexion, keen, blue-gray eyes that often kindled, 
while his waving white hair made him quite picturesque ; his 
manner courteous and his conversation charming. He had an 
indefinable air of authority, as became a man of great heart and 
lofty thoughts. It was thi;^ commanding presence which enabled 
him to stand before Ferdinand and Isabella as their equal. 

In 1484 he arrived in Spain a foreigner, poor and in debt. A 
stranger and friendless, he appeared at the court of the proudest 
sovereigns of Europe. Yet such was his bearing and the effect 
produced upon the king and queen by his eloquence that they ap- 
pointed several learned men to consider his project. Some few 
believed, many remained in doubt, but most laughed at him as 
visionary and ridiculed his proposals as the dream of a mad- 
man. Those that were convinced by his reasoning became his 
firm friends. For seven years he waited patiently at the court, 
renewing his suit from time to time, until Grenada was conquered, 
when Isabella had promised to listen to him. A man less con- 

* Plate 3. 

8 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

fident, less in earnest, would have succumbed before the many 
difficulties and delays he encountered. Again he applied to 
Isabella, and she agreed to equip a fleet. Columbus demanded 
that he should be made high admiral of the western seas and 
viceroy and governor of all the continents and islands which 
might lie therein, and that he should receive one-eighth of the 
net profits from all trade with such countries. Isabella refused, 
but Columbus, knowing that the discovery of a new and shorter 
route to the Spice islands would give Spain the control of their 
trade, and realizing the power and wealth that would accrue to 
the Spanish throne through such discovery, insisted on his de- 
mands, and for this great constancy and loftiness of soul Las 
Casas commends him. 

After this refusal Columbus mounted his mule and started for 
France, but was soon recalled ; he returned to the court, which 
agreed to his demands. A patent was granted appointing " Chris- 
topher Colon, as soon as he shall have discovered said islands 
or mainlands in the ocean sea, or an}^ one of them, to be our ad- 
miral of the ocean sea, viceroy and governor, in the said islands 
or mainland : I the Queen ; I the King." 

The fleet of Columbus was three small vessels; the largest" 
a single-decked ship 90 feet long, the others with decks only 
in the stern gtnd prow. His crew was 90 men. On August 6, 
1492, they sailed from Palos, and on October 21 discovered the 
Indies. Columbus returned to Spain and appeared at the court 
of Isabella with his train of Indians bearing gold, silver, precious 
stones, and other products of the islands he had discovered. It 
was Cathay and the shorter route to the Indies he supposed he 
had found, though he did not find the cities and rich countries, 
the gold and silver, the pearls and jewels, that he sought. He 
thought these treasures lay further westward, and that he must 
find the straits of Malacca, and through them sail to the S^^ice 
islands and India, and for that purpose he sailed on his second 
voyage, and after following the coast of Cuba 1,000 miles, believ- 
ing he had found the continent of Asia, returned to Spain. 

Ferdinand and Isabella gave many persons the right to visit 
the new-discovered lands, as was their prerogative, but they 
also appointed governors over the land and water, contrary to 
thei* agreement with Columbus. 

On his third voyage, in 1498, he reached South America, the 
first European to discover that continent. He found a large bay 
and thought he had reached the straits ; but, alas, the waters 

Later Voyages and Death of Columbus. 9 

were fresh — it was only the Orinoco river. He coasted for some 
distance along the shore of the Caribbean sea still looking for 
the straits, and then set sail for Hispaniola (or Cuba), where he 
had left his brother governor. On arriving he found his brother 
deposed and imprisoned. Columbus himself was put in chains 
and sent home. The captain of the vessel offered to remove his 
chains, but he refused, saying that they had been put on by 
order of the king and could be removed only by him. 

While Columbus was vainly searching in the new Avorld for 
the Orient, Vasco de Gama found it for Portugal in 1497 by sail- 
ing around the cape of Good Hope and crossing the Indian 
ocean to India and the Spice islands. He returned to Lisbon 
bringing all manner of precious stones, silks and satins, and 
spices of every kind. Columbus for the time was forgotten, and 
it was only after a long detention that he was permitted again to 
sail toward the western world. 

On his fourtli and last voyage Columbus landed at Honduras, 
followed the coast of Nicaragua and the isthmus of Panama, 
and then sailed along the Caribbean sea vainly searching for the 
straits that would lead him to the promised land. 

On his return from this voyage the queen, his friend, was dead, 
and the last eighteen months of his life were spent in poverty 
and sickness at Vallaclolid, where he died in 1506, so little known 
that the local records of the city, which give many insignificant 
details, make no mention of his death. 

After Columbus had opened the way it was eas}^ for other 
navigators to follow where he had led. Two other Italians, 
John Cabot and Sebastian, his son, sailed from England in 1497 
nearly clue westward for Cathay. They discovered Newfound- 
land and sailed thence northeastward along the coast of Labra- 
dor, and were probably the first discoverers of the continent 
of America. The next year they made another voyage to 
Newfoundland, and tlien followed the coast of North America 
southward, probably reaching tlie Carolinas. These voyagers, 
still seeking Cathay and the Spice islands, cared little for a land 
of hills and rocks, where neither gold nor silver was found. 

Two generations pass before we hear of any further English 
expeditions to the new world. 

The most noted of the folloAvers of Columbus was Americus 
Vespucius, like Columbus and the Cabots an Italian, a pilot 

2— Nat. Geog. Mag., vor,. V, 1S9S. 

10 Gardiner' G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

of great reputation, sailing in the service of Portugal. In 1497 
he sailed around the gulf" of Mexico, Honduras, Mexico and 
Florida, and thence along the coast of North America nearly 
to Chesapeake bay. 

On another voyage he sailed to South America, reaching it a 
little north of cape Saint Roque. He followed the coast nearly 
to the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, taking possession of the 
country for the king of Portugal. 

Vespucius knew that this country was south of every part of 
Asia, and therefore could not be a part of the world as then 
known ; he realized that he had discovered a " new world." An 
account of this voyage was published in German, Italian and 
French, with the title in the French edition, '"'' Novus Mundusy 
In a map published in 1514 it was called "America." Thus the 
name of Americus Vespucius was given to the ncAV world, and he 
received the honor due to Columbus. It was said that " Colum- 
bus had discovered new islands, Vespucius a new world " — that 
world already discovered b}^ the Northmen, then by Columbus, 
the third time by Cabot, and now by Americus Vespucius. 

After Columbus, Magellan was the greatest of the discoverers 
of America. Born of a noble Portuguese family, he early en- 
tered the naval service and sailed to India, where for seven 
years he was employed on land and on sea in laying the foun- 
dation of the Portuguese empire. He gained a gre^it reputa- 
tion for his services, and returned to Lisbon. Disappointed in 
an application to the king of Portugal, he went to Spain, where 
Charles V gladly received him and gave him the command of a 
fleet of five vessels, in which he set sail for India and the Spice 
islands. Magellan, like Columbus and Vespucius, hoped to find 
a way to India through some strait dividing South America, or, 
failing in that, by sailing around the mainland. 

He left Spain in 1518 for Brazil, sailing then southwardly along 
the coast to about 50° south, where he spent the winter. Three 
of his captains became discouraged, mutinied and determined 
to return. Magellan heard of their treachery. He summoned the 
leader to his vessel. On his refusal to obey, the officer bearing 
the summons plunged a dagger into the heart of the mutineer; at 
the same moment a boat's crew from Magellan's vessel mounted 
the deck, and the mutin}^ Avas over. , The other mutineers were 
either hung or left to perish on the coast of Patagonia. 

Early in the spring of 1519 the fleet set out again, one vessel 

The Voyage of Magellan. 


having been shipwrecked, and found a channel which proved to 
be the long-sought passage to India. Three months were spent 
in exploring the straits of Magellan before they entered the 
Pacific ocean. One of the vessels sent to explore a channel in 
the straits deserted and returned to Spain. 

They sailed along the coast of Patagonia 400 or 500 miles, and 
then northeastward toward Cathay and the Spice islands. The 
wind was light, the ocean was as calm and smooth as an inland 
sea, and they called it the Pacific ocean. For months their prog- 
ress was slow ; their food failed ; scurvy and sickness broke out. 

* Figure 1. — Magellan's Circumnavigation. 

Finally they reached the Ladrone islands and found the food 
and rest they so much needed. They then sailed for the Philip- 
pine islands, where in a foolish affra}^ with the natives Magellan 
was killed ; but he had finished his work — he had circumnavi- 
gated the globe ; he had reached the east by sailing west. 

One of the three vessels which had crossed the Pacific was 
abandoned and burnt in the Phillippine islands, another was 
lost in the Malaccas ; the last, loaded with spice, returned to 
Spain and finished the most remarkable voyage on record. Of 
the 280 men who sailed with Magellan in September, 1519, 
only 18 returned in September, 1522. The cost of this fleet, with 

* Reproduced, with minor alterations taken from the text, from a 
tracing of a chromolith sliowing the " Voyage of the Victoria " in " The 
Life of Ferdinand Magellan," by F. H. H. Guillemard, 1891 (?), pi. ii, p. 142. 

12 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of jimcrica. 

all its equipment, was about $20,000.00, less than one-half the 
cost of the steamer pl^dng between AVashington and Mount Ver- 
non. The sale of the spices left a large profit to Charles V and 
the merchants who had furnished the funds for the adventure. 
The king of Spain gave to the heirs of Ferdinand Magellan 
for their coat of arms a terrestrial globe belted with the legend 
^^Primas circumdedidi me " — " Thou first encompassed me." 

In 1513 Vasco Nunez Balboa, a Spaniard who had married an 
Indian princess, heard, from the natives, of the Pacific ocean and 
of the land of the Incas, where gold, silver and precious stones 
abounded. On September 25, from the top of the mountains 
tains»he looked down on the Pacific ocean, the first European 
to behold it. He collected a few vessels on the Atlantic coast 
for a voyage of discovery to Peru, and, taking them to pieces, he 
carried them across the isthmus and launched them on the 
Pacific. Two thousand Indians, we are told, perished in this 
work. When nearly ready to sail he was recalled by the governor 
of Darien and beheaded. 

After the death of Balboa, Francisco Pizarro, one of his follow- 
ers, returned to Spain with an account of the land of the Incas, 
and in 1529 was made governor and captain-general of this 
country, then called the province of New Castile, with leave to 
fit out at his own expense an expedition to conquer that terri- 
tory. ITe left Panama with three ships, ISO men and 27 horses, 
but it was not until two years later that the}^ landed in Peru 
and began that contest which resulted in the overthrow of the 
Incas and in loading witli riches the meanest of Pizarro's fol- 
lowers. The civilization of the Incas, the highest type in 
America, was crushed. 

The Spaniards soon after this conquest sailed still further 
sout^iward, along the coast of Peru and Chili, even to the straits 
of Magellan. 

Rumors of an eldorado beyond the Andes came to Pizarro. 
One of his followers, Orellano, was sent to cross the Andes and 
descend to the headwaters of the Amazon, but he could not find 
the promised land. His party, famished and decimated by the 
fatigue of the journey and unable to return to the Pacific, built 
a boat and floated down the Amazon river 4,000 miles, to its 
mouth , 

The Conquest of Peru and Mexico. 13 

Before the discovery of Peru by Pizarro, Sebastian Cabot, with 
a small Spanish fleet, in 1527, sailed up the Rio de la Plata to 
the great falls of the Parana. He found some silver and gold 
mines in Brazil and heard of the civilization and riches of the 
Incas of Peru, but was unable to cross the mountains to their 

Thus within fifty years after the discovery of America, South 
America had been circumnavigated, its great rivers navigated, 
and the general features of the interior and its treasures of gold 
and silver made known to the Spaniards and Portuguese. 

Some time before the conquest of Peru, the Spaniards heard 
rumors of the great city of the Montezumas. In March. 1519, 
Hernando Cortez, one of the most daring and able of the adventur- 
ous Spaniards, landed on the coast of Mexico with ten vessels, 
600 to 700 soldiers, 18 horsemen and some cannon. He burnt 
his ships, thus cutting off all retreat, and then marched toward 
the city of Mexico. By his courage, address and strategy he 
conquered or made friends of several tribes of Indians hostile to 
Montezuma. He pushed onward to the city of Mexico, where he 
was received with great pomp by Montezuma and escorted into 
the city as his friend and guest. Soon after Cortez, learning that 
Montezuma was preparing to attack the inavders, visited him 
in his palace, and by persuasion and force took him to the Span- 
ish quarters and kept him a prisoner. Some time later the In- 
dians chose another king and attacked the Spaniards, but after 
a slight success were defeated with great loss. Then Cortez, hav-* 
ing captured and fortified the city of Mexico, defeated the other 
tribes and subdued the whole country. He subsequently ex- 
plored it to the gulf of California and Lower California, on the 
other side of the gulf. He then returned to Spain, but was not 
received by Charles V as he expected. Forcing his way to the 
royal presence, Cortez replied to Charles, who wished to know 
Avho the intruder was, '' I am the man who has given you more 
provinces than your father left you cities." There is no tale in 
the history of the Avorld more marvelous than the conquest of Peru 
and Mexico, when we consider the high culture and strength of 
the natives, the small number of Europeans engaged, the extent 
of the conquests, and the value of the treasures obtained. 

The Spanish discoverers of America were men of marked 
ability, capable of enduring privations of every kind, prompt in 
action, prepared for every emergency, proud, brave and self- 

14 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

reliant to the verge of rashness, eager for adventures, cruel, un- 
scrupulous and. rapacious, of unbounded greed and ambition. 
They sought and found gold and silver in Peru and Mexico in 
such quantities as they had never dreamed of; the new world 
brought to Spain greater wealth and glory than Columbus ever 
expected to find in Cathay or the Spice islands. Spain, it is 
said, drew from America during the sixteenth century seven 
hundred millions of dollars in gold and silver, a sum fully equal 
to ten times as much in purchasing power at that time as it 
would be to-day. 

In the exploration of North America the Spaniards took little 
interest. " What need have we," they said, " of things which 
are common to all the countries of Europe — to the south, to the 
south for the great and exceeding riches of the equinoctial j 
they that seek riches must not go into the cold and frozen 

The French, though they made some remarkable journeys in 
the continent of North America, furnished but one discoverer 
whom we shall notice, Jacques Cartier, a French navigator, who 
was appointed in 1534 by Francis I to the command of two ships 
for exploring the district near the fishing grounds of Newfound- 
land. He sailed up the Saint Lawrence and took possession of 
Canada for France, erecting a wooden cross with the inscrip- 
tion, "Fiye ^e 72o7/ rfe i^iYmce." In 1541 a settlement was made 
near Quebec, the commencement of the French colonization in 

The English were far behind the Spanish and Portuguese in 
the exploration of America. Their first great voj^agers after the 
Cabots were slavers, buccaneers and pirates. Tlieir most noted 
commanders were John Hawkins and Francis Drake, Avho car- 
ried a cargo of negro slaves from Africa to the West Indies 
and sold them at an enormous profit. They there heard of the 
Spanish galleons bearing the treasures of Peru and Mexico to 
Spain, and of the cruelties with which English seamen, taken 
prisoners, had been treated. On their return, fleets Avere equipped 
and sent to the gulf of Mexico to capture the treasure ships and 
avenge the wrongs of the English sailors. 

The queen frequently furnished ships belonging; to the ro3''al 
navy ; they were equipped by Raleigh and otlier English noble- 
men, and the prizes were divided between the crew, officers, 

The Voyage of Drake. 15 

nobles and queen, the queen obtaining the largest share. Sir 
Francis Drake, one of the boldest and most successful of these 
cruisers, on One trip overhauled and plundered over 200 vessels 
and pillaged towns and cities. Several times Philip II of Spain 
demanded his surrender as a pirate, for during all this time the 
two nations were at peace ; the queen hesitated and delayed, 
but never yielded to the demand. There and then the founda- 
tion was laid of the navy and seamen of Great Britain. 

In 1577 Drake was summoned to a private audience with the 
queen, at which it was agreed that a fleet of five ships should be 
equipped, nominally for the Mediterranean but really for the 
South seas, as the Pacific ocean was then called, to capture the 
great galleons, the treasure ships of Spain ; and that the queen 
should contribute 1,000 crowns to the cost. On August 20, 1578, 
Drake, with this fleet, reached the straits of Magellan and sailed 
through them in two weeks into the Pacific. There they encoun- 
tered long and terrific storms, which carried them far south 
of the straits. One of Drake's vessels had been broken up for 
fire-wood, another swamped in his sight, and the third deserted 
and returned to England. 

On the fifty-third day of the tempest, Drake found himself 
south of cape Horn, where no other vessel had ever sailed. 
Here, according to all the maps, was the great Austral continent, 
which extended an unbroken land area from the straits of Ma- 
gellan to the antarctic pole ; but he found only water — before 
him rolled the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific in one 
great flood. He walked to the end of the farthest island, lay 
down, and with his arms embraced the southernmost ground of 
the new world. Then the weather changed and all went well. 
He sailed along the coast of South America, captured Valparaiso, 
took all the treasures he could find, refitted and provisioned his 
ships, and sailed northward, taking treasure ships and plunder- 
ing cities until his vessel could carry no more, although it Avas 
ballasted with silver and gold. 

Instead of returning as he had come, Drake determined to seek 
and find the fabulous strait so long sought by Columbus, and 
by that channel to find his way home. He followed the coast 
from Central America northward to the latitude of Vancouver 
and took possession of the land for England, calling it New 
Albion ; then, finding the coast still trending to the northwest- 
ward and the weather growing more and more severe, he gave 
up his attempt, landed at the harbor of San Francisco, refitted 


Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

his ships, and returned home by the cape of Good Hope, reach- 
ing Plymouth in September, 1580, the second man to cil-cumnavi- 
gate the work! (figure 2*). What his reception would be at home 
was questionable. The news of his exploits had reached Spain 
the year before, and the ambassador of Philip demanded that he 
should be executed as a pirate, and renewed the demand as soon 
as he heard of the explorer's return. The result of this demand 
was for some time doubtful ; but when it was heard that a Span- 
ish hostile fleet had landed on the Irish coast, the queen deter- 
mined to support Drake and receive her share of the spoils. 
What they were we are not told, but they must have been very 

Figure 2 — Drake's Circumnavigation. 

great as Drake's share Avas 10,000 pounds, equal to $400,000 of our 
money today. This voyage of Drake completed the discovery 
of America from the northern coast of Labrador southward 
around cape Horn and northward to 48°, the latitude of Van- 
couver island. 

Nearly one hundred years elapsed from the first voyage of 
Columbus to the voj^age of Drake, each of whom vainly sought 
a way through America — the one from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
the other from the Pacific to the Atlantic. 

Thus, before the end of the sixteenth century, the whole con- 
tinent of America, save the arctic border, had been circumnavi- 

* Compiled by John B. Torbert from "Tlie Life of Sir Francis Di-ake," 
])y Julian Covl^ett, 1892. 

Early Maps of America. 17 

gated and the southern part of it colonized ; l)nt it was not until 
after another century and another age that another race found 
homes for themselves on the coast of North America. 

The voyages of the discoverers of America gradually became 
known to the public. It is interesting and instructive to exam- 
ine the early maps representing these voyages to see how slowly 
the geography of the new world became known. 

On the Zenimap of 1400, published in 1558, Greenland is con- 
nected with Norwa}^ The same connection is shown in the 
Claudius Clavus map of 1427, in the Portuguese mappemonde 
of 1490, and even in the Ptolemy map by Waldseemiiller in 1513 ; 
while in the map of Europe at the end of the " Chronicon Nu- 
rembergense," 1493, Greenland is shoAvn as an isthmus connect- 
ing Norway and Sweden with Russia. 

One of the first maps drawn after the discovery of America was 
that made in 1500 by Juan de la Cosa, a celebrated pilot and car- 
tographer who accompanied Columbus on his first and second 
voyages and Vespucius on his first voyage. It delineated parts of 
the eastern coasts of South America and North America, showing 
by the flags of Spain, England and Portugal the coast explored 
by the ships of each countr}^ On that i^art of the map between 
North America and South America, Columbus is drawn as Saint 
Christopher bearing the Christ child on his shoulders. The figure 
thus fulfills a double purpose of honoring Columbus and cover- 
ing the undiscovered portions of the continent (plate 4*). 

On the Cantino chart of 1501-1502 South America is deline- 
ated as surrounded by water from about 30° south to the isthmus 
of Darien, then Cuba, the West India islands and the coast of 
North America from 37° to 54° north. There is no land con- 
necting North America and South America. 

On the Ruysch map of 1508, two years after the death of Co- 
lumbus, Greenland and Labrador are connected with Asia. The 
new world appears as an island near the equator (plate 5t). 

* The orio;inal of this map is preserved in the Museo de la Marina at 
Madrid. Plate 5 is reduced from a tracing of a lithographed fac simile, 
in colors, in possession of Mr Tliomas Wilson, whose courtesy in permit- 
ting the use of this rare map it is a pleasure to acknowledge. 

fPhotolithographed directlj^ from a copy of the edition accompanying 
the " Geographise CI. Ptolemgei," Romse, 1508, now in the Library of Con- 
gress, through the kindness of Hon K. P. Spofford. The Ruysch map 
is of special interest as showing the Cabot discoveries of 1497 and as 
being the first map of the world engraved on copper. 

3— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

18 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

On the Lenox globe, so called, made about the j^ear 1510, 
now in the Lenox library in New York, South America is a 
large island, while North America is represented by a number 
of detached islands. 

On the map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, 1514, the name- 
"America " appears for the first time, and is given to a large 
island on the equator. Florida is the name of another island 
northwest of "America." 

On the Schoner globes of 1515 and 1520 North America and 
South America are two islands, while the southern part of 
"America " is separated by straits from an Antarctic continent, 
and on the globe of 1520 the city of Mexico is identified as 
the Quinsay of Marco Polo. On the Hauslab globe of 1516-1517 
the name "America" is given to South America. Straits con- 
necting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans separate North America 
from South America. 

On the Maiollo map of 1527 South America, including the isth- 
mus of Panama, appears an island separated by the " Straito Cubi- 
toro " from North America. On the Miinster map of 1532 South 
America is an island with a strait between it and Cuba, leading 
into the Pacific ocean, while on the Miinster map of 1540 North 
America and South America are connected by an isthmus. 

On the Paris gilt globe, about 1525, Greenland is an island, 
Labrador and " Terra Florida " form parts of Asia, while the 
gulf of Mexico is fairly delineated, with Cathay on its west- 
ern shore. The Schoner globe of 1533 is much the same in the 
middle latitudes, Avhile the Paris wooden globe, about 1535, rep- 
resents Greenland, Labrador and Florida as belonging to Asia, 
the gulf of Mexico as the " M[are] Cathairum," and South Amer- 
ica as a peninsular extension of the Asiatic mainland.* 

On the map of Orontius Finreus, 1537, thirty years after the 
death of Columbus, Greenland is an island, Labrador and the 
coast of North America are attached to the northern part of 
Asia, Cathay appears on the gulf of Mexico, and South America 
is connected with the southeastern part of Asia. This map was 
made nearly twenty years after Magellan had circumnavigated 
the world. 

On the Gastaldi carto marina of 1548 Greenland is connected 
with Norway on the east and I^abrador with America on the 

*"The Discovery of North America," by Henry Harrisse, 1892, pis. 
ijcvii, xxi, xxii, 

Cahofs Estimate of Columbus. . 19 

west. North America and South America are connected, and the 
Austral continent is shown south of the straits of Magellan. 

There was no map published until after the sixteenth century 
that gave a correct delineation of the seacoast of America. It is 
no wonder that Columbus never comprehended the nature or ex- 
tent of his discoveries. Tlie more we study the history and geog- 
raphy of the times, the influence of the church, the difficulty of 
determining longitude, the ignorance of the movements of the 
mariners' compass and of the distance to Cipango, the greater 
will be our admiration for Columbus. Yet a recent writer speaks 
of the discovery of Columbus as a blunder, and others say, as if 
in disparagement of his work, that he knew of the discoveries of 
the Northmen and was only following their track ; that the chart 
of Toscanelli which Columbus took on his first voyage indicated 
clearl}'' his route ; that Columbus died in the belief tliat he had 
discovered Cipango and Cathay, never realizing that it was tlie 
new world, and that Americus Vespucius is entitled to the greater 

Let us hear the opinion of a contemporary of Columbus, Sebas- 
tian Cabot : " When news was brought that Don Christopher 
Colon, the Genoese, had discovered the coasts of India, whereof 
was great talke in all tlie court of King Henr37^ the VII, who then 
reigned, all men with great admiration affirmed it to be a thing 
more divine than humane to saile by the west into the easte, 
where tlie spices growe, by a chart that was never before 

It is very doubtful if Columbus knew anything of the voyages 
of the Northmen, nor would such knowledge have been of much 
value, for Greenland was then believed to be a part of Europe and 
joined to Norway. If Columbus had known of the discoveries 
and sought the countries they had found, he would have sailed 
northwestward instead of westward. 

Many before Toscanelli and Columbus believed the world to 
be round, and that by sailing westward Asia might be reached, 
Columbus not only believed but proved it. He made no blunder, 
for he sought land the other side of the Atlantic, and he found 
it. Vespucius knew little more than Columbus of the new world, 
and never realized tliat Nortli America and South America were 
one continent. The maps show that learned geographers long 
after the discoveries of Columbus, Vespucius, Cabot and Magel- 
lan did not understand the geography of the new world. 

20 Gardiner G. Hubbard — Discoverers of America. 

All voyages before that of Columbus had been coastmg voy- 
ages, the sailors keeping in sight of land. Columbus pushed 
out into the unknown and trackless ocean, leaving the land far 
behind. Good seamen were unwilling to undertake so terrible 
a voyage, so convicts were obtained, liberated from prison on 
condition of sailing with Columbus. A brave, resolute and self- 
contained spirit was necessary to command such a crew on 
such an expedition. New wonders startled him each day. The 
magnetic needle, instead of pointing steadily northward, swerved 
toward the west. The wind for many days blew unvaryingly 
from the east, and the sailors thought it would prevent them 
from returning. The Saragossa sea puzzled them. They daily 
grew more timid as they sailed further and further into the 
ocean, though they had sailed much further than they supposed. 
No voyage like that was ever made before and none like it can 
ever be made again, for the great discoverer solved the problem 
and reached the east by sailing west. 

How like a tragedy the life of Columbus ! Twelve years of 
preparation and waiting, five in Portugal and seven at the court 
of Isabella; his demand; its rejection; his recall; his depart- 
ure from Palos Avith three small vessels; his triumphant return 
after the discovery of America, admiral and governor ; sent home 
in chains ; his death, poor, unknown and forgotten. Contrast 
this with what has recently taken place at Palos. Last SeiDtem- 
ber (1892) the greatest war ships of the world from Spain, Italy, 
Germany, Great Britain and the United States, propelled by a 
power unknown to Columbus, escorted from the harbor of Palos 
three little ships, two without decks, fashioned after the ships 
of Columbus. 

At the time of Columbus' death none to honor him ; now all 
Europe and the new world unite in rendering him the greatest 
homage ever paid to man I 

m^B-'/. ■ ^ 

Vol. V, pp. 21-44, PLS. 6-19 

March 20, 1893 







Published by the National Geographic Society 

Price 50 cents 

Vol. V, pp. 21-44, PUS. 6-19 March 20, 1893 




*" BY 


(Presented before the Society December 9, 1892) 

The total Population. 

By the movement of population is to be understood its nu- 
merical increase, its geograjihic distribution over the country, 
and its composition as regards sex, race and nativity, not only 
at present but in past times. 

This is a broad subject, and in an attempt to compress it 
within the limits of a single paper it will be impossible to go 
deeply into details. I shall attempt only to develop the principal 
features and to bring out their mutual relations. 

The first permanent settlement within the original area of the 
United States was made at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 ; the 
next at Plymouth in 1620. These were followed nine years 
later by the settlements at Salem and Boston. In 1623 the 
Dutch settled at New York. From 1631 to 1634 colonies were 
established on Kent island and Saint Marys, on the shore of 
Chesapeake bay, and in 1638 at Wilmington, Delaware. In 1664 
settlements were established at Elizabeth, New Jersey, and on 
Cape Fear river. North Carolina, and six years later on Ashley 
river. North Carolina. The settlements in Pennsylvania began 

4— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1S93. (21) 

22 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

in 1681. It was not until 1733 that settlement was established 
in the present state of Georgia, in the neighborhood of what is 
now the city of Savannah. 

The early colonies suffered many hardships and dangers and 
grew but slowly. Bancroft estimates their people at approxi- 
mately 200,000 in 1688, thr^e-quarters of a century from the time 
of the first settlement. He estimates the population in 1750, 
nearly a century and a half after the first settlement, at 1,260,000. 
Ten years later, in 1760, it was 1,695,000 ; in 1770 it was 2,312,000, 
and in 1780, 2,945,000. Thus, at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion the population of the colonies was probably not far from 
2,500,000, of which it is estimated that 2,000,000 were whites and 
500,000 blacks. 

In 1790 the first census of the United States was taken. From 
that time to the present a census has been taken every ten years. 
For a century, therefore, Ave have a trustworthy record of our 
numbers. Starting a century ago, with 3,929,214 inhabitants, 
we have gone ahead by great leaps, as shown in the following 
table and diagram, until our country contains to-day 62,622.250 

people : 

Population of the United States by Decades. 

Census years. 


Per cent 

























The diagram (plate 6) shows by the lengths of the bars the 
population as returned at each census, the difference between 
their absolute lengths representing the numerical increase from 
census to census, and their relative lengths the proportional 
increase. In the first twenty-five years the population doubled ; 
in the second twenty-five years it doubled again, the population 
in 1840 being four times that in 1790. But in recent years the 















--S — 

— 1 

— ] 








— 1 


























— ■ ■ 1 

II ■ ■ 1 
























Our unprecedented Growth. 23 

rate of increase has diminished. Instead of doubling in the last 
twenty-five years, as it did in the first half-century of our history, 
it has required thirty years, the jDopulation in 1890 being almost 
precisely double that in 1860. 

In the early decades of our history the rate of increase ranged 
from 36 to 32 per cent. Between 1840 and 1850 it rose again 
suddenly to nearly 36 per cent, owing to the first rush of immi- 
gration. Between 1860 and 1870 the check due to the civil war 
is strongly emphasized. 

The rates of increase shown by the figures are extremely 
large as compared with those of European nations ; many times 
larger than that of France, several times larger than that of Great 
Britain, and greatly in excess of that of Germany. Indeed, in 
rapidity of growth no other civilized nation of history has ever 
approached this country. While in the past thirty years this 
country has doubled its population, France has increased but 3 
per cent, Great Britain and Ireland 29 j^er cent, and Prussia 62 
per cent. Since 1797 Prussia has increased in number from 
8,700,000 to 30,000,000, while this country has increased from 
four or five millions to 62,622,250 ; nor is this tremendous in- 
crease due in any great degree to immigration, since in all proba- 
bility, as shown later, the earlier rates of increase would have 
been nearly maintained by the excess of births over deaths had 
there been no immigration. 

While in the United States as a whole the population has in- 
creased during the century at this marvelous rate, individual 
states show the widest possible range in their rates of increase. 
As a group, the thirteen original states have never gained so 
rapidly as the United States as a whole. Their rate of increase 
has always been smaller than that of the country. The reason 
for this is that throughout our history these states have furnished 
the brain and brawn for the settlement of the west. There has 
been a continuous stream of emigration from the Atlantic border 
to the Mississippi valley, the plains, the Rocky mountains, and 
the Pacific slope. Millions upon millions of young men and 
women of the east have left their homes to found empires in the 

In the northeastern states this drain has since 1847 been in 
large part made up by foreign immigration, and thus has the 
character of the inhabitants of these states in great measure been 
changed from the pare English stock of Revolutionary times. 
In the south there has been no flood of immigration, and the 

24 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

losses which these states have sustained have been repaired only 
in part by the fecundity of the people. 

On the other hand, in the newer states Avhere settlement began 
since we became a nation, the rate of increase of population was 
at first extremely large and then diminished down to the present 
time ; but it has not diminished uniformly or continuously, be- 
cause of certain disturbing elements. 

In the progress of settlement of this and perhaps other coun- 
tries there is a certain order or sequence in the occupations fol- 
lowed by the majority of the people, an order which accompanies 
and is closely related to the increasing density of the population. 
After the pioneers, or hunters, trappers, etc, commonly follow 
herdsmen and ranchmen as the first settlers. The raising of 
cattle, which requires a wide range of country for pasturage, is 
the prominent industry of a newly opened territory. Then 
farmers come and gradually crowd the herdsmen out. The land 
. is occupied in small parcels and affords sustenance to a much 
larger number, but the time ultimately arrives when the popu- 
lation becomes too dense for profitable farming, and a portion of 
the peojjle, taking the hint given them by the increasing hard- 
ness of the times, enter other avocations ; and so manufactures 
and commerce take their beginnings and gradually grow and 
multiply until the farmer finds himself in tlie minority. The 
body of people are engaged in making things instead of raising- 
things. Now, Avhen a nation or state approaches the limit in 
density of population of successful farming it does not pass easily 
and freely into a manufacturing community. There is more or 
less trouble. There are hard times and a depreciation of values 
for a while. It is a sort of dead-point in the machiner}^; but 
when the change is efii'ected, or on the way to be effected, pros- 
perity once more beams upon the community. 

This is not an ideal case. We have before us in the states 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, and in parts of adjacent 
states examples of communities Avhich are now passing through 
just such a crisis. The growth of population in these states is 
at present very slow. The farmers are getting crowded, while 
other industries are not sufficiently advanced to take their place. 
A quarter of a century ago southern New England was in that 
situation, but has now emerged from it, and having become a 
manufacturing section is exceedingly prosperous and the popu- 
lation is increasing again Avith great rapidity, the increase being 
essentially urban. 


r'IG. I 

VOL. V 1893 PL. 7 


FIG. 2 


The Change from Farm to Factory. 25 

This change involves more than a mere change of avocations 
to these states. It involves a shrinkage of farm values, enormous 
in total amount, the gathering of the people together in cities 
and an enormous increase in values therein. 

The Settled Area. 

Now, let us trace the spread of the population over our domain 
as it has increased in number. Its progress across the continent 
is indicated by the maps (plate 7) representing the status of set- 
tlement at the beginning and end of the century. The colored 
area on each ma,p represents the settled area of the country at 
each date, it being understood that by the term " settled area " is 
meant all that country which contains two or more inhabitants 
to the square mile, anything less than that being regarded as 

But first a word about our territorial limits. In 1790 our terri- 
tory was limited on the west by the Mississippi river and on the 
south by the northern line of Florida. In 1803 the enormous 
territory of Louisiana was added by jDurchase, and shortly there- 
after Oregon was acquired by prior settlement. In 1821 Florida 
was acquired from Spain. In 1845 Texas, having achieved its 
independence from Mexico, was admitted as a state. In 1848 
the southwestern territories were acquired from Mexico by the 
treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo : and in 1853 the Gadsden 
purchase completed the territory of the United States as it 
exists at present, with the exception of the detached territory 
of Alaska. 

In 1790 we find settlement stretching continuously along the 
Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia, and occupying the greater 
23art of the Atlantic plain. At several points it stretches feebly 
westward, up the Mohawk river in New York, crossing the 
mountains in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and stretching down 
the Appalachian valley in eastern Tennessee, while in northern 
Kentucky, in the neighborhood of Cincinnati, quite a body of 
settlement has appeared, isolated from the rest. Each succeed- 
ing decade has seen the frontier line pushed westward, crossing 
the Appalachians, stretching gradually across the great valley of 
the Mississippi, and climbing the plains. With every succeed- 
ing census we see new isolated bodies of settlement ofi" beyond the 
frontier at points where the exceeding fertility of the soil, facili- 
ties for Indian trading, or valuable mines have attracted the 

26 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

pioneers. These centers have grown and s^jread until their 
margins have touched the main frontier line and they have 
become merged in the great body of population. In two or three 
instances bodies of population which have grown up under 
foreign powers have fallen under our jurisdiction by the acquisi- 
tion of territory. Among these are the old French-Spanish 
settlements of southern Louisiana, the American-Spanish settle- 
ments in Texas, and the Spanish settlements of New Mexico, 
Arizona and California. In 1860 settlements of magnitude first 
appeared in the Rocky mountains and on the Pacific coast. 
Those in California consisted of gold-hunters and those in Utah 
of Mormons. In 1870 these settlements had spread widely. To 
the gold-hunters of California had been added thousands of 
farmers who were subduing the broad acres of the Sacramento 
valley. The Mormons had increased and multiplied, and gold- 
hunters had spread into Idaho and Montana. 

The second of these maps (plate 7, figure 2), representing the 
status of settlement in 1890, marks an epoch in the history of 
our settlement. The frontier line has disappeared. The settle- 
ments in the far west have spread and joined one another. The 
settlements from the east have traveled up the plains and have 
joined those in the mountains at many points, so that the settled 
area has become the rule and the unoccupied places the excep- 
tion. It will soon be useless to advise young men to go west 
and grow up with the country, for the country is raj)idly grow- 
ing up. 

Per cent of Increase of settled Area and of Population. 

Census years. 



Per cent of increase. 









• 807,292 























] 840 






The rapid Spread of Settlement 


The settled area at each census has been measjired and the 
results compared one with another. The table presents the rates 
of increase of the settled area compared with one another, and 
also with the rate of increase of the population. It is seen that 
while the settled area has increased at a rapid rate the po]3ula- 
tion has increased in each case still more raj^idly. 

Center of Population. 

The distribution of the poj^ulation is summarized in the posi- 
tion of the center of population, and its movements are likewise 
summarized by the movements of this center. The center of 
population is the center of gravity of all the inhabitants of the 
country, computed under the assumption that each individual 
is of the same av eight and presses downward with a force propor- 
tional to his distance from the center. In 1790 this center of 
population w^as located near Baltimore, in the northern part of 
Chesapeake bay. In the centur}^ which has elapsed this center 
has moved westward decade by decade, the stages ranging from 
36 to 81 miles, with an average of about 50 miles per decade. 
Now it varies northward a trifle in its western course as the 
weight of settlement has been attracted northward, and again 
southward, perhaps by the addition of Texas with its body of 
Americo-Mexican people, but generally keeping a consistent 
course toward the setting sun. In one hundred years it has 

Position of the Center of Population in each Decade. 




Approximate location by important towns. 







1820 .. . 
















57 9 





76° 11.2' 

76 56.5 

77 37.2 

78 33.0 

79 16.9 

SO 18.0 

81 19.0 

82 48.8 

83 35.7 

84 39.7 

85 32.9 

41 miles. 
36 do. 

50 do. 
39 do. 

55 do. 

55 do. 

81 do. 

42 do. 
58 do. 
48 do. 

40 miles northwest by west of Washington, 
District of Columbia. 

16 miles north of Woodstock, Virginia 

19 miles west-southwest of Moorfield, West 

16 miles south of Clarksburg, West Vir- 

23 miles southeast of Parkersburg, West 

48 miles east by north of Cincinnati, Ohio.. 
8 miles west by south of v^ineinnati, Ohio.. 

moved westward 505 miles. In 1890 it rested for the time in 
the southern part of Indiana, near Greensburg, still far, however, 

28 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

indeed many degrees of longitude from the geographic center 
of the United States, which is in northern Kansas, midway be- 
tween its eastern and western lines. It will doubtless be centuries 
before the center of population Avill approach the center of area 
of the country. The above table and j)late 8 show the position 
and movement of the center of population during each decade. 

Density of Population. 

The following table shows the density of the population or the 
average number of 23eople to the square mile at each census : 

Density of Population by Decades. 

Census years. 


























The map (plate 9, figure 1) shows the density of popula- 
tion in 1890 by states. In southern New England— that is, in 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut — the average den- 
sity of population is as great as in many old European countries. 
Indeed, in Rhode Island there are 318 inhabitants to the square 
mile, in Massachusetts, 278, and in New Jersey, 193. These are 
all manufacturing states. In the agricultural states of the south 
the density ranges up as high as 41 in Virginia and 46 in Ken- 
tucky, while in the agricultural states of the Mississippi valley 
we find a density of 68 in the state of Illinois and 61 in Indiana, 
the average being in the neighborhood of 40 to the square mile. 

Urban Population. 

In the term " urban population " the Census Office includes the 
inhabitants of all cities of 8,000 or more. Of course this defini- 
tion is entirely arbitrary and it may well be that urban condi- 



VOL. V 1893 PL 9 


FIG. 2 

''^//Z''y} 25-50 PERCENT 


ABOVE 50 )/ 


The marvelous Growth of our Cities. 


tions exist in places much smaller than this. Still, whatever 
limit is adopted, the conclusions to be drawn from historical 
comparisons hold equally good. The following table shows the 
urban population and the proportion Avhich this bears to the 
total j)opulation at each census : 

Census years. 


of the 

United States. 

of cities. 

of cities in 
each 100 of 

the total 





7,239,881 - 




























■ 20.93 












A century ago this country contained but six cities having a 
population of more than 8,000 each, and the urban population 
constituted but 3.35 per cent, or about one-thirty-third of the 
entire population of the country. To-day the number of such 
cities is 443 and their population eighteen and a quarter millions, 
which is 29 per cent, or not very much less than one-third of the 
entire population. The total population is about sixteen times 
as great as it was a hundred years ago, while the urban popula- 
tion is 189 times as great. It has grown eight times as fast as 
the total population. 

This aggregation of the people in the cities is a natural and 
necessary result of the increasing density of population and of 
the consequent change in avocations, which was discussed above. 
It has gone on in this country at a constantly accelerating rate, 
and the acceleration will probably be in the future even more 
marked than in the past, as a greater part of our domain reaches 
and passes in density of population the limit of successful 

Referring to the map (plate 9, figure 2), which shows the pro- 
portion of urban to total population, it is seen that the urban 

5— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

80 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Poj^ulation. 

population of the country is confined almost entirely to the 
Northern states, especially those on the Atlantic border. Indeed, 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and 
New Jersey the urban element is in the majority, and in Rhode 
Island more than three-fourths of the people live in its cities, 
while, on the other hand, the proportion in North Carolina, Mis- 
sissijDpi and Arkansas is but trifling, being less than 5 per cent 
in each case. 

Now, if the urban element be subtracted from the total popu- 
lation there is left what may be broadly characterized as the 
rural element. Plate 6 shows by the total length of the bars 
the population of the United States at each census, the shaded 
portion of each bar representing the urban population at each 
date, while the unshaded portion remaining represents the 
rural population. This element, which in the early decades in- 
creased nearly as rapidly as the total population, has in later 
years increased much more slowly. Indeed, during the past ten 
years its rate of increase was not much more than half that of 
the total population ; while in several states there has been an 
absolute loss of rural population during the past decade, and in 
many others the gain has been much less than the average gain 
of the country. 

The increase of urban population has been more rapid during 
the past decade than at any previous time in the country's 
history, having in ten years increased from 221 jDcr cent up to 
29 per cent. This great increase has in the main taken the 
form of additions to our larger cities, most of which have grown 

The numerical increase in our urban population in the past 
decade is 6,900,000, of which fully 3,000,000 consists of addi- 
tions to the 28 cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants. Chicago's 
half million in 1880 has become more than a million in 1890. 
St. Paul, Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City and Denver have 
doubled or tripled their population. Our greatest city. New 
York, has apparently enjoyed a comparatively slow growth ; but 
this is only apparent. New York's charter limits include less 
than one-half of the people whose business and social interests 
lie in that metropolis. The great majority of the people- who 
sleep within an hour's ride of New York's city hall are to all in- 
tents and purposes, except in name, citizens of New York ; but, 
having their residence without its charter limits, they cannot be 
enumerated as its citizens. A close estimate of the people thus 


FiG I 

VOL. V t893 PL 10 



42- & w I' 

5 OR MORE /' /' 

FIG. 2 

55-60 PER CENT 
OVER 60 i> 


The Multiplication of Suburbs. 


connected with the metropolis places their number at 3,250,000, 
or second only to London in point of population. 

This territory, tributary to but lying outside of the charter 
limits of New York, has increased in population at a tremen- 
dous rate during the past ten years, while the growth of the city 
proper has been confined to the upper parts of Manhattan island 
and the portion of the city lying upon the mainland. The 
down-town parts of the city have -diminished in population 
during the past ten years. This means simply that the ground 
formerly occupied by residences is being taken for business pur- 
poses ; that the lower part of Manhattan island is becoming more 
and more devoted to business to the exclusion of residence. 

A similar state of affairs has long existed in London. London 
consists essentially of a number of municipalities under various 
names, of which one, the corporation of London, occupies the 
center of the city, the neighborhood of Saint Paul's. In 1881 
this corporation had a population of only 50,000, while in 1891 it 
had become reduced to 37,000, owing to the extension of busi- 
ness and the consequent reduction in residence. 

The average size of families has diminished continuously since 
1850, when statistics were first obtained, from 5.55 down to 4.93 
in 1890. In that year the largest families were found in the 
south and the smallest in New England and in the frontier 
states, as shown on the map forming plate 10, figure 1. 


The last five censuses — that is, since 1850 — have classified the 
population by sex. At each census males have been slightly in 
excess of females, the proportion of males ranging from 50.56 up 
to 51.21 of the total population, as seen in the following table: 

Census years. 





Per cent. 



Per cent. 






32 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Poindation. 

As a rule, the proportion of males has mcreased, owing to the 
increased proportion of the foreign born, which consists largely 
of males. In 1890 the jDroportion of males was greater than ever 
before, due to the fact that the proportion of the foreign born 
was greater than ever before. 

In the civilized nations of the world generally a different con- 
dition of things prevails, females being usually slightly in excess 
of males, as is shown in nearly every country of Europe. In the 
United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, the Nether- 
lands and Spain females are at present in excess. 

The sexes are distributed over the country in widely varying 
proportions, as is shown on the map, plate 10, figure 2. The states 
colored red are those in Avhich females are in excess of males. 
They are all located on the Atlantic border and include most 
of the states of that part of the country. In the Mississippi 
valley generally males are slightly in excess, while in the 
newer states and territories of the Rocky mountain region males 
are largely in excess, owing, of course, to the fact that these are 
new regions in Avhich society has not yet reached settled con- 


The population of our country is composed, as regards race, 
of about 55,000,000 whites, 7,500,000 of Africans or mixed bloods, 
a few hundred thousand Indians, ancj 150,000 Chinese and 

The natives of China and Japan are comparatively trifling in 
number, and since the Chinese exclusion act went into effect im- 
migration has ceased, and except upon the Pacific coast, where 
nearly all of them are found, they form too trifling an element 
to require consideration. 

The Indians, most of whom are confined to the areas classed 
as unsettled (plate 7, figure 2), will be left to the ethnologists. 

The Africans present us with the spectacle of an inferior race 
existing in juxtaposition with the whites and, since the early 
part of the century, unaided by additions to their numbers from 
abroad. For seventy years this race existed in a state of slavery ; 
for the last thirty, more or less, in a state of freedom. It is in- 
teresting to observe the progress of this race and compare it with 
that of the whites. This is presented in the following tables, the 
first of which gives the total number of each race, while the next 

NAT, GEOG f-.'^AG, 


VOL V 1833 PL 



(U (Q 

O L 

■ <cy 


i H 


■( >^ 


/ ' 





























/ / 




























r 1 







FIG. 2 

5-25 V 

25-50 PER CENT 

ABOVE 50 ;i 


The Decadence of the lueaker Race. 


table shows the proportions of the two races, given in percent- 
ages of the total, at each census : 

White and colortd Popidation by Decades. 

Census years. 


























Ratios of ivhite and colored Population by Decades. 

Census years. 









. 19.03 

















In 1790 the first census showed that the colored race formed 
nearly one-fifth of the poj^ulation. In 1840, after fifty years had 
elapsed, during which time the country had received practically 
no increase from immigration, the proportion of colored had 
fallen to about one-sixth of the whole. In the next half century, 
which closed in 1890, during which the white race has received 
great additions from immigration, that proportion had fallen to 
less than one-eighth of the Avhole population. 

Summing it up, the colored race forms today less than two- 
thirds the proportion of the j^opulation which it formed a cen- 
tury ago. 

34 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

The following table and the diagram forming plate 11, figure 1, 
represent the rates of increase of the two races : 


Percentage of increase. 



1790 to 1800 

1800 to 1810 

1810 to 1820 

1820 to 1830 

1830 to 1840 

1840 to 1850 

1850 to 1860 

1860 to 1870 

1870 to 1880 

1880 to 1890 



These rates of increase show that in only two decades of the 
century have the colored apparently increased more rapidly than 
the w'hites, the decades between 1800 and 1810 and between 
1870 and 1880. The latter, however, is only an apparent excess, 
due to w^holesale omissions in the enumeration of the colored 
people in 1870. The colored race has almost continuously lost 
ground in proportion to the white race throughout our history. 
Although the birth rate of the race is decidedly larger than that 
of the whites, its death rate, as is evidenced by the mortality 
records of large southern cities, is still greater, being not much 
less, on an average, than double the death rate of the whites. 

Since the time of the first records the colored race has been 
practically confined to the southern states, as is shown by the 
, map showing the distribution in 1890, where it has practically 
monopolized labor. There has never been any northward move- 
ment of this people of magnitude sufficient to be perceptible in 
census returns. Indeed, the only important movement among 
them is southward from the border states into those of the south- 
ern Atlantic and Gulf, from the tobacco states into the cotton 

Plate 11, figure 2, shows the present distribution of the race. In 
the northern states the proportion is less than 5 per cent of the 
population, in the border states it is less than 25 per cent, while 
in the states along the Atlantic and Gulf from Virginia to 
Louisiana it exceeds 25 per cent, and in three states. South 
Carolina, Mississippi and Louisiana, more than half the popu- 







1880 AND 1890 










1 llil io 




1 I 



1 — 1 





















1 i 

X ^ 

< : 

i i 















The Beneficence of Freedom. 35 

lation are colored. The highest proportion is found in the first 
of these states, namely, South Carolina, where three-fifths of the 
people are colored and but two-fifths white. 

The question has been asked, " Has the condition of slavery 
or of freedom proved the more favorable to the numerical in- 
crease of the colored people ? " The figures of the census give 
us a ready answer. The increase has been more rapid under 
conditions of freedom. In the thirty years preceding 1860 the 
colored increased 48 per cent, Avhile in the following thirty years, 
during only twenty-seven of which they were free, and which 
included the disturbed period of the civil war and of recon- 
struction, they increased not less than 68 per cent. 

Nativity and Immigration. 

It has often been stated that the strongest and most virile 
nations are the composite ones, those made up from a mixture 
of blood. If this be true, we are in a fair way to distance in this 
regard all other nations which ever existed. The blood of immi- 
grants from all the nations of Europe, from the Mediterranean 
to the Arctic, to say nothing of the negroes, Chinese and Indians 
within our borders, threatens to make of us the most thoroughly 
composite nation the world has ever known. 

During the first half of the century just passed we received 
practically no immigration ; our numerical gain was produced 
almost entirely by natural increase. Indeed, immigration was 
not of importance until 1847 or 1848, when the famines in Ireland 
and the political troubles in Germany, occurring almost simul- 
taneously, started immigration in this direction ; but since that 
time there has been a migration of peoples across the Atlantic 
to these shores the equal of which the world has never seen. 
Within a generation and a half, 15,427,657 people have crossed 
the Atlantic and found homes in this country. The table shows 
the number of immigrants in each ten-year period since 1820 : 

Immigrants by Decades. 

1821-'30 143,439 

1831-'40 599,125 

1841-'50 1,713,251 

1851-'60 2,598,214 

1861-70 2,314,824 

1871-'80 2,812,191 

1881-90 5,246,613 

36 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

In the first of these periods the number was trifling; between 
1830 and 1840 it rose to nearly 600,000 ; in the next decade it 
nearly tripled, and between 1850 and 1860 reached 2,580.000. 
Between 1860 and 1870 the number diminished, owing to our 
internal troubles ; but in the next decade it rose again higher 
than ever before, approaching three millions, and in 1880 to 1890 
it reached the enormous number of 5,250,000, more than one-third 
of the whole immigration, almost double the number which came 
in the preceding decade, and more than double the number which 
arrived in any other decade. The following table shows the 
principal constituents of the immigration during each decade, 
from which it appears that the Irish, British and Germans have 
constituted the bulk of the immigration. Indeed, down to 1860 
other elements were trifling in amount. Between 1860 and 1870 
Scandinavians and Canadians commenced to appear and have 
increased with great rapidity. Other elements, and much less 
desirable ones, such as Hungarians, Bohemians, Italians and 
Poles, appear first in considerable number so recently as between 
1870 and 1880, and, indeed, it is only within the last decade that 
any considerable numbers of them have come over. The danger 
to be apprehended from them is not from the numbers which 
have already arrived, for they are inconsiderable, but from the 
fact that the immigration is increasing at a tremendous rate, so 
that if continued for a quarter of a century they will become of 
considerable numerical importance. 

Principal Constituents of the Immigration. 




England and Wales 


Norway and Sweden 


Russia and Poland 









2 277 





















































































■ Five years only. 

In recent years the character of the immigration has changed 
for the worse not only by this increase of these undesirable 


■ riG. 

VOL. V 1693 PL. 13 


15-25 PER CENT 

MORE THAN 25 ;; 

FIG. 2 

80-95 n 

50-80 PER CENT 
30-50 V 



The Infusion of inferior Blood. 


nationalities, but in the fact that the character of the immigra- 
tion from other countries is lower than heretofore in respect to 
wealth, education and morality. Altogether the changes which 
the character of the immigration has taken on in the past ten 
or fifteen years have tended to lower the standard of American 
citizenship and press upon us the question whether it is not wise 
to take steps for limiting immigration. 

Of the entire body of immigrants who have joined us, 4,504,128 
or 28 per cent are Germans ; 5,911,454 have come from the United 
Kingdom, 3,481,074 of which are Irish. The United Kingdom 
and Germany together have supplied two-thirds of the entire 
immigration. Norway, Sweden and Denmark have furnished 
1,067,548, while the contingent from other European countries 
has been comparatively small in amount. The constituents of 
the total immigration and of the immigration during the last 
decade are shown graphically in plate 12. 

The foreign born. 

What effect has the flood of immigration had upon the con- 
stitution of our population? In 1840 all our j^eople were of 
native birth, with the exception of 600,000 newly arrived im- 
migrants. In 1850 tliose of foreign birth constituted between 
9 and 10 per cent of our population. In 1860 this proportion 
had risen to 13 per cent, and in 1870 to nearly 14J per cent. In 
1880 it suffered a slight reduction, being about 132- per cent, but 
in 1890 it had risen to 14 1 per cent, while the foreign born found 
in the country in that year numbered no fewer than 9,250,000. 
These facts are set forth in the following table : 

Increase of the foreign born. 

Census years. 


Native white. 











The following table shows the proportion which the native and 
foreign born bore to the total population at each census since 

6— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1S93. 

38 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

the distinction was first made, and the maps in plate 13 show 
where the foreign born are located. 

Ratio of Increase of the foreign born. 

Census years. 











The maps show their distribution over the country expressed 
in percentages of the total population, state by state. From this 
it is seen that the home of the foreign element is in the north 
and west. The foreign born have never invaded the south to 
compete in labor with the colored element. Indeed, in the 
northern and western states there are found no less than 96 per 
cent of the entire foreign-born element of the country. 

Now, a glance at the constituents of the foreign element. They 
repeat in a broad way the composition of the immigration. Plate 
14, figure 1, presents the constituents of the foreign-born popula- 
tion of 1890, showing that the Germans are in excess of all 
others, numbering 2,785,000, followed by the Irish, 1,871,000, the 
British, 1,251,000, the Canadians, 980,000, and the Scandinavians, 
933,000. These five nationalities comprise nearly nine-tenths of 
the whole foreign element. The Italians and Russians each 
number less than 200,000 ; the Poles only 150,000, and the Hun- 
garians and Bohemians but a trifle over 100,000 each, 

How are these different nationalities distributed over the 
country ? The series of maps forming plates 14 to 16 show this 
expressed in the form of a proportion between their numbers and 
the total population of the various states. From them it is seen 
that the Canadians are found mainly in northern New England, 
Michigan, Minnesota and North Dakota, closely hugging the 
northern border. The Irish are found mainly in New England 
and New York, comparatively few having wandered westward. . 
The Germans are found from New York westward, and in the 
greatest body in Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. The Scandi- 
navians have settled as far north as they could and yet remain 
within our jurisdiction, being found principally in Wisconsin, 


VOL. V 1893 PL 1^ 












FIG 2 

,l-& » 

5-10 PER CENT 

ABOVE lO ;' 




VOL V 1893 PL. 15 


1-5 )i 

ABOVE 10 /; 

FIG. 2 



Foreigners the industrial Substratum. 39 

Minnesota and the Dakotas, while the British are found scattered 
widely over the northern states. 

These people are guided largely by temperature in the selec- 
tion of their homes. Those from northern Europe and Canada 
settle in the far north. The Germans, coming from a more tem- 
perate climate, have settled mainly south of them, as have also 
the Irish. 

What is the distriljution of this foreign element as between 
urban and rural life? As a rule, the Irish j^refer urban life; the 
great proportion of them settling in the cities. The same is also 
true in an almost equal degree with the British. The Germans 
are somewhat less disposed toward urban life, but still a large 
part of them, far beyond their due proportion, are found in our 
large cities. The same is the case with the French -Canadians, 
while the Norwegians and Swedes are much more disposed 
toward rural life, and the great body of them are found away 
from the centers of poj)ulation. As a rule, however, the foreign 
population flocks to the cities in far greater proportion than the 
native element does. In 1890 the twenty-eight largest cities of 
the country contained a poj)ulatioii of 9,700,000, or about 15 per 
cent of the population of the country. Now the foreign-born 
element of these cities comj) rises a little over 3,090,000, or almost 
exactly one-third oT the total foreign born of the country. Put- 
xting it in another way, nearly one-third of the population of these 
cities is foreign born, while in the country at large only about 
one-sixth of it is foreign born. These cities contain, therefore, 
double their quota of the foreign-born element (plate 17). 

As to occupations, it may be stated broadl}^ that the foreign- 
born element is engaged in avocations lower in character than 
the native element, principally in those involving skilled and 
unskilled labor, while the proportion of them in the learned pro- 
fessions is much less, relative to their numbers, than .among the 
native element. While in 1880 the foreign born constituted 
about one-seventh of the joopulation, it was found that of law- 
yers, clergymen, physicians and teachers there were about 11 
native born to one foreign born. On the other hand, among 
servants there was one foreign born to little more than three 
native born. Among unskilled laborers the foreign born were in 
the proportion of one to two native born, while in skilled labor, 
such as blacksmiths, shoemakers and carpenters, the proportion 
was also as one to two, and foreign-born miners exceeded in total 
number the native born. 

40 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

This flood of immigration has produced other results in our 
population beyond the mere additions to our numbers and the 
admixture of blood. It has lowered the average intelligence and 
morality of the community. The illiterate of the northern states 
are mainly foreign born, the proportion of illiterates among them 
being four times as great as among the native born. Again, the 
criminals of foreign birth in the northern states are double their 
due proportion as compared with the native born. 

Another result of importance has been produced. It is a well- 
known law of population that in a broad, general way as the 
population increases the rate of increase diminishes. It is an 
illustration of the Malthusian doctrine. Now, it matters not in 
the least how this density of population is brought about, whether 
it be by natural increase or by immigration, the < result is the 
same ; the rate of natural increase is reduced thereby. 

I have made a comparison between the rates of increase of the 
native white elements of the northern and the southern states to 
ascertain approximately the effect of immigration upon our rate 
of increase, and the results are presented in plate 18. The 
southern states, including in that designation all of the states 
east of the plains and south of Mason and Dixon's line, the Ohio 
river and the southern boundary of Missouri and Kansas, have 
received practically no immigration. The states north of this 
line and east of the plains contain 86 per cent of the foreign 
element, the remainder being mainly in the states and territories 
of the far west. 

The rates of increase found among the whites of the south- 
ern states, which are not complicated by immigration, are rep- 
resented by the dotted line of the diagram, and while they ex- 
hibit some oscillations they show a general but not a great dimi- 
nution from the beginning of our history to the end. Between 
1790 and 1840 the white population of these states increased 239 
per cent. In other words, the population of 1840 was 3.39 times 
that of 1790. In the succeeding fifty years the population of 
these states increased 204 per cent — that is, the population of 
these states in 1890 was 3.04 times as great as in 1840, the rate 
having thus diminished by only 35 per cent. On the other hand, 
how is it Avith the northern states ? In the first fifty years, dur- 
ing which there was practically no immigration, the rate of in- 
crease in each decade was considerably greater than in the south- 
ern states, and altogether during this half century the white pop- 



VOL. V 1893 PL. 16 


1-5 » 

5-10 PER CENT 


FIG. 2 

1-5 V 






VOL. V 1893 PL. 17 





















































■ ■■ 


































■ •■ 







I ■■ 

t' M 






u ' 





1 1 




■ ■ 

■ ■ 










■ i 








■ I 

■ ■ 





















■ 5 












■ ■■Is 












! ! S 
































s s 











■ ■■ 











■ ■■ 

















■• > 





















































TTi ' 













Ow Blood starved by Immigration. 41 

ulation of these northern states increased 389 per cent — that is, 
in 1840 the pojDulation was 4.89 times as great as in 1790. Be- 
tween 1840 and 1890, after separating from the white population 
of these states the immigrants and their natural increase, and 
thus leaving only the native element, the rate of increase of the 
latter is seen to diminish remarkably. Instead of ranging front 
34 up to 41 per cent, as it did in the first half-century, the rates 
of increase by decades become 23, 20, 15, 16 and 10, while the 
rate of increase for this entire half-centur}^ was but 112 per cent, 
the native population in 1890 being but 2.12 times as great as 
that of 1840. This sudden and astonishingly rapid reduction 
of the rate in the north, following closely the appearance of the 
flood of immigration, can be attributed to no other cause. 

The rate of increase of the north is shown by the full line, the 
broken line, which commences at 1840 and runs up to 1890, being 
the rate of increase of the native element alone, while the full 
line, continuing on to 1890, represents the rate of increase of the 
entire population of the north, including the foreign element. It 
is an interesting coincidence that this rate of increase during the 
last decade was almost exactly the same as that of the south. I 
firmly believe, therefore, that the rate of our natural increase has 
been greatly reduced b_y the flood of immigration. By alloAving 
the poor and oppressed of Europe homes in this country we have 
substituted them for our own flesh and blood. I believe that if 
there had been no immigration the rate of natural increase which 
prevailed before immigration commenced would have been much 
more nearly maintained, and our numbers would be nearly as 
great as at present. The sudden and rapid reduction of the rate 
of natural increase of the north during the past forty years I be- 
lieve to be due to this flood of immigration, and it is a question 
Avhether we have gained by this substitution of a mixture of 
European for American blood. 

There is another result produced by immigration which is 
not so apparent, but which, it seems to me, is of great and far- 
reaching importance in connection with this question. As has 
been stated, the immigration consists, as a rule, of the lower 
classes, mainly of skilled and unskilled labor, and these millions 
of mechanics and laborers have filled and practically monopo- 
lized the lower classes of avocations in the north. In this way 
they have forced the native American element into the higher 
walks of life. The head-work of the country is practically in 

42 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. . 

the hands of Americans ahiiost as fully as half a century ago. 
Our industrial enterprises of all sorts are under the management 
of Americans and the hewing of wood and the drawing of water 
have been assumed by the immigrant. The fact that the native 
is still the ruling element probably accounts for the fact that the 
foreign element, in spite of its great numerical importance, has 
thus far exerted but a trifling influence upon our political, in- 
dustrial and social life. 

The Element of foreign Extraction. 

The effects of immigration on our population are not con- 
fined by any means to the foreign born. Although to some 
extent Americanized, the children of the Irish, Germans and 
Scandinavians retain many of their parents' characteristics ; 
measurably they are Irish, Germans and Scandinavians still. 
It is interesting, therefore, to note to what extent our population 
is composed, not only of the foreign born but of the children of 
the foreign born, and this information was obtained both in 1870 
and 1890. Moreover, in 1870 practically all the foreign blood in 
the country must have been accounted for by the enumeration 
of the foreign born and their children, since immigration had 
comniencecl on a large scale only twenty-two years earlier, and 
it is not possible that there was any considerable number of 
children of the second generation in the country. The element 
of foreign extraction in the United States in 1870 numbered by 
this enumeration 10,892,000, and comprised about one-third of 
the entire white population of the country. In 1890 those 
born of foreign parents, including the foreign born, numbered 
20,626,000, and constituted 37 per cent of the entire white popu- 
lation of tlie country. To this large number are yet to be added 
probably four or five millions in the second generation to com- 
plete the tale of foreign blood. 

The distribution of the foreign born and their children is illus- 
trated in plate 17, the highest proportion being in New England 
and the northwestern states. Indeed, in the northern states east 
of the plains 45 per cent, or nearly one-half of the inhabitants, 
are foreign born or the children of foreigners. In Massachusetts 
there are 56 per cent ; in Rhode Island, 58 ; in Connecticut, 50 ; 
in New York, 56, and in New Jersey, 48 per cent; but the 
heaviest proportion is found in the northwestern states. In Wis- 
consin and Minnesota three-fourths of the people are foreign 


VOL. V 1893 PL. 18 





























































< i 





— i>0. 




— 7^ 

V^— . 





— ^ 



r^^ — 


— \-^ 





— V 

A ' 










, ff 




;^ ' 





— f 














■ III 


■ ■ ■ 1 

II ■ ■ ■ 1 

I 1 ■ ■ 1 

■ ■ ■ ■ 1 



VOL. V 1893 PL. 19 






















Alienation of our Cities. • 43 

born or children of foreign born, and in the new state of North 
Dakota four-fifths of the people are of immediate foreign extrac- 
tion, Avhile only one-fifth of the inhabitants are of American 

In onr great cities the situation is even more startling. Thus, 
in Boston the native element constitutes but 30 per cent ; in 
Brooklyn, 28, and in Buffalo, 2-2 ; while New York, with only 18 
per cent, is practically a foreign city, so far as its population is 
concerned. Chicago contains a native element of but 20 per cent 
and Detroit of 21, while among these great cities Milwaukee 
stands at the head, or foot, as you please, Avith a native element 
of but 13 per cent. These are presented graphically in the 
accompanying plate 17. 

The most extreme case which has fallen under my notice 
however, is that of the little cit}^ of Ish23eming, in the heart of the 
iron region of Michigan, a city of some 11,000 people, of Avhich 
only 6 per cent are native born of native parents, the remainder, 
94 per cent, being foreign born or the children of the foreign born. 


I have attempted to'siim up in a diagram (plate 19) a part of the 
substance of this paper. This is an attempt to show the growth 
of each element of the population for a century, with its status 
at the end of the century. 

The breadth of the diagram opposite the years is proportional 
to the population at that date, and the breadth of the various 
subdivisions is ^proportional to the numbers of the three elements , 
colored, native and foreign. The immigration of each decade is 
indicated by the additions between the dates. The separation 
between the elements of native and foreign blood is, of course, 
only an approximation. A tentative separation was made under 
the assumption that the rate of natural increase of the foreign 
element was equal to that of the native element. Under this as- 
sumption the separation was carried forward to 1870, where, as 
explained above, a definite separation was made by the census 
enumeration, lliis gave a correction which showed that the 
natural increase of the foreign element had been more rapid than 
that of the native element. Accordingly the earlier results were 
corrected and the rates of increase of the foreign and of the native 
elements thus deduced were projected forward to 1890. The 

44 Henry Gannett — Movements of our Population. 

diagram at the bottom shows the present status of the population 
as regards colored, native and foreign blood, classifying the last 
by the leading nationalities. 

From this it appears that the present composition of the pop- 
ulation is somewhat as follows : 

Colored 7,500,000 

White of native extraction ' 30,000,000 

AViiite of foreign extraction 25,000,000 

The principal elements of the latter are : 

British 4,000,000 

Irish 6,500,000 

German '. , 6,800,000 

Swedes and Norwegians 1,000,000 

Hungarians 500,000 

Italians 500,000 

Canadians 1,600,000 

The remainder of the 25,000,000 are distributed among vari- 
ous nationalities in small numbers. The white element of native 
extraction is apparently in the minority today in this country, 
being exceeded in number by the sum of the foreign element and 
the colored. British blood is, however, still largely in the as- 
cendant, for if we add to the white native element the 4,000,000 of 
British and 6,500,000 of Irish we get 40,500,000, about two-thirds 
of the entire population and three-fourths of the entire white 


Vol. V, pp. 45-58, pl. 20 

April 29, 1893 








Published by the National Geogkai-iik mh hctv 

Price 25 cents 


Vol. V, pp. 45-58, PL. 20 April 29, 1893 




Annual Report by Vice-President 


{Presented before the Society January 6, 1S9S) 

In carrying out the announced policy of the National Geo- 
graphic Society with regard to annual contributions from its 
vice-presidents in their respective domains of geographic science, 
it has seemed advisable for the vice-president of the " Geography 
of the Air " to place before the Society this year a special paper. 

The subject selected is the typical distribution of rainfall in 
the United States and contiguous territory, and an attempt has 
been made to treat the subject in such a manner that it may be a 
permanent contribution to the physical geography of the United 
States. It goes without saying that a paper covering twenty 
minutes' reading cannot go much into detail, but it is hoped that 
the treatment, while general, is yet such as to give definite and 
clear ideas on the subject treated. 

This paper does not consider the distribution of rain from the 
standpoint of the mean annual precipitation, does not dwell on 
the variability or unequal amounts in consecutive years, omits 
to discuss the distribution from the standpoint of varying eleva- 
tions, and is silent on the question of distribution with reference 
to frequency or absence of excessive rains of periodic or acci- 

7— Nat. Gf.og. Mag., vol. V, 1893. (45) 

46 Gen. A.W.Greely — Rainfall Types of the United States. 

dental occurrence. It confines itself to a question of great and 
sometimes vital importance, to the characteristic distribution of 
13recipitation throughout the year, and, as is believed, presents 
a successful analysis of the average fluctuations from month to 
month, so that for the first time a satisfactory presentation is 
possible of all the simj^le rainfall types and of most of the 
composite tyjDes which obtain over the broad expanse of the 
inhabited portions of North America. 

The necessity of careful and scientific study of climatic condi- 
tions in connection with prospective enterprises, whether per- 
taining to agriculture, commerce, navigation, or to special indus- 
tries, has become obvious the past few years through the spur 
of competition. Among such conditions, this of rainfall dis- 
tribution throughout the year is one of the most important. 
With relation to agriculture, it is essential to know whether pre- 
cipitation comes at such seasons as to be a benefit or a detriment 
to the jiroposed crop. In the initiation of irrigation enterprises 
not only are the questions of guarding against extensive and 
torrential rainfalls on one hand and of tiding over temporary 
droughts on the other of importance, but, further, whether the 
most copious precipitation occurs in such months as to afford 
water at seasonable periods, or the rain comes at such times that 
it must be stored for many months with consequent loss from 
seepage and evaporation. Similarly, this question of distribu- 
tion of rain throughout the year affects most potently other busi- 
ness interests of importance. 

That these questions are of current and practical value is 
evident to every thoughtful man, and that their earlier elucida- 
tion and the publication of results would have been an extended 
benefit cannot be questioned. Take agriculture, for instance, 
which in eastern Colorado is pursued under difficult conditions 
wherever irrigation is impracticable. Failure of crops very 
frequently resulted until observation showed that a scanty rain- 
fall in June is the rule in that section, and that by planting at a 
certain season the injurious effects of the June drought could be 

Nor is the necessity of a definite and accurate determination 
of the typical forms of annual precipitation in the eastern part 
of the United tStates less obvious, since the latest text-book on 
meteorology in use in the United States, that of Loomis, contains 
the statement that " Throuo'hout most of the United States east 

Definition of Rainfall Types. 47 

of the Rocky mountains the rain is pretty equally distributed 
through the different months of the year, but the rain of sum- 
mer is everyiohere somewhat greater than that of winter, including 
melted snow." 

In reality the whole section of country, about 200,000 square 
miles in extent, dominated by the Tennessee type of rainfall 
experiences a larger precipitation in winter than in summer, the 
excess averaging in northern Alabama and southern Kentucky 
about 10 per cent, in western Georgia and in Tennessee over 
20 per cent, and in southeastern Arkansas and northern Louisiana 
from 40 to 50 jDcr cent (plate 20). 

I have pointed out elsewhere the vital importance of a favor- 
able distribution of rainfall to certain sections of the country, 
where this favoring type of precipitation has proved to be one 
of the great bases on which rests the national prosperity of this 
great republic. Allusion is made to the great grain-producing 
sections throughout the water- sheds of the upper Mississippi, the 
Missouri, the Red river of the North, comprising the Dakotas, 
Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin and 
Illinois. Over the greater part of this immense area the annual 
rainfall is very materially less than that of the regions to the 
eastAvard or southward, b^it, most fortunately for the country, 
about three-fifths of the rainfall for the entire year occurs oppor- 
tunely through the period when it is most beneficial to crops, 
from April to July, inclusive. A less favorable type of rainfall, 
the Mexican or the Saint LaAvrence, for example, Avould render 
groAving of grain unprofitable throughout the Avhole of this 
favored region. 

It remains to briefly indicate the fcAV types of simple rainfall 
Avith the localities to which they refer, and to the composite 
types occurring through the OA^erlapj^ing and interference of 
simple types. 

Composite types must prevail AAdiere tAvo simjDle types are not 
separated by high mountain ranges, and thus gradually shade 
or merge into each other. One dividing line, the Rocky moun- 
tain range, separates by its crest, if not absolutely, yet quite 
sharply and definitely, the Missouri type in Montana and 
Wyoming from the Pacific type in Idaho and Washington. 

The term mniple has been applied to those rainftill types Avhich 
can be graphically expressed by a curve Avith a single bend or 
inflection. The average monthly amounts pass from the single 

48 Gen. A. W.Grcely — Rainfall Types of the United States. 

inaxiinnin to the single minimum through uninterruptedly 
diminishing quantities, and thence rise with unbroken increases 
to the maximum. The composite types are those in which the 
graphic expression would be shown by two inflections, from a 
primary maximum through the minimum to a secondary max- 
imum and secondary minimum. 

In general terms it may be said that each simple type of rain- 
fall in the United States appertains to a s-ingle body of water for 
its resulting precipitation ; thus the Pacific type comes directly 
from the Pacific ocean, the Mexican type from the gulf of Cali- 
fornia, the Tennessee type from the gulf of Mexico, and the 
Atlantic type from the Atlantic ocean. In the Missouri type, 
however, two sources are evident — primarih^ the gulf of Mexico, 
and secondarily, and to a much larger degree than has been 
usually advanced, Hudson bay and the chain ofgreat American 

In treating the fluctuations of rainfall throughout the year it 
is evident that the unequal lengths of the different months affect 
somewhat the accuracy of direct inter-comparisons of normal 
monthly rainfalls. There fell under ni}^ observation lately a 
curve showing such inter-comparisons which proved misleading, 
as it showed a decrease of rain froni January to February and 
an increase from February to March, when in reality, as shown 
by the average amount daily for each month, the rainfall became 
more copious from January to February and from February to 

In this discussion the rule has been followed of obtaining 
the normal daily rainfall by dividing the normal yearly rain- 
fall by 365.25. In like manner the average daily rainfall of 
February has been found by using 28.25 as a divisor, and the 
longest months by using 31. In this paper, for the sake of 
brevity and in order to avoid repetition, it is to be explained 
that the term " normal daily rainfall " is applied to the mean 
determined from the annual precipitation, and that the terms 
'' January rainfall, March rainfall," etc, unless otherwise explic- 
itly stated, mean the average daily amount determined for the 
month in question by the methods above indicated. 

The best defined tj^pe of rainfall within the limits of the United 
States is that which dominates the Pacific coast region ; hence 
the specific name " Pacific " herein applied. In general terms 
it may be said to dominate British Columbia, Washington, 

The Pacific Type. 49 

Idaho, Oregon, California, Nevada and western Utah ; in other 
Avords, the great interior basin and the entire Pacific water-shed 
from British Columbia to Lower California, excluding the section 
draining into the giilf of California. The chai'acteristic features 
are very heavy precipitation during midwinter, and an almost 
total absence of rain during the late summer. 

The infrequency of summer rain is marked in British Columbia, 
and thence southward it becom:es steadily more pronounced, 
passing through the gradations of a single rainless month in 
northern California, then two and three to its culmination of 
four rainless months in a considerable part of southern California 
and western Nevada. There is a tendency in the uj^per half of 
the San .Joaquin valley and thence southward into the western 
part of San Diego county for rain to cease about a month earlier 
and to remain absent a month later than over the rest of the 
Pacific coast region, the dry season being fi-om .June to Seiotem- 
ber, inclusive, and being usually unbroken even by a passing 

Eastern Nevada appears to share freedom from rain during 
July, but the autumnal rains appear in September or earlier, 
under the influence in the southern part of that state of the 
Mexican type projecting northward. The marked tendency of 
the winter rains to continue into spring is evident in Washington, 
whence it shades with diminishing persistency to northern Cali- 
fornia and northwestern Nevada. 

It may be remarked that in the Pacific coast regions the 
amounts of rain vary very greatly, according to the topography of 
the section and the distance from the ocean ; so that the interior 
depressions, such as the Sacramento, San .Joaquin and other val- 
leys, particularly those parallel with the coast, have a scantier 
rainfall than either the coast itself or the Sierra Nevada and 
other mountain ranges to the eastward. 

These variations in the total rainfall do not, however, affect 
the distribution throughout the year, which is typically Pacific 
throughout the whole region. 

As might be expected where the rainfall is very small, a single 
month of excessive precipitation occasionally increases the rain- 
fall so as to be misleading. For instance, it is apparent from 
inspection that the greatest normal precipitation is that of De- 
cember at both San Diego, California, and Halleck, Nevada ; yet 
excessive rainfalls of 9.05 inches in February, 1884, at the former 

50 Gen. A. W. Grcely — B.ainfall Types of the United States. 

place, and 4.00 inches in Februaiy, 1870, at the latter, throw the 
February daily pre^cipitation slightly al)Ove that of December. 
Of the following examples of the Pacific type, five are drawn 
from the interior, viz, Spokane, Washington; records of 12 years ; 
Delano, California, 15 years ; Boise City, Idaho, 22 years ; Prom- 
ontory, Utah, 21 years ; Halleck, Nevada, 21 years ; and three 
from coast stations, viz, Astoria, Oregon, 29 years ; San Diego 
and San Francisco, California,, each 41 years. 

Normal dcdbj Rainfall and monthly Departures therefrom-. 

( Values are infractions of an inch.) 



O g q 
c >>!« 


0-3 CO 
O 0) 

as >> 


January .... 
February ., 




























— .010 



— .035 

— .002 

— .003 


— .015 



— .092 

— .064 

— .016 


— .013 



— .114 

— .066 

- .027 

— .017 


— .014 

— .008 

— .1G9 

— .006 

— .027 

— .017 

— .032 

— .033 

— .018 

— .16fi 

— .066 

— .027 


— .042 

— .034 

— .010 

— .099 

— .061 



— .020 

— .028 

— .010 

— .050 

— .034 

— .016 

— .007 


— .013 

— .001 


— .030 

— .008 


— .006 


— .001 



— .042 






— .008 

— .014 

— .009 

— .002 

— .002 

— .003 

Another simple type of rainfall is that which in a previous 
paper I designated as the " Trans-Pecos," from the fact that it 
dominates extreme western Texas beyond the Pecos river. On 
further investigation it proved to prevail in the province of 

The Mexican Type. 51. 

Chihuahua, and now later data shows the great probabiHty that 
it dominates far the greater part of Mexico ; hence it is now called 
the " Mexican " type. 

The characteristics of the Mexican type are VQvy heavy pre- 
cipitation after the summer solstice and a very dry period after 
the vernal equinox. August is the month of greatest rainfall 
and, with July and September, furnishes over 75 per cent of the 
year's precipitation at Mazatlan, about 87 per cent at Topolo- 
bampo, 58 per cent at El Paso, Texas, fort Davis, Texas, and 
fort Union, New Mexico. On the other hand, the months of 
February, March and April are marked by an almost entire 
absence of precipitation, aggregating for this period only 1 to 2 
per cent of the year's rain on the western coast of Mexico, and 
about 8 per cent at Chihuahua, Mexico, the city of Mexico, 
El Paso, Texas, fort Davis, Texas, and fort Union, New Mexico 
(34 years). 

This type dominates New Mexico, save the small drainage 
basins of the Gila and San Juan, the trans-Pecos region of Texas, 
and probably all of Mexico, except the eastern coast and possibly 
the southern part of that country. The proof of its prevalence 
in Mexico rests on about ten years' observations at the city of 
Mexico, ten at Pueblo (where, however, the type is composite and 
the maximum falls in July, conforming to the rainfall regime of 
Vera Cruz as given by Loomis;, six years at Mazatlan, seven 
at Leon de Aldemas, five at Chihuahua and four at Topolo- 

While the Mexican type of rainfall does not absolutely obtain 
in Arizona, yet, taken as a whole, its influence is more potent 
than that of the Pacific type. The Arizona rainfall is of a com- 
posite type, the result of interference between the Pacific and 
Mexican. The primary maximum, closely following the Mexi- 
can type, occurs from July to August, while most generally the 
second maximum falls with the Pacific type in December. 
Interference of the types, however, brings about the principal 
minimum in October and the secondary minimum in May or 

The following shows the departures from the daily normal 
rainfall of .028 inch at fort McDowell, deduced from the longest 
record (24 years) in Arizona : January, .006 inch ; Februar}^, 
.015 ; March, — .004 ; April, — .010 ; May, — .024 ; June, — .024 ; 
July,— .012; August, .019; September, .003 ; October, — .014 ; 

52 Gen. A. W.Greely — pMinfall Types of the United States. 

November, — .001, and December, .028. Similarly Colorado and 
a portion of Texas to the eastward of the Pecos water-shed ex- 
perience a composite type of rainfall arising from interference of 
the Mexican type from the westward and the Missouri type from 
the eastward. 

Colorado has its principal rainfall maximum in July or 
August and its principal minimum in January, while the 
secondary maximum occurs in April or May and a secondary 
minimum in June. It is hardly necessary to state that certain 
localities, according to their contiguity either to the simple 
Mexican or the simple Missouri type in their rainfall, reverse in 
order of importance the primary and secondary maxima and 
minima here mentioned. 

Utah has a great diversit}^ of rainfall fluctuations, resulting 
from its being so situated that it is more or less influenced from 
different quarters by the Pacific, Mexican, and even the Missouri 
type, the first named being most potent, especiall}^ in the western 
and extreme northern part of the territory. 

The " Missouri " type of rainfall is the most important in the 
United States, both from the vast area over which it obtains and 
also from its extremely favorable bearing on agriculture. This 
type dominates the water-sheds of the Arkansas, Missouri, and 
upper Mississippi rivers and of lakes Ontario and Michigan, 
as well as over Oklahoma and the greater part of northern Texas, 
thus covering Montana, the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, 
Kansas. Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, Wisconsin and Illinois, 
together with parts of Arkansas, Texas, Michigan, Indiana and 
Indian territory. 

The Missouri type indicates a very light winter precipitation, 
followed in late spring and early summer by the major quantity 
of the yearly rain. The area of country covered by this type is 
so large that certain slight modifications could be antici^^ated. 
For instance, while the June rainfall is as a rule the most abun- 
dant, yet along the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains the 
May rainfall is somewhat greater than that of the following- 
month. Again, while January is usually the month of least 
precipitation, yet in some localities the minimum has a ten- 
dency to occur in December and in others to delay itself until 

As examples of the Missouri type, there are here presented 
rainfall data from Riley, Illinois, record of 39 years ; Muscatine, 

The Missouri Type. 


Iowa, 45; Bismarck, North Dakota, 18; Fort Randall, South 
Dakota, 32 ; Fort Ripley, Minnesota, 27 ; Fort Riley, Kansas, 36 ; 
Miami, Missouri, 43; Fort Shaw, Montana, 19; Omaha, Ne- 
braska, 24, and Madison, Wisconsin, 24 years : 

Normal daily Rainfall and Departures therefrom. 

( Values are in fractions of an inch.) 


■I cs^ 

5 cs <u 



— .010 

— .037 

— .043 

— .047 

— .036 

— .069 

— .049 

— .045 

— .044 

— .023 


— .014 

— .029 

— .030 

— .041 

— .036 

— .005 

— .038 

- .033 

— .035 

— .034 


— .013 

— .018 

— .023 

— .024 

— .011 

— .044 

- .041 

— .020 

— .021 

— .023 


— .005 



— .020 



— .004 



— .011 

May ... 






















July ... 












■ .002 












— .013 










— .011 

— .014 

— .014 

— .022 

— .005 

— .002 

— .014 

— .009 


— .022 


- .013 

— .032 

— .040 


— .030 

— .050 

— .020 

— .022 

— .027 

— .031 


— .011 

— .O.'S 

— .029 

— .045 

— .033 

— .058 

— .045 

- .031 

— .033 

— .042 

The general character of the Missouri type is, perhaps, satis- 
factorily illustrated by the rainfall of Nebraska, this state being 
central, as regarding this type. In Nebraska only about 6 per 
cent of the year's precipitation occurs from December to Feb- 
ruary, inclusive. In April, however, the percentage of the entire 
annual rainfall is 11, in May 17, in June 16 and July 16, mak- 
ing about 60 per cent for these four months. In other words, 
three-fifths of the yearly rainfall occurs most opportunely 
during the period when it is most beneficial to the growing 
crojDS. It is well known that the annual rainfall is small, yet 

8— Nat. Geog. Mag , vol. V, 1893 

54 Gen. A. W.Greely — Rainfall Types of the United States. 

eastern Nebraska receives during these four months, April to 
July, inclusive, a larger amount of rainfall than the interior 
portions of the eastern states from Maine to Virginia; and western 
Nebraska receives only a slightly lesser amount. While the 
rain precipitation of the year diminishes to the northward and 
westward of Nebraska, yet the same favorable type of distribu- 
tion prevails. 

The Missouri type changes by interference with the Mexican 
type in the southwest, the Tennessee type to the southeast, and 
the Saint Lawrence to the northeast. 

The " Tennessee " type, although not covering a very extended 
region, is well marked, the highest rainfalls occurring the last of 
winter or the first of spring, while the minimum is in mid- 

The Tennessee type obtains over Tennessee, Arkansas, Mis- 
sissippi, eastern Kentucky, western Georgia and, except on the 
immediate gulf coast, in Alabama and Louisiana. In some 
localities (western Kentucky and Tennessee and adjacent parts 
of Arkansas) the rain of February slightly exceeds that of March, 
the usual month of maximum, while in northern Louisiana and 
adjacent regions, the tendency is toward slightly greater rainfalls 
in April than in March. 

It is also to be noted that in some cases there is a tendency 
toward the minimum rainfall in August or September rather 
than October, in which month the minimum occurs for the 
greater portion of the area. 

Montgomery, Alabama ; Atlanta, Georgia; Chattanooga and 
Memphis, Tennessee, are examples of the Tennessee type of pre- 

The Tennessee Type. 


Normal dally Ra'uifaJl and Departures therefrom. 

( Vcdaes are in fractions of an inch. ) 


-— CO 

< u 

.1 s- 


^ o 




— ^,__, 

P C:0 



is. Ten 
aily i-ai 
ars, .14 






•r"a o 

^T3 QJ 

o go 

Pi, ■ f*^ 

fl c-l O 

•;3'C ?-> 

s a(M 

01 S (N 




S =5 s 


January . . 
February . 






August . . . 
October. . . 
December . 

Except in New England the entire water-shed of the Atlantic 
coast experiences a type of rainfall distribution which extends 
to the drainage basin of the upper Ohio river. This type is called 
the "Atlantic," and is one wherein the distribution through- 
out the year is nearly uniform. The rainfall of Philadelphia, 
record of 73 years, shows that the minimum daily rainfall of 
October and January is 73 per cent of the maximum daily fall 
in August. The most copious precipitation occurs after the 
summer solstice, while the minimum rainfall is, as a rule, during 

56 Gen. A. W.Greely — Rainfall Types of the United States. 

the mid or late autumn, the increases until early spring being 
very small and irregular. Generally, it may be said that a well 
marked tendency obtains along the coast toward August as the 
month of maximum rainfall. With increasing distance from 
the Atlantic ocean, and probably owing to influence of the trans- 
Appalachian types, the time of greatest precipitation generally 
shifts to July, while the minimum rainfall, which occurs during 
November from Florida to western New York, gradually changes 
to October along the slope of the Appalachian range and the 
upper Ohio valley, as shown in both phases by the records of 
Augusta, Georgia, and Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

The effect of interference of the Saint Lawrence type extend- 
ing southAvard is evident at Troy, New York, in its minimum of 
February and March, and even as far as Philadelphia it exercises 
a very slight influence. 

Normal daily Rainfall and Departures therefrom. 

( Values are in fractions of an inch.) 


-^ Od 

, ^ 

— -H 

_ „ 

— r^ 






'S S 








O '^ ■ 

* b 

« 'O 

. as- 

C3.~ C3 




S 03 cS 
5t3 >, 

— C3 CB 

r-tj >, 

is cS <D 

gg = 








<^ Co 

p- >,l 


January ... 










— .038 

— .018 

— .012 

— .008 



— .026 

— .030 

— .011 

— .009 



— .001 

— .023 

— .019 

— .002 

— .007 

— .004 

— .003 

— .010 

— .022 

— .050 

— .014 

— .013 
- .005 

— .001 

— .008 

— .007 

— .001 

— .005 

— .019 

— .012 

— .015 

— .007 

— .026 

— .052 

— .031 

— .020 

— .018 

— .005 

— .012 

— .006 

— .006 

— .011 

— .005 

— 003 

— .044 

— .018 

— .012 

— .019 

— .016 

— .014 


— .001 

— .017 

— .010 

— .002 

— .006 

— .008 

— .004 

— .011 

— .003 

The New England Type. 


In New England the Atlantic type is seriously modified and 
the character of the distribution, difficult to determine with ex- 
actness owing to the slight variations, is possibly affected by 
the interference of the Saint Lawrence type. In consequence, 
we find in New England a composite type in which the August 
maximum of the Atlantic type is generally primary, and a 
November maximum secondar}'-, though in some localities these 
maxima are reversed in order of their importance. The Atlantic 
November minimum is replaced by a June primary minimum; 
while a secondary minimum falls in some localities in September 
and in others in April. 

Normal daily Rainfall and Departures therefrom. 
( Values are infractions of an inch-) 


— (~,i 

n ^ 

OS lO 

ci & 

CS ^ 







o o 



^ ^"^ 

C3 -" 


crj ^ 





iA ■ 



^ . 



5!0'3 3 


pa- !:i 

> >>S 
o~ cs 


■5 OS <B 

a cs <B 

.-' 3 S 

^•a >> 

Et3 ^. 





January .... 
February .. 









December . 

— .016 

— .014 


— .001 

— .006 

— .013 

— .009 

— .019 

— .009 

— .013 


— .017 

— .008 


— .003 

- .011 

— .003 


— .024 

— .005 



— .016 



— .021 

— .021 

— .008 








— .010 


— .003 

— .022 



— .014 




— .019 



— .013 




— .011 




— .004 

— .007 

— .007 

— .011 



— .012 













— .003 


— .018 

— .006 

— .010 


— .019 

— .015 


— .001 

— .007 

— .020 

— .009 

— .Oil 

— .005 

— .001 

The distribution of rain through the Saint Lawrence valley, 
although of composite type, probably merits from its peculiarity 
to be designated separately as the " Saint Lawrence " type. The 

58 Gen. xi. W.Grcely — Rainfall Types of the United States. 

characteristics are scarcit}'' of precipitation during the spring 
months, April being very decidedly the month of least rainfall 
followed by October, and a heavy rainfall during the late sum- 
mer and late autumn months with the maximum precipitation 
in November and nearly as heavy rain in July or August. The 
heavy I'ainfalls of the Saint Lawrence valley during November 
are the more remarkable in view of the fact that in this month 
the minimum precipitation occurs from northern Florida to 
central New York. 

Detailed data regarding this type is not at hand, but Professor 
Charles Carpmael, chief of the meteorological service of the 
Dominion of Canada, is authority for the statement that the 
minimum precipitation occurs in April at Kingston, Rockliffe, 
Montreal, Quebec, Father point, Saugeen, and Parry sound, as 
well as throughout the province of New Brunswick. It is in- 
teresting to note that in the composite rainfall types of New- 
foundland and New Brunswick, as well as along the greater 
part of the Massachusetts and Maine coasts, the November max- 
imum obtains, and is as a rule the principal maximum, with 
March as the month of secondary maximum, although in some 
localities these maxima are reversed in order of importance. 

There may possibly be added a Gulf type, so called from its 
prevalence along the northern shores of the gulf of Mexico, 
where the maximum rain falls in September and the minimum 
in the early spring. Western Florida and the Texas coasts are 
the only sections in which this obtains. The normal daily rain- 
fall at Key West, Florida, of 47 years, is .107 inch, with depart- 
ures as follows: January, — .038; February, — .050; March, 

— .062 ; April, — .064 ; May, — .006 ; June, .044 ; July, .022 ; 
August, .055; September, .111; October, .053; November, 

— .038, and December, — .043 inch. 

It is not within the scope of this paper to discuss the special 
causes which produce these differing types of rainfall distribu- 
tion in North America. It may be said, however, that there is 
no doubt in my mind that the maxima and minima phases of 
precipitation are simply the result of the fluctuation throughout 
the year of atmospheric pressure over North America and its 
contiguous waters, thus affecting the relative positions of high 
and low areas and consequently causing winds, either favorable 
or unfavorable to precipitation, according to season and locality. 


Vol. M, pp. 59-96, PL. 21 

July io, 1893 




Published by the National Gkoghaphio rfociKTV 

Price 50 cents 



Tlie Natural Bridge of Virginia ; by C. T). Walcott 59 

7'lie geographical Position and Height of Mount Saint Ellas; by Dr 


Tlie Tiiiprovenient of (Jeographieal 'IVaching; by Pi'ofessor W. M. 

Davis 68 

An undiscovered Island off the northern Coast of Alaska: 

I — By Marcus Bakkr 76 

11— By Captain E. 1*. Hkredeen 78 

III--By General A. ^V. Gkkely 80 

The Geologist at Blue Mountain, Maryland ; by C. D. Walcott 84 

The great populous Centers of the World ; by General A. W. ©reely . 89 

Our youngest Volcano ; by J. S. Diller 93 


VOL. v., 1893. PL. 21. 


Vol. V, pp. 59-96, PL. 21 July io, 1893 





The Natural Bridge of Virginia is one of those striking geo- 
graphic features of America which, like Niagara falls and many 
other natural features, will in time disapjiear under the action 
of the agencies of erosion. The same forces that created, will 
ultimatel}^ destroy them. In the case of Niagara, the rate of 
wear of the j)latform over Avhich the water rushes has been 
measured, and the rate of retreat of the falls of the stream is 
known. Natural bridge is slowly but surely wearing away ; 
and it appears to be desirable to record by i^hotographs and 
notes the present condition of the bridge as a means of deter- 
mining in the future the changes that occur from time to time. 
For this purpose a set of photographs, with notes taken in 1891, 
have been placed in the librar}^ of the Uftited States Geological 

The present article includes a few observations on the origin 
and the present condition of the bridge. The accompanying- 
view (forming plate 21) is one looking northward through the 
arch, and it accurately represents the condition of the bridge 
and canyon at the time it was taken. It may be that a more 
detailed description, with a full series of views, will be published 
in the future. 

During the field season of 1891 I studied the rocks ex|)osed 
along the channel of Cedar creek, a small tributary of the 
James river in Rockbridge county, Virginia. The first strata 

9— Nat. aEoa. Mag., vol. V, 1893. (59) 

60 C. D. Walcott—The Natural Bridge. 

met with in passing up from the river are highly inclined lime- 
stones and shales of middle or upper Cambrian age. These 
are succeeded by the massive Knox dolomites, which are nearly 
vertical or inclined slightly westAvard. A few hundred feet 
beloAV Natural bridge the westward dip decreases very rapidly, 
and at the bridge the beds are nearly horizontal, while a short 
distance above they are rising westward and dipping eastward 
toward the bridge at an angle of 5° to 10°. This increases to 
20° to 25° higher up the stream. 

A diagramatic section of the rocks cut through in the can- 
yon of Cedar creek gives the outline shown in figure 1. The 
bridge is at A, Lace falls at B, and James river at C. No attempt 
Is made to show the depth of the canyon or gorge through which 
Cedar creek flows. 

It is not supposed that the present Cedar creek began to 
wear its channel across the edges of the upturned beds from 
B to C when the present topographic features were established ; 
on- the contrary, it began its work long before, under conditions 

Figure 1. — Attitude of Strata at Natural Bridge. 

and in rocks that have since disappeared in the general erosion 
of the surrounding country. The course of the stream was 
determined by circumstaiices connected with the life history of 
James river. When the latter obtained a new lease of active life 
and lowered its channel through the Blue ridge, Cedar creek 
began to cut down itS bed in the peneplain and to prepare the 
way for the possibility of the existence of an arch over its chan- 

The general mode of formation has long been described for 
this and other natural rock bridges. In this case in detail it 
is considered to be as follows : Cedar creek was engaged for a 
considerable period in excavating the gorge from the James river 
to a point not far below the present site of the bridge, where a fall 
appears to have existed, the summit of which was not far if at 
all below the present level of the top of the bridge. About this 
time the water found a subterranean passage in the limestone fur- 
ther up the stream than the present site of the bridge, and through 
this it flowed and discharged beneath the brink of the falls. 

Tlte Origin of the Bridge. 61 

The passage gradually enlarged until all the waters of the creek 
passed through it and the bridge began its existence. What the 
length of this subterranean passage was is a matter of conjecture ; 
it ma}^ have been one hundred or several hundred feet. All of 
its roof has disappeared except the narrow span of the bridge, 
and the abutting walls have been worn back b}^ erosion until 
the gorge or canyon is much wider than at the bridge. The 
bridge is massive and strong, and the supporting walls rise in 
solid, almost unbroken, mural faces to the spring of the arch, 
nearly 200 feet above the bed of C!edar creek, as clearly shown 
in the accompanying plate (which is reproduced mechanically 
from a photograph taken by the author). 

The position of the massive layers of limestone at the center 
of the low synclinal gives them power to resist erosion to a much 
greater extent than the upturned strata above and below the 
bridge. The condition of the latter favors rapid disintegration, 
and the result is shown in the widening of the gorge. The re- 
treating lower level of the stream is now at Lace falls, nearly 
a mile above the bridge. The gorge below the bridge widens 
out more rapidly, owing partly to the erosion caused by a small 
brook that enters from the north, partly to the greater period 
of erosion to which it has been subjected. 

On the northern side, opposite Pulpit rock, about twenty feet 
west of the public road, the summit of the bridge is 2o6 feet 
above the water, and this part of the arch has a thickness of 44 
feet and a span of from 45 to 60 feet. The western edge is about 
ten feet higher, and the eastern edge about ten feet lower than 
the central point. 

The massive layers of limestone forming the bridge are grad- 
ually wearing away on the outer edges from the action of water 
and frost. If water-breaks were arranged so that the water could 
not flow in upon the bridge and about it from the southwestern 
side, and if a shed with water-tight roof were built over the arch, 
disintegration and destruction would be indefinitely postponed. 
As it is, itrwill be many centuries before the natural processes of 
erosion now at work upon and within the arch will completely 
break it clown. 

Since the preceding was written, an article has appeared in the 
Neio York Tribune of May 15, 1893, in which an account is given 
of the discovery of a passage in the limestones near Natural 

62 a T). Walcott—Tlie Natural Bridge. 

bridge that extends from the plain alcove down to the stream 
below. It is described as follows : 

" The passage was probably created by a stream of water finding a 
crevice in the limestone mountain, and by the gnawing of gases, the 
same causes that created the natural bi'idge. But it has all the appear- 
ance of design and purpose. A brief description by one who has recently 
seen it in the light of hundreds of candles shows at the entrance a room 
about twenty feet by ten, with a ceiling sixty feet in heiglit, then a low, 
arched doorway into a room narrower than the former and extending 
forty or fifty feet up a steep flight of steps. The arches here are from 
fifteen to twenty feet in height, and their color a liquid blue. There are 
a few stalactities from the ceiling and many crystal forms on the wall. 
Turning here from a direct course through another ai-ched doorway, 
beautifully decorated, about six feet in height, there is a round room, 
twenty feet in diameter and perhaps fifty feet from pit to dome. Out of 
the side of this si^rings a stone cascade, perfect as any waterfall, trans- 
parent at the lower edge, about ten feet in length and eight in breadth. 
As the light is thrown upon this it has all the appearance of a living 
waterfall. A passage under this, over a bridge, leads to a labyrinth barely 
wide enough for one to jmss. The arch is about fifteen feet in height and 
the walls glisten like polished marble. These windings extend about 
thirty feet and open into a well-shaped room not at any point more 
fifteen feet in diameter and opening, about thirty feet above, to the 

From the description it is evident that the passage was worn 
by percolating waters that found their way from the plain al:)Ove 
to the baselevel cut by the stream below, along some previously 
existing crevices. Tliis process of erosion may he seen at the 
" Underground river " between Natural bridge and Lace falls, 
where a strong current of water flows through a channel in the 
limestone that is about ten feet above the level of Cedar creek 
and only exposed to view for a few feet of its length. All of 
the phenomena observed at Natural bridge and in the canyon 
of Cedar creek are repeated in many limestone regions. Some- 
times they give rise to underground caverns, as at Mammoth 
cave, and more rarely to canyons and natural bridges. The 
illustration at the natural bridge is one of the finest known, 
and worthy of study by any one interested in geologic phe- 
nomena or the beautiful in nature. 



(Presented before the Society April 28, 1S93) 

111 connection with the survey of the boundary line between 
Alaska and the British Northwest Teriitory it became necessary 
to determine the geographical position of mount Saint Elias. 

Previous approximate determinations had shown that the 
peak of this mountain must be very near the 141st meridian, 
which constitutes the greater part of this boundary line, and 
that its distance from the seacoast must be very nearly ten 
marine leagues, which by treaty is to determine the position of 
the line in the absence of a range of mountains parallel to the 
windings of the coast. 

It thus appeared that this peak is likely to prove of very 
great value as a corner-stone in this great boundary line, being 
at the junction of the 141st meridian and that part of the line 
which is so vaguely defined in the treaty. 

The execution of the Avork in the immediate vicinity of the 
mountain was intrusted to assistants J. E. McGrath and J. Henry 
Turner, whose previous explorations and long residence in the 
interior of Alaska in connection with the determination of the 
141st meridian are Avell known to the members of this Society.* 

The complete reduction of the observations made has not yet 
been accomplished, but enough has been done to show tlie geo- 
graphical ])osition of the mountain peak within a very small 
error, and the Society will probably be interested in the })re- 
liminary results of this work, which are not likely to be modi- 
fied sensibly by the completed calculations. 

The fieldwork was executed during the summer of 1892. 

*An account of their work appears in Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. iv, 1892, pj). 


64 T. C. Mcndcnliall — Mcmnt Saint Elias. 

The jjarty was carried to the working ground by the Coast 
Survey Steamer Hassler, in command of Captain Harber, who 
personally took great interest in the work and facilitated its 
successful performance very much, taking a very important 
part, in fact, in the determination of the difference of longitude 
between Sitka and the astronomical station at Yakutat bay. In 
the absence of telegraphic connection with any of these points, 
a series of chronometric journeys was made between Tacoma, 
Avhich is near one of the telegraph longitude stations of the great 
system of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and 
Sitka, which has been fixed as the base of the longitude work 
throughout the territory of Alaska. 

Contemporaneously a series of journeys w^as made between 
Sitka and the astronomical station at Yakutat bay by the Coast 
Survey Steamer Hassler, and by these two loops the longitude of 
the stations was connected with that of the telegraphic system 
of the United States. Time observations at Tacoma and the 
comparison of chronometers at that point were under the direc- 
tion of assistant J. F. Pratt. Six complete chronometer tours 
from Tacoma to Sitka and return were made on board of the 
Steamer Queen, the chronometers being in charge of Mr. T. D. 
Davidson, of San Francisco ; this link having also been taken 
in b}^ the Hassler chronometers on her way to and from the field, 
seven complete journeys are available between Tacoma and 
Sitka. Six complete journeys between Sitka and the astronom- 
ical station at Yakutat bay were made. An astronomical station 
was established at Sitka under the direction of sub-assistant 
Fremont Morse, wdio had charge of time-observations and the 
comparison of both sets of chronometers on reaching that point. 
Seven chronometers made the journej^s between Tacoma and 
Sitka, and the same number between Sitka and Yakutat bay. 
The astronomical station at the latter place was in charge of 
assistant J. Henry Turner. The connection of this station trig- 
onometrically with the summit of mount Saint Elias was under 
the direction of assistant J. E. McGrath. The astronomical sta- 
tion was on the southern side of Yakutat bay, and the measured 
base line from which the triangulation was developed w^as on 
the northern side. The length of this line was a little less than 
7,000 metres, or about four and a half miles. The scheme of 
triangulation is shown on the accompanjdng sketch (figure 2). 
The latitude of the astronomical station was determined by 

Results of cJironometric Tours. 


vertical circle observations of the sun's limb by the method of 
circum-meridian altitudes and also by the use of a meridian 
telescope and the Talcott differential method. The vertical 
circle used was ten inches in diameter and read to five seconds 
by means of four verniers. The latitude here given depends on, 
these observations, as those made by the meridian telescope 
have not yet been reduced. 

Mi St Ehtts 

Scale ] 000 ooo 

"" ' Ill'™ 

Figure 2. — Tricing ulation in the vicinity of Mount Saint Elias. 

Of the six chronometric tours between Sitka and Yakutat 
bay three only have been reduced, and the results are as follows : 

First trip, June 8 to 13; difference of longitude, 17 m. 48.17 sec. 
Second trip, June 24 to 29 ; " " " 17 " 48.31 "' 

Third trip, July 9 to 14 ; " " '• 17" 48.16 " 

Of which the indiscriminate mean is 17 m. 48.21 sec. 

66 T. C. Mendenhall — Mount Saint Ellas. 

A preliminary reduction of a portion of the chronometric 
comparisons between Tacoma and Sitl^a gives for the longitude 
of Sitka 9 hours 1 minute 20.5 seconds, from Avhich we have the 
adopted longitude of Yakutat astronomical station 9 hours 
19 minutes 8.7 seconds. The latitude of this station from 
circum-meridian observations on the sun's limb, consisting of 
sixteen pointings on the sun near culmination on August 1, 
1892, was 59° 33' 51.8", and on August 11, 1892, from twenty 
pointings, the result was 59° 33' 48.2", the mean of which is 
59° 33' 50", which is accepted as the latitude of this station, 
subject, of course, to further small correction from the reduc- 
tion of the results obtained from the meridian telescope work. 
Extending these coordinates to the summit of mount Saint 
Elias by means of the scheme of triangulation as shown in the 
sketch, the latitude of the summit is found to be 60° 17' 35", 
and the longitude 140° 55' 21.5". 

The principal base for the determination of the position of 
the summit of the mountain was a line connecting mount 
Hoorts and South base. The length of this line was a little less 
than 38,000 metres, or about 232- miles, and the angle which is 
subtended at mount Saint Elias was about 20°. 

Incidentally in connection Avith this work, the height of the 
summit of the mountain Avas determined. A series of zenith 
distance measurements Avas executed from tive stations, namely : 
North base. South base, mount Hoorts, Ocean cape, and the 
astronomical station. At the latter point observations Avere 
made on fourteen different days. The result for each day is the 
mean of three sets of six repetitions each, and the series is as 
foUoAvs, the observations being made near noon : 


June 11, 1892 87° 20^ 50.3'^ 

" IS, " 87° 20^ 64.2^^ 

" 27, " 87° 20^ 51.8^^ 

" 28, " 87° 20^ 51.3^^ 

July 9, " 87° 20^ 57.1^^ , 

" 10, " 87° 20' 49.8'^ 

" 1], " 87° 20' 44. 8^' 

" i;-5, " 87° 20' 40.6'' 

" 23, " 87° 20' 59.8" 

" 29, " 87° 20' 36.1" 

Coif)iparison of Saint Elias and Orizaba. 67 

Aug. 1, 1892 S.° 20^ 53.(3^^ 

" 11, " 87° 20^ 52.0^' 

" 17, " 87° 20' 50.8^^ 

" 18, " 87° 20'' 41. 2'^ 

Mean of 14 days 87° 20' 50. 2'' 

It will be seen that in the total fourteen daj'S of observation 
the range of variability in vertical angles amounted to but 28", 
indicating remarkable steadiness in atmospheric conditions. 

The observations for height at other stations, although less 
numerous, are extremely satisfactory. The great uniformit}^ 
of the final results for the height of the mountain as computed 
from observations at the five different stations is exhibited in 
the folloAving table. The remarkably close agreement of these 
figures is satisfactory evidence that this determination of the 
height of the mountain is such as to leave little to be desired. 


Mount Saint Elias from — 

North base 18,014 feet. 

South base ' 18,012 " 

Mount Hoorts 18,017 '' 

Ocean cape 18,012 " 

Astronomical station , 18,000 " 

Height, adopted mean 18;010 " 

Latitude .- 60° 17' 35" 

Longitude 140° 55' 21.5" 

It is interesting to note that in the light of the information of 
the last year or two, it can no longer be claimed that mount 
Saint Elias is the highest peak upon the continent. This dis- 
tinction seems to belong to mount Orizaba, in Mexico, which 
has recently been measured by means of railroad levels and 
trigonometrically by Dr J. T. Scoville, of Terre Haute, Indiana. 
The height of this mountain, as obtained by Dr Scoville, is 
18,314 feet. The character of the observations is such that it 
does not seem likely that this result will be found to be very 
many feet in error. It therefore appears to be entirely safe to 
say that Orizaba is the highest peak in North America, and that 
its altitude exceeds by two or three hundred feet that of mount 
Saint Elias. A detailed report on the latter mountain, to- 
gether with the results of revised and complete calculations, 
will be published in due time. 

10— Nat. Geog. M.4.G , vol. V, 1893. 



{Presented before (he Society February 3, 1893) 

The improvements needed in teaching geography in our schools 
involve a fuller investigation of the facts of the subject, a better 
knowledge of these facts by teachers, and a more skilful use of 
them in the processes of teaching. As a society, we are less 
concerned with the last two necessities than with the first, but I 
may briefly state my belief that skilful teacliing goes along 
closely with fullness of knowledge. The third need will therefore 
be largely cared for when the second is supplied ; but fullness of 
knowledge cannot be expected of a teacher while her under- 
standing of the geographical features of the world and of our own 
country and of the home state in particular is gained only from 
the impoverished statements of the ordinary text-books, and 
while the original sources in which she may seek additional 
information are generally so few, so inaccessible, and so far beloAV 
the standards of modern geographical research. It might truly 
be said that even if better sources of information were within 
reach little use could be made of them ; for Ave must recognize 
the great difficulties under Avhich the teachers in our public 
schools labor: the variety of subjects that they have to teach, 
the overlarge number of scholars in their classes, the restrictions 
that tend to smother their individuality, the fatigue following 
many tiresome duties, the smallness of salary by which freedom 
of action toAvard large opportunities is hampered. Would that 
some means of overcoming these difficulties might be devised ! 
But at present it does not seem so practical to turn our action 
as a society in this direction as to look to remedying the funda- 
mental need — the need of a fuller investigation of the facts. 

It may not be generally recognized by our members that there 
is still great need of exploration close at home. It is not only 
in the further corners of the world that discoveries are to be 


The Neiv England Peneplain. 69 

made. Nearly every state in our country must be much more 
carefully studied than it yet has been before its physical features 
will be made known to us. The geographical descriptions now 
accessible in j)rint Avould be very gently characterized if only 
called "old fashioned." Where newer material has been pub- 
lished, it is generally fragmentary, brief, and imperfectly illus- 
trated. The first elements of geographical study, the physical 
features of the earth — especially of its surface — still call for 
devoted investigation. 

It is not simply a description of the forms of the land that is 
wanted. It is a recognition of the forms as dependent on struc- 
ture and sculpture, and a comparison of like and unlike forms 
in a systematic manner. This requires special study, precisely 
as petrography does, and the desired end Avill not be gained until 
the work is placed in the hands of men especially trained for it. 
Having found this study an absorbing interest for several years 
past, I shall try to make my meaning clearer by introducing 
specific illustrations from New England. 

Southern New England consists essentially of a gently inclined 
plateau, rising to 1,400 or 1,600 feet above sea level in the rolling 
uplands of western Massachusetts * and southwestern New 
Hampshire, and thence descending gradually southward and 
east^vard to sea level at the coast. This inclined plateau is 
nothing more than a slightly tilted lowland of denudation, the 
product of long-continued destructive action of the atmosphere 
by which a once larger mass was worn down to a surface of 
moderate relief close to the baselevel of its time. The south- 
eastern extension of the old lowland was depressed beneath the 
sea at the same time that its interior ]3ortion was elevated to form 
our New England plateau; the present coast line therefore lies 
roughly midway on the surface of old New England. 

The continuity of the plateau-like uplands is interrupted in 
two ways ; isolated mountains rise above it, and branching 
valleys sink below it. Mount Monadnock is a typical example of 
the former, with its bold summit more than a thousand feet 
above the surrounding plateau. When seen from a distance to 
the southwest, it rises in symmetrical triangular outline above 
the level skyline of its base. It is not a mountain of local con- 
struction, raised by upheaval above the mass of the plateau ; it 

* Nearly all the districts thus referred to in the address were illustrated 
by lantern slides. 

70 W. M. Davis — Geographic Teaching. 

is simply an iinconsumed remnant of the greflter mass of un- 
known dimensions and form, from which the old lowland was 
carved. When the lowland was uplifted, Monadnock and its 
fellows were raised with it. In my teaching, Monadnock has 
come to be recognized as an example of a distinct group of forms, 
and its name is used as having a generic value. A long para- 
graph of explanation is packed away when describing some other 
mountain as a " monadnock " of greater or less height. 

The valleys by which the plateau is dissected have all been 
excavated since the uplift of the old lowland. Where the plateau 
is high the valleys are sunk deep below it. The Deerfield valley 
in northwestern Massachusetts is a full thousand feet deep. 
Where the uplift was small near the coast, the valleys are shallow. 
Where the rocks are hard, as is generally the case, the valleys 
are narrow, like that of the Deerfield above named. Where the 
rocks are soft, the valleys are wider ; illustrating the general 
principle that mature and old forms are more rapidly developed 
on soft than on hard rocks. The Berkshire valley, excavated in 
limestone between crystalline rocks and schists, is six or more 
miles wide. The Connecticut valley, excavated in weak sand- 
stones, is even wider, forming a valley loAvland ten or fifteen 
miles from side to side and broadly dividing the plateau into 
eastern and western portions. Occasional beds of hard rocks, 
chiefly ancient lava flows, occur in the sandstone belt, and are 
much less eroded ; they form ridges rising far above the lowland, 
and indeed still retain nearly the height of the adjacent plateaus. 
Mount Holyoke, opposite Northampton, is a type of these 
ridges. It holds essentially the same relation to the lowland 
that Monadnock holds to the plateau. Both are residual 
mountains of harder rocks; but the two manifestly belong to 
different generations of geographical development. 

It appears from this brief outline that our New England geog- 
raphy is of composite quality. The uplands with their residual 
mountains re})resent the closing stages of one generation or 
" cycle " of development ; the valleys represent the more or less 
advanced beginning of another cycle. The distribution of our 
villages and our occupations, the lines of travel, and the move- 
ments of population may all be shoAvn to depend largely on the 
topographic forms thus classified. 

By following some plan of treatment such as this, it becomes 
possible to make just comparisons between different regions— 

Ngiv England and the Rhine Country. 71 

for example, a cll)se correspondence may be found between our 
dissected New England plateau and the Hunsriick-Taunus 
plateau, through which the Rhine has cut its famous gorge 
below Bingen.* Here we find an even upland, with occasional 
eminences rising above it, aiid with deep valleys sunk below it. 
The eminences on the plateau are there, as 'with us, residuals of 
a once much greater mass, rising moderately above a base- 
levelled surface ; the valleys are the work of a later cycle of 
development, inaugurated when the old baselevelled surface 
was uplifted to its present altitude. In all this, southern New 
England and the plateau of the middle Rhine are thoroughly 
homologous, but certain significant diff'erences between the two 
regions should be noted: The plateau of the middle Rhine is 
so extremel}^ flat-topped that it must be conceived as having 
advanced further in its first cycle of denudation than New 
England ; indeed, it is the best illustration of a smoothly 
baselevelled" area, that I have found, and serves me as a type of 
such a form. On the other hand, its valleys are much narrower 
• than ours ; hence its second cycle must be regarded as less ad- 
vanced than ours. Both regions possess composite topography, 
including similar elements; but the stages in the two cycles of 
development represented in each case do not precisely agree. 

I cannot now delay to illustrate other elements of our New 
England topography, even in so brief a manner as the plateau, 
with its residual mountains and its initiated valleys, has been 
treated ; but I may record my conviction, based on experience 
with scholars of different ages and with teachers in schools of 
various grades, that all our geographical features, when studied 
out in a manner similar to that outlined above, become lumi- 
nous in comparison with the obscurity of the conventional ac- 
counts in our school books. The drowned valleys that form our 
bays, the drowned rivers that form our estuaries, at once gain a 
new meaning when thus explained ; and it is not a little remark- 
able to see how little recognition there is in general teaching of 
the control exerted by depression of the land on the form of its 
coast line. liook at Narragansett bay, the fiord of the Thames 
at Norwich, of the Connecticut above Saybrook, of the Housa- 
tonic towards Birmingham, of the Hudson even up to Albany — 
all " drownded," like Pegotty's brothers at old Yarmouth ; yet 

* Excellent lantern slides of this picturesque region may be had from 
dealers ; much better, in fact, than can be found for our scenery at home, 
although the latter is much the more important for our schools. 

72 W. M. Davis — Geographic Teaching. 

what school boy ever hears our coastal rivers thus simply and 
rationally characterized? Look at the sprawling outline of 
Greece, and ask our classical scholars if they describe it as a 
rugo-ed mountainous region standing in the Mediterranean up 
to its knees ; and yet how effective is the homely comparison ! 

It is the same with the results of glacial action. The text 
books of geography are practically silent on this important 
topic ; yet many features of glacial origin must be known in 
fact to every boy who has rambled through the woods on his 
half holidays. Our gravel ridges and mounds and our sand 
plains may be reckoned as characteristic of our home geography 
as Lowell's " Bigelow Papers " are of Yankee dialect. It is a 
pity that they are not duly mentioned in our schools and com- 
pared with that suggestive fund of fresh material brought by 
Russell from Alaska and so honorably associated with the name 
of our society. The comparison that may be drawn here is as 
fair as that instituted already between New England and the 
plateau of the middle Rhine, but the two comparisons are of 
different kinds. The comparison of the two plateaus associates 
distant regions that are now alike. The comparison of New 
England and Alaska employs the present of the latter region to 
illustrate the past of the former ; and this style of comparison 
is extremely suggestive in geographic study. 

For several years past, some of my more advanced students 
have chosen as subjects for their theses the physical geography 
of various states with which they were more or less familiar 
irom residence or field observation, or with which they wished 
to become familiar. They have thus had occasion to search the 
literature of each state for accounts of its physical features, and 
the search has generally been without large reward . The practice 
has been useful, but the product has not been great. It is this 
want of material that convinces me that nothing less than the 
direct exploration of our home country, with the single object 
of investigating its topographical development, will secure the 
facts that are now needed in geographical teaching ; and thus 
we return to the general question that was laid aside while 
sputhern New Eugiand was before us. 

It is of course impossible in the limits of this address to give a 
full statement of the scheme of systematic geography, the ap- 
preciation of which seems to me essential in the desired explora- 
tion and investigation; but there are two leading principles 

The Cycle of geograjjJiic Development. 73 

which I may outline, since without them no progress can be 
made: The first is that every land form passes through a com- 
paratively systematic series of changes from its youth, when its 
form is defined chiefly by constructional processes, past its 
maturity, when the processes of sub-aerial sculpture have carved 
a great variety of mouldings and channellings, toward its old 
age, in which the accomplishment of the full measure of denuda- 
tion reduces the mass essentially to baselevel, however high it 
may have been originally. I have become accustomed to call 
this unmeasured time a geographical cycle. It may be long for 
a structure of hard rocks, or shorter for a structure of weak rocks ; 
but in both the sequence of immature, mature, and senile forms 
is essential. The particular expression of these forms varies with 
the structure of the mass concerned ; but for every structure there 
is an appropriate sequence of young, mature, and old features. 

It is therefore important to determine in accordance witli this 
fundamental principle the stage in which any given area stands 
in its life's journey. The standard descriptions of many of our 
states gives no such account of their topographic forms, and 
the student or teacher who seeks it has little reward. The 
account is needed not only because the reader can gather from 
it a better understanding of the relations of a region to the rest 
of the world, but also because such an account enables him to 
appreciate much more closely and more easily the actual forms 
of the region itself. 

A second important principle is in a measure a corollary of 
the first : At any time during a geographical cycle a land area 
ma}^ be disturbed b}^ depression or elevation. A new relation 
is then established Avith the baselevel of drainage, and a new 
cycle of denudation is introduced. The forms developed by 
denudation in the first incomplete cycle then become, as it were, 
the constructional forms of the new cycle, and from those as a 
beginning the forces of denudation go on aiiew. The combina- 
tion of the topographic features developed in the two cycles 
produces what I have called " composite topography," and this is 
of extremely common occurrence — for an example, we may 
refer again to the dissected plateau of southern New England. 
The upland with its residual mountains is the product of an 
earlier cycle ; the valleys are the work of a later cycle ; the 
glacial features may be referred merely to a short-lived climatic 
episode late in the second cycle, so brief was the occupation of 

74 TF. 31. Davis — Geographic Teaching. 

the country with ice compared to the time required for the ex- 
cavation of the valleys in the uplifted plateau. 

Geographical descriptions and the appreciation of them are 
greatly advanced by a recognition of these principles; they 
are essentially simple conceptions, but the variety of their ap- 
plication is infinite. The work of more than two cycles may 
not infrequently be recognized. Thus, in Pennsjdvania the crest 
lines of the Appalachian ridges are remnants of an ui)lifted and 
almost consumed plateau of Cretaceous denudation, of Avhich 
only the hardest parts now remain ; the open vallev lowlands 
l^etween the ridges are the product of Tertiary excavation in 
the uplifted plateau ; the narrow trendies, in wliich the rivers 
traverse the lowlands, are of post-Tertiary origin. Many points 
of view may be selected on the Susquehanna, where these tliree 
elements of the landscape stand out with much distinctness, 
and the pleasure. of their contemplation is greatly increased by 
the recognition of their distinct conditions of origin in succes- 
sive geographical cycles or during successive uplifts of the land. 

What is the most effective way in which we can. promote the 
advance of geographic investigation and secure accounts and 
illustrations of our home country iu accordance with a system- 
atic and scientific method? It has seemed to me that appeal 
might be profitably made for the cooperation of the directors of 
the various state geological surveys. 

I therefore propose to ask the directors of our various state 
geological surveys to devote annually a part of their funds to 
the study of the physical features of their domains in tlie light 
of modern geographical science, provided that the terms of their 
appropriation bills will allow them to cover this side of the 
geological field; and if noj:, I sliall hope that special appropria- 
tions of moderate amount may be made for this particular pur- 
pose. Experts should be employed for this work, as they 
are now in paleontology and petrograpl^y. The results thus 
gained would appear in successive annual reports, brief at first, 
increasing in scope as opportunity offers, and setting forth the 
larger and smaller elements of the topography in sucii simple 
style and with such comparisons and illustrations as should 
be of immediate value to teachers in grammar schools and high 
schools. The state boards of education might secure special 
reprints of these geographical chapters at very moderate cost for 
distribution as state products to all public libraries and to all 

Til e Study of Home Geof/rapJnj. 75 

]ju1>lic schools of the higher grades; much in the same wa.y as 
the energetic commissioners of the topographic survey of Rhode 
Island have secured the distribution of their state map free to 
all their puhlic schools and libraries. The legislature would 
soon see, from the employment of these geographical chapters 
year after year by thousands of teachers, the appreciation that 
tliis hitherto undeveloped economic field might receive from 
those occupied with the advance of public education, and as- 
sured support would then be given to the work, even on enlarged 
scale. By some such practical steps we may secure a material 
advance in the quality of geographical instruction. 

During the past year, I have had many illustrations of the 
need of material of geographical of the kind here referred to. 
Teachers in our pul-ilic schools are well aware that they have 
not now the fuller account of the facts that they Avould enjo}^; 
and yet they know not where to turn to find what they need. 
Many teachers, principals, and superintendents with whom I 
have spoken adndt at once that the books to which they now 
have access are quite insufficient to satisfy their wants, and they 
listen gladly to any feasible plan that will provide a more ex- 
tended and more scientific description and explanation of tlie 
facts of geography near at home, with which the}^ have to deal 
from their earliest to their latest teaching. Geologists or geog- 
i-aphers who are already acquainted with our local geograj)hy 
from personal experience can perform a grateful service to the 
schools by Y^reparing elementary accounts of the regions with 
which they are familiar, and such books as these should be greatly 
multijilied ; but, so far as I have been able to learn, it is only 
the smaller part of our country that is now known well enough 
to those who can be j)revailed on to write elementary l)Ooks, 
and hence the importance of actual geographical exploration in 
order to supply our teachers with what they need. If some 
such plan as the one proposed above were pmt in operation, it 
might come to pass in a decade or two that the graduates of our 
common schools would not be so blinded as they now are to the 
facts of their home geography. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

11— Nat. Gkou. BIag., voi,. V, 1893. 


(Presented before the Society April 2S, 1893) 


On a map of the polar regions published in Gotha eleven 
years ago, land is indicated as existing aljout 150 miles north- 
northeastward from point Barrow, the northernmost point of 
Alaska. The position of this land is latitude 732° N. and longi- 
tude 1532° W. of Greenwich. I have not succeeded in finding 
this land indicated on any other map, neither have I found any 
published statement respecting it. 

In the summer of 1849, Kellett and Moore, in the Arctic search 
vessels Herald and Plover, cruised in the Arctic ocean, between 
point Barrow and Herald island, searching for Sir John Frank- 
lin. It was during this cruise that Herald island was discovered 
and landed upon, and the high peaks of what we now know to 
be Wrangell island were seen to the westward. In the map ac- 
companying their report ^'^ an '' appearance of land " is shown in 
latitude 72^° N., longitude 161a-° W. of Greenwich, being about 
130 miles northwest of point BarroAV. On a small map ac- 
companying Osborn's " Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal," 
land is indicated in the same locality, as also on an undated 
map published by Longman in London in 1850 or 1851. 

Russian hydrographic chart number 1495, published in 1854, 
also shows land here, with the note " Indications of land accord- 
ing to report of the English sloop Plover in 1849." 

These four maps are the only ones, out of a considerable num- 
ber examined b}^ me, which show this appearance of land, and 
they are all obviously derived from the same authority, viz, 
Kellett and Moore. 

In Kellett 's narrative the only reference to this a])pearance of 
land is the following statement at p. 14 : 

* Additional papers relative 'to the Arctic expedition, etc, presented 
to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty. Folio. 
London, 1852. PI. 15, ad Jin. 


The Evidence of the Maps. 77 

"This was our most northern position, lat. 72° oV N., long. 168° W. 
The ice, as far as it could be seen from the mast-head, trended away AV. 
S. W. (compass), Commander Moore and the ice-master reporting a water 
sky to the north of the pack, and a strong ice-blink to the S. W." 

It appears obvious from this statement that the evidence of 
land existing here is very slight. The appearance of land is 
omitted from all the late maps. It does not appear on the 
British Admiralty charts, nor on the charts of our own Hy- 
drographic Office or Coast Survey. Indeed, on h3^drographic 
chart 68, a sounding of 54 fathoms, muddy bottom, is shown in 
this place. It is clear, I think, that land does not exist here. 

Now, on the circumpolar map first mentioned the land shown 
north-northeast of point Barrow is about 150 miles northeast of 
the place where Kellett's " appearance of land " is shown. I had 
supposed before examination that these indications referred- to 
the same thing, but, having made an examination, I am of 
opinion that the indication of land shown on the circumpolar 
map is not derived from Kellett and INIoore, but from some un- 
published source of information. 

That there is an undiscovered or rather unvisited land some- 
where north and east of point Barrow is a matter of common 
talk among the whalers who annually visit this region. Captain 
John Keenan, of Troy, New York, master of the whaling bark 
Stamhoul, of Ncav Bedford, reports that he and all his crew saw 
it while on a whaling voyage some time during the seventies. 
The Eskimos have traditions of this land and of a visit to it by 
their fathers " long ago." 

The known facts respecting this hypothetical (or should we 
not say real?) land are exceedingly meager and all unpublished. 
It has therefore seemed to me desirable to put these few facts 
on record, and that no place was more suitable than the journal 
of a society devoted to the increase and diffusion of geographic 

The facts have all come to me through my old friend Captain 
E. P. Herendeen, who, at ni}^ request, has written the account to 
which these remarks are intended merely as an introduction. 
Captain Herendeen, a native of Woods IIoll, Massachusetts, has 
been for many years engaged in whaling, having entered the Arctic 
in pursuit of whales as early as 1850, and has since then made 
more than 9, score of voyages to this region. I have had the 
pleasure of making three voyages to the northern Pacific and 

78 E. P. Hcrcndeen — An Undiscovered Island. 

Arctic oceans in his company. In 1882-'83 he was a member of 
the United States Signal Service party stationed at point Barrow. 
He is well acquainted with all the natives on the Arctic coast 
from the East cape of Asia eastward to the mouth of the Mac- 
kenzie river. He speaks their language and is universally known 
to the natives of that region under the name of " Heretic." 
From the natives and through Captain Keenan of the whaling 
fleet he has obtained the folloAving information, Avhich he has 
kindly written out for the National Geographic Society. 

I beg to suggest the desirability of calling this very little- 
known land Keenan island. 


Among the many traditions of the point Barrow Eskimo the 
following is not without geographic interest : 

Since no account is kept by them of the lapse of time, it is 
impossible to fix a date to any story related by them previous 
to the life of their father or grandfather. Their simple answer 
to any question regarding the date of these occurrences is alwaj^s 
the same, '' eidrarnee " (long ago). Our story is this : An Eskimo 
was out on a whale hunt with his umiak and crew (in April or 
May). Venturing much farther than their companions and 
being encompassed by ice, they were carried away to the north 
and east by the moving pack until at last they came in sight of 
a strange land. After many hardships and the death of most 
of the crew, some at last reached the mainland, their own be- 
loved '" Nunah," greatly exhausted, and related their adventures 
to Avondering listeners. They told of times when starvation 
grimly threatened and when the timely catching of a seal or 
killing of a bear saved them from a dreadful fate, and the skins 
furnished material to repair their worn garments. 

These tales, by whomsoever related, seem to bear testimony 
to one point, viz, of land somewhere to the north and east of 
point Barrow, which has been seen by some of these people 
under such circumstances of hardship, distress and loss of life 
as to have fixed the event in their minds and been related by 
flither to son for perhaps many generations. It is often told 
that natives wintering between Harrison and Camden bays have 
seen land to the north in the bright, clear days of spring. 

In the winter of 1886-'87, Uzharlu, an enterprising Eskimo of 
Ootkeavie, was very anxious for me to get some captain to take 

The Evidence of the Eskimo. 79 

him the following summer, with his family, canoe and outfit, to 
the northeast as far as the ship went, and then he would try to 
find this mysterious land of which he had heard so much ; but 
no one cared to bother with this venturesome Eskimo explorer. 
So confident was this man of the truth of these reports that he 
was eager to sail away into the unknown, like another Columlms, 
in search of an Eskimo paradise. 

In the winter of 1887 several of the most intelligent of the 
cape Smyth Eskimo came to me about dusk of the evening of 
February 15 and reported that three strange men had come 
up from the southwest along the shore ice, and appeared 
very weary, but on coming opposite the village (which could not 
have been seen by the travelers before) they quickened their 
pace, turned abruptly off shore, and disapi^eared in the ice-pack. 
It was just as the sun was setting, and the strangers could be seen 
distinctly, but not until they had gotten into the rough ice did 
it occur to these people standing on the bank that these three 
wanderers were strangers indeed ; and the more they talked the 
matter over the more wonderful it seemed that any tired hunter 
should pass their village without stopping for rest and refresh- 
ment. It was evident that they turned away in fear when they 
saw the village and the people standing on the bank. Who 
could these men be Avho turned away from their hospitable vil- 
lage, where food and a warm welcome awaited them ? The\'- 
reasoned that every man on the coast from point Hope to point 
Barrow was knoAvn to all the others, and knew he would be wel- 
come to food and shelter. The more they talked, the stranger 
it seemed, until the conclusion Avas reached that these were " inu 
tumuktua," (lost people,) and of course their home must be the 
mysterious land of their fathers' tradition. As a proof of this 
they said these three men wore white clotbing, which was most 
likely made of white bear skins, while the Eskimo of the coast 
wear brown clothing made of reindeer skins. 

Another point in favor of their assertion was that these men 
had no guns, which fact was noted l)efore they turned off' shore 
into the pack. They had spears and a coil of seal line, and used 
the spears as walking-sticks as they plodded wearily along. 

The circumstance was most strange. Every man in the vil- 
lage of Ootkeavie gave an account of himself that evening, and I 
took the trouble to send to point Barrow the next morning, but 
none of them had been in that vicinity or were able to throw an}^ 
light on the subject. From my knowledge of the Eskimo, I am 

80 A. W. Greek/ — An Undiscovered Island. 

sure no one acquainted would have passed a village without 
stopping. It was near night, yet these men in evident alarm 
turned off shore into the ice pack and were never seen again. 

I made arrangements to go out in the morning and trace these 
men and solve the mystery ; but the morning dawned with a 
fierce blizzard, causing the abandonment of the search, and left 
us wondering whence they came and whither they went. 

The only report of land having been seen by civilized man 
in this vicinity was made by Captain John Keenan, of Troy, New 
York, in the seventies. He was at that time in command of the 
whaling bark Staviboul^ of New Bedford. Captain Keenan said 
that after taking several whales the weather became thick, and 
he stood to the north under easy sail, and was busily engaged 
in trying out and stowing down the oil taken. When the fog 
cleared off', land was distinctly seen to the north by him and all 
the men of his crew ; but, as he was not on a voyage of discovery 
and there were no whales in sight, he was obliged to give the 
order to keep away to the south in search of them. The success 
of his voyage depended on keeping among whales. 

This fact was often discussed among the whalemen on the re- 
turn of the fleet to San Francisco in the fall. The position of 
Captain Keenan's ship at the time land was seen has passed from 
my mind, except that it was between Harrison and Camden bays. 

A letter addressed to Captain Keenan by the writer in Febru- 
ary, asking for more definite information as to date and position 
of his ship and other points of interest, failed to reach him and 
was returned. 


Mr Baker's notes on "An undiscovered island off" the northern 
coast of Alaska " are extremely interesting. I am, however, 
unable to agree with Mr Baker in the belief that land exists in 
the polar sea between point Barrow and Melville island. 

On m}^ attention being called to the paper and German map 
of 1882, I did not at first recall that I had before seen charts 
marked with the signs of land referred to. On later considera- 
tion I remembered maps containing this knowledge, and have 
since examined all maps of arctic America from 1844 to 1858 in 
my private collection and one or two others accessible elsewhere. 

It is interesting to note to what extent these signs of land 
were credited by map-makers of that period. For many years 

Negative Evidence of the Maps. 81 

chart number 260 of the hydrographic office of the royal navy 
was the standard map of the polar regions. So far as I have 
learned, there were but two such charts between 1835 and 1886, 
one being that of 1835, the other bearing date of December 24, 
1855. The chart of 1835 had no such land upon it, nor did the 
first edition (see Scoresby's " Search for Franklin," London, 1852), 
Avhich bore the note, " corrected to 1849," and such land dis- 
appeared from the corrected chart of 1855. It appears that cor- 
rections were constantly made on this chart of 1849, some, even 
of the most important character, without additional foot-notes. 
This is strikingly illustrated by a copy of the chart published in 
the Parliamentary Blue Book referred to by Mr Baker (folio, 
London, 1852, plate 15). Although the chart has the engraved 
note, " corrected to 1849," yet there appear thereon the impor- 
tant discoveries of Admiral Inglefield made in Smith sound 
during the summer of 1852, which were not known in Great 
• Britain until his return in November of that year. It is probable 
that these discoveries were adde I to the chart in the final revise, 
just as the report was going to press. Sir John Barrow, the great 
authority on Arctic discoveries, in his polar chart of 1846 
(" Voyages to 'the Arctic Regions," London, 1847) enters no 
note regarding the new land. The land referred to, so far as I 
know, first appeared on the polar map in Richardson's "Arctic 
Searching Expedition : A Boat Voj^age through Ruperts Land," 
Longman, London, 1851, this probably being the Longman 
undated chart of Mr Baker. Later, in chronologic order, it ap- 
peared in Osborn's " Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal," 
London, 1852 ; "Additional Papers Relative to the Arctic Expe- 
dition," etc, London, 1852 (evidently printed after November 1, 
1852), both quoted by Baker. 

In the Revue Britanique of December, 1853, (Paris,) was pub- 
lished a map of the polar regions, with the legend " land seen " 
in 72° 30' N. 161° W. To the southAvest of this land is a dotted 
line marking the limits of the polar ice in 1849. This evidently 
is the line of ice charted by the Plover in 1849. Then follows 
the Russian hydrographic chart number 1495, 1854, quoted by 
Bake?, with the note, " Indications of land according to the 
report of the English sloop Plover in 1849." With Mr Baker I 
have searched in vain for corroboration of this entry. 

The Herald was in company witli the Plover, and the i)arlia- 
mentary report finds confirmation in Seeman's " Voyage of the 
Herald,'''' London, 1853, vol. ii, page 106: 

82 A. W. Greely — An Undiscovered Island. 

" It was a fine, clear night. * *r * A_t midnight the latitude was 
obtained by the inferior passage of the sun, 72° 10^ 30^^ IS!. * * * (29 
July, 1849.) * ''^ * Our soundings had gradually increased to thirty- 
five fathoms of soft blue mud. * * * This position was our most 
northern one. latitude 72° 51^ N., longitude 163° W. * * * Commander 
Moore (of the Plover) and the ice-master reporting a water sky to the 
north of the pack, and a strong ice-blink to the southwest." 

The evident incorrectness of the land charted is shown, by the 
experience of Colhnson in 1850, when the general line of the 
heavy 23ack-ice Avas somewhat farther northward, extending 
from" southeast to northwest from 73° N. in 160° W. to 72° 40' 
'N. in 165° W. Colhnson, on August 26, 1850, was in 73° 23' N., 
164° W., and on August 28 was in 72° 35' N., 161° W., thus hav- 
ing passed directly over the position of the land charted as above. 
On the 17th he was in 72° 45' N., 159° W. ; August 22 in 72° 25' 
N., 158° W. ; August 21 in 72° 10' N., 153° W. Collinson says : 

"August 17 (1850). * * * The fog cleared away at 1 p. m., and we 
found ourselves in a lane of clear water ten miles wide, with a clear sea 
to the N. E. * * * Our observations placed us 100 miles N. W. by N. 
from point Barrow, and we found 45 ttithoms of water, muddy bottom." 

" 21.— Had traced pack from 72° 45^ N. in 159° W. for 275 miles to S. E., 
to 71° 42^ N., 154° 30^ W." 

"Aug. 28. — Here we reached our farthest point north in 73° 23^ N. and 
longitude 164° W. In the afternoon, the pack edge trending more to the 
southward, we got much encumbered by endeavoring to get through it 
to the eashvard, straining our eyes in that direction in the hope of seeing 
either land or water." 

On August 18, 1850, McClure was in 70° 48' N., 138° W., with 
no sign of land. 

The weight of opinion in the following few years was decidedly 
agaiiist there being such land, as shown by its omission from 
the charts of arctic America in the following-named works : 

Scoresby's Search for Franklin, London, 1851. 

Hooper's The Tents of the Tuski, London, 1852. 

Mangle's Arctic Searching Expedition, 2d edition, London, 1852, where 
Peterman's Search Map is reproduced (there being no map of the first 
edition, London, 1851). 

Sutherland's Voyage to Baffin's Bay and Barrow Strait (Peterman's 
map), London, 1852. 

Further Correspondence and Proceedings Connected with the Arctic 
Expedition, presented to Parliament, London, 1852 (Peterman's map). 

Lieutenant S. Gurney Cresswell's map, dated May 15, 1854. 

Brande's Sir John Franklin, map by Langes, Berlin, 1854. 

Armstrong's Northwest Passage, London, 1857. 

iTnprobabilify of the Positive Evidence. 83 

Osborn's McClure Discoverj^ of the Northwest Passage, London, 1856* 
McDougall's Eventful Voyage of H. M. S. Resolute, London, 1857. 
Brown's Northwest Passage, 2d edition, London, 1869, which contains 
a map by Arrowsmith, 1858. 

It thus appears that the " Plover " land is a myth, Mr Baker 
agreeing with me on this point. 

The Keenan land lies, however, somewhat east of the myth- 
ical land already disposed of, being indefinitely located between 
Harrison and Camden bay, north of the 72d parallel. The 
uncertainty of position of whalers is well known, as no care is 
given to longitude or other astronomical observations. 

Since definite data are lacking, the subject can be approached 
from another standpoint, that of the depths of the adjacent seas. 
It will be recalled by those familiar with the Arctic ocea.n to tlie 
north of Bering strait region that it is a very shalloAV sea. In 
one direction only does it deepen, and, unfortunately for Keenan 
island, it is in that particular quarter. 

In my opinion, the great improl)ability of land in the region 
mentioned appears from an examination of the soundings of the 
sea from the northwest to east of point Barrow, which are as 
follo^t*s, the position being approximate : 172° W. longitude, 73° 
5' N. latitude, 78 fathoms ; 159° W., 72° 6' N., 133 x (x indicates 
no bottom) ; 155° W.. 72° N., 145 x ; 140° W., 70° 5' N., 190 x ; 
139° W., 70° 3' N., 145 x; 126° W., 70° 5' N., 110, and 124° W., 
74° b' N. (on the very coast of Banks land), 45 fathoms. 

The above observations show that the parts of the Arctic 
ocean passed over and most nearly adjacent gradually and in- 
terruptedly increase in depth from the west, from the south and 
southeast toward the reported land, attaining in its neighborhood 
the greatest known depth of water to the northward of Bering 
strait. That this condition of depth is not strictly local but ex- 
tends uninterruptedly northward is proved conclusively by the 
very heavy ice met with by Collinson and McClure between 
point Barrow and Banks land, which ran upward of 200 feet in 
thickness. As this thick ice is unquestionably of land origin, 
from an ice-capped country of considerable extent, there must 
be deep water for its transition. It is possible, but not probable, 
that the southern edge of this land lies so close to arctic America. 

*This omission is striking, inasmuch as Osbom inserted it in liis " Stray 
Leaves from an Arctic Journal," 1852. 

12— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 



Most of the summer visitors at Blue mountain, Maryland, 
give little thought to the origin of the mountain, nor how it 
came to be a ridge rising so boldly on the west from the Cum- 
berland valley and on the east overlooking the mountain valley 
to the foot of the Catoctin ridge, which rises above the plain 
stretching thence southeastward to Washington. 

During the summer of 1892 the writer discovered that the 
rocks forming the crest of the Blue ridge belong among the 
oldest formations deposited in the Appalachian trough, since they 
carry types of life occurring in the most ancient fossiliferous 
rocks on the North American continent that are distinguished 
by a recognizable fauna ; the geologic structure also shows that 
these rocks rest upon the ancient sea-bed of the Appalachian 
trough, and that they are of the same relative geologic age as 
the Cambrian rocks that occupy an equivalent stratigraphic 
position in Vermont, New Jersey, New York, Virginia and Ten- 

The recent work of Dr G. H. Williams demonstrates that, with 
one partial exception, the older crystalline rocks underlying the 
Cambrian strata have hitherto been misinterpreted and misun- 
derstood by the geologists who have studied them. Instead of 
being sedimentary formations originally deposited in the sea-bed, 
they are volca,nic rocks and almost identical with the lavas 
found in Nevada, Wyoming and in many portions of the Rock}' 
mountain region. This discovery proves that the laboratory of 
nature produced a certain type of volcanic rock almost at the 
beginning of the evolution of the North American continent, and 
again produced the same tjq^e many millions of year.'^ afterward 
on the western side of the continent. 

The broad mountain crossing the Pennsjdvania-Maryland line 
includes eastern and western border ridges and an intervening 



Tlic Rocks of Blue Mountain. 85 

valley. On the western or Blue Ridge side it is built u}) of sedi- 
mentary rocks originally deposited in the sea on the bottom and, 
it may be, the side of the Appalachian trough. In the interven- 
ing valley it consists to a considerable extent of eruptive rocks, 
which poured out as flows the ancient land surface prior to the 
existence of the Appalachian trough and before the deposition 
of the stratified rocks which so largely form the North American 
continent within the limits of the United States. The elevated 
eastern side forms the Catoctin ridge, which is capped by a com- 
pressed fold of the old shales and quartzites. Both ridges con- 
tinue south of the Maryland line toAvard Harpers Ferry and far 
into Virginia as compressed synclinal folds of the Cambrian 
rocks, resting on the rocks of the ancient Appalachian trough, 
the older rocks and the more recent rocks having been involved 
in the same series of folding. In addition to this folding, numer- 
ous thrusts of one mass of rocks upon another are to be found 
all along the Blue ridge, especially north of the Pennsylvania- 
Maryland line, in the northern extension of Blue mountain, 
or the South mountain of Pennsylvania. In some instances the 
ancient eruptive rocks have been thrust westward, so as to rest 
upon and above the more recent sandstones and shales which 
were originally deposited upon them in the bottom and along 
the shore of the Appalachian trough. Often the pressure has 
cleaved the massive lavas and formed slates and shales that 
appear like those deposited in quiet waters. The result of this 
has been to complicate the geologic structure and topography of 
South mountain and the Blue ridge, and to make the region 
one of great interest to both professional and amateur geolo- 
gists. Erosion has aided their study by cutting away thousands 
of feet of strata from above the present mountain area and adja- 
cent valleys, and thus laying bare a portion of the ancient shore- 
line of the Atlantic coast area of Cambrian time and of the 
foundation upon which much of the present continent is built. 
The history of the Blue ridge and its rocks as now interpreted 
is essentially as follows : '^ It began long after the first known 
primitive rocks of the earth were raised into plateaus and ridges 
to form the platforms of the present continents. At the close of 
the periods in which the earlier crystalline rocks of the conti- 
nent were formed, and also the great masses of bedded rocks 
beneath those containing the Cambrian or oldest known fauna, 

*See Am. Journ. ScL, vol. xliv, 1892, pp. — . 

86 C. D. WalcoU — The Geologist at Blue Mountain. 

that portion of the North American continent tlien above the 
sea is thought to have consisted of (1) a large part of what is 
now the British possessions ; (2) a long, broad mountain area 
(Atlantic) extended southwestward from Newfoundland to the 
present site of the Gulf of Mexico and it may be the West Indian 
archipelago, (3) and one or more areas (Pacific) on the Avestern 
side of the continental plateau, on the line of the present Rocky 
mountain and Sierra Nevada ranges* The eastern or Atlantic 
area and the bed of the interior sea toward the west, in what may 
be called the Appalachian trough, were then formed of variouss 
kind of rock, including granite, schists of various kinds, crystalline 
and unaltered sedimentary rocks and, in some localities, of great 
masses of volcanic material that had been poured out over the 
surface in very much the same manner as were the relatively 
recent lavas found in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National 
Park and in various parts of the Rocky mountain region. 

The waves of the interior sea wore away from the western 
shore of the Atlantic land area various rock materials and depos- 
ited them along with that brought in by the brooks and rivers as 
layers of sand and gravel on the sea-bed all the way from the 
present site of the Saint Lawrence river to Alabama. In these 
deposits fragments of the volcanic rocks, schists, etc, were min- 
gled, and spread out in sheets. At times the supply of ma- 
terial was very fine and formed thin layers of mud that after- 
ward consolidated into shales and slates. After a deposition of 
several thousand feet of this character of materials the water 
deepened, probably by the subsidence of the bed of the sea, and 
calcareous muds were deposited during a great interval of time 
until in places they reached the thickness of several thousand 
feet. These now form the limestones found in the Cumberland 
and Shenandoah valleys and their extensions northward to 
Canada and southward to Alabama. All along this ancient 
coast line, from Labrador to Alabama, various forms of marine 
life existed, and their hard parts, such as shells of crustaceans 
(allied to the living king crab) and other organisms, were buried 
in the mud and sand. 

The deposition of sediments in the sea, immediately west of 
tlie Atlantic area, continued until from 12,000 to 40,000 feet in 
thickness were piled over the ancient sea-bottom, la3^er upon 

* See article on the North American Continent during Cambrian Time, 
in Twelfth Ann. Rep. U, S, Geol. Survey, 1892, pp. — . 

The Lifting of Blue Mountain. 87 

layer, sometimes of one kind of sediment and sometimes of 
another. These are now found as la3^ers of sandstone, limestone, 
coal, shale, slate and various combinations of sandstone, shale, 
etc. ^^'"ith the close of the first great age (Paleozoic) in sedi- 
nientation in the Appalachian trough, the earth's forces again 
became active, and sufficient pressure was exerted from the 
Atlantic coast side of the continent to raise this great mass of 
sediments above the sea and to fold it in ridges and hollows, 
very much as layers of paper or cloth would fold from pressure 
applied to the edges of the layers if they were partially confined 
above and below. This Avas varied, however, in the great rock- 
masses by the frequent shearing on the line of the folds and the 
thrusting of masses of rock one over the other, as cards shift 
over each other under pressure. One of these folds, with minor 
folds within it, has by subsequent agencies been carved into 
the Blue ridge. 

The epoch of folding Avas several millions of years ago ; so 
long since that sufficient time has elapsed for thousands of feet 
of sediments to be deposited in the interior lakes and seas of the 
North American continent and for animal life to develop from 
the then highest types of fish and reptile to the higher mammals, 
at the head of which man stands today. 

During the thousands of centuries since the first great Appa- 
lachian uplift, the rain, frost, and snow have been at work 
sculpturing the old land surface and slowly working out the 
mountains, valleys, and plains. It is not improbable that the 
process of mountain uplift and that of wearing away the mount- 
ains to a relatively level area (baselevel of erosion) may have 
taken place several times, the intervals of rest between the wear- 
ing away of the highland and mountains and the succeeding 
epoch of uplift being of long duration — so long, in fact, that 
centuries might pass without effecting a marked change in the re- 
lations of the land and sea. 

It was not far back, geologically speaking, that the Blue ridge 
was a part of, and not distinct from, a great plain that was 
broken by low hills and valleys and drained by streams flowing 
into a river that occupied relatively the same position that the 
Potomac does now. The continent was then at a lower level in 
relation to the sea, and it Avas not until it became elevated that 
the Potomac began to cut doAvn into its bed in the old plain and 
carry out to the ocean the material Avhich filled the areas now 

88 C. D. Walcoit — The Geologist at Blue 3Iomitain. 

represented by the Cumberland and Shenandoah valleys. As 
this process continued and the river lowered its channel the 
Blue ridge began to take shape as a distinct feature in the land- 
scape. Slowly but surely the softer beds were broken up, dis- 
solved and carried away, and the harder beds of rock began to 
project above the ancient plateau. It was only the question of 
which beds of rock could the longer resist the forces of rain and 
frost to determine the location of mountains and valleys. 

We have thus hastily sketched the evolution of a portion of 
the continent and the evolution of one of its topographic fea- 
tures as shown by the Blue ridge. This evolution has gone on 
everywhere. Every ridge, however small ; every valley, whether 
shallow or deep, narroAV or broad ; every stream-channel all 
over the surface of the continent, has its history back in the 
past, and it is by the studies of the geologists that we learn 
something of that history. It is now nearly forty years since 
William B. and H. D. Rogers discovered many elements of the 
structure of the Appalachian mountains ; but it was not until 
within the last few years that the means of correlating and thus 
interpreting more accurately the structure of the various mount- 
ains formed by the lower and oldest series of the sedimentary 
rocks have been obtained. 

During the deposition of the 40,000 feet of sediments in the 
Appalachian trough many millions of invertebrate animals lived 
and died along the shore and on the sea-bed. Those that lived 
iu the earlier epochs became extinct and new forms succeeded 
them, and these in turn were succeeded many times during the 
vast interval between the first deposit and the closing one before 
the epoch of the last Appalachian uplift and folding. The re- 
mains of the various groups of life now afford the data by which 
the geologist correlates the various disturbed and often separated 
masses and determines Avhat were their original relations to each 

There are hundreds of local details yet to be studied and in- 
terpreted, and the work will be done by those who love to study 
the record of creation in the fragmentary book of nature, where 
all is written that we know of the past before barbaric man 
began his imperfect record by myth and legend. 




The astonishing groAvth of urban population in the United 
States during the past decade induced the writer to cursoril}^ 
examine the tendencies of other countries in this direction, which 
developed facts indicating very clearly that it is a general and 
not local migration. 

In conducting the research, lists were made of the five hun- 
dred or more cities in Avhich the population exceeds fifty 
thousand, in which doubtless live one-fifth of the fourteen hun- 
dred and eighty millions which make up the population of the 
world. From this list have been selected the hundred cities 
having the greatest number of inhabitants, and, with one excep- 
tion (Canton,) no place has been included unless its 23opulation 
has been determined b}^ census. In general, the figures here 
given agree with those in that most excellent publication, " The 
Statesman's Year Book." The census year is not uniform, and 
as it may be said that the growth of cities outside of the United 
States lies, in general, between one and two per cent annually, 
the order of rank here given is not absolute. 

Of the five hundred cities with a population above fifty thou- 
sand, the countries having the greatest number are : United 
States, 85 India, 76 ; Great Britain, 72 ; German}^-, 47 ; Russia, 
34 ; France, 33 ; Japan, 17 ; Spain, 16 ; Austria-Hungary, 15 ; 
Italy, 14. Four-fifths of all are situated in these ten countries 
and one-sixth in the United States. No less than three of the 
ten cities having a million of inhabitants are in the United 
States, and also four of the sixteen great population centers of 
the world. This last designation is here given to cities of more 
than three-fourths of a million, this dividing line in rank being 
at once apparent, as there are practically no cities with popu- 
lation between half a million and three-fourths of a million. 



A. W. Greely—The World's Cities. 
List of the most populous Cities by last Census. 

















































































■ 38 













, 1890 

" Greater London," Ji^ngland (outer ring). . . 

London, England (registration) 

London, England (central area) 

Paris, France 

" Greater New York," United States* 

New York, United States 

Canton, China (estimated) 

Berlin, Germany 

Vienna, Austria 

Vienna, Austria 

Tokio, Japan 

Chicago, United States 

Philadelphia, United States 

Saint Petersburg, Russia (in winter) ...... 

Saint Petersburg, Russia (in sununer) 

Brooklyn, United States 

Constauthiople, Turkey.. 

Calcutta,India(excludingHowrah, 129,800 J. 

Bombay, India. 

Glasgow, Scotland 

Glasgow, Scotland 

Moscow, Russia 

Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic 

Liverpool, England 

Budapest, Hungary 

Manchester, England. 

Melbourne, Victoria 

Osaka, Japan 

Brussels, Belgium . . . 

Madrid, Spain 

Warsaw, Russia 

Naples, Italy 

Saint Louis, United States 

Madras, India 

Boston, United States 

Baltimore, United States 

Birmingham, England ... 

Amsterdam, Netlierlands . 

Lyons, France 

Marseilles, France 

Sydney, New South AVales 

Copenhagen, Denmark 

Copenhagen, Denmark 

Cairo, Egypt 

Leeds, England 

Leipzig, Germany 

Leipzig, Germany 

Dublin, Ireland (Metropolitan police dist.) . 

Dublin, Ireland 

Munich, Germany 

Breslau, Germany 

Hamburg, Germany 

Mexico, Mexico 











1 1,364,548 











t 565,714 






















t 312,387 




t 293,525 


t 254,709 





* Mr. Henry Gannett's figures ; this volume, p. 31. 
t Excluding suburbs. 

The World's Great Cities. 
List of the most populous Cities— Continued. 













-Nat. Gnor; 

Sheffield, England 

Odessa, Russia 

Haidarabad, India 

Sau Francisco, United States 

Kioto, Japan 

Cincinnati, United States . . . 

Milan, Italy 

Cologne, Gei'many 

Buffalo, United States 

Dresden, Germany 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Rome, Italy 

Luckno w, India 

Barcelona, Spain 

Cleveland, United States .... 

Edinburgh, 'Scotland 

Belfast, Ireland 

Bordeaux, France 

Stockholm, Sweden 

Lisbon, Portugal .^. 

New Orleans, United States. . 
Pittsburgh, United States . . . 
Washington, United States . . 

Turin, Italy 

Antwerp, Belgium 

Benares, India 

Bucharest, Roumania 

Bristol, England 

Hong Kong, China 

Montreal, Canada 

Bradford, England 

Nottingham, England 

Rotterdam, Netherlands 

Detroit, United States 

Palermo, Italy 

West Ham, England 

Milwaukee, United States. . . 

Magdeburg, Germany 

Lille, France 

Alexandria, Egypt 

Santiago, Chile 

Kingston-on-Hull, England. . 

Havana, Cuba 

Salford, England 

Riga, Rus-ia 

Delhi, India 

Kharkoff, Russia 

Mandalay, India 

Newcastle, England , . 

Singapore, Singapore 

Prague, Hungary 

Kieff, Russia 

Cawnpore, India 

Newark, United States 

Toronto, Canada 

Rangoon, India 

. Mag., vor,. V, 18i13. 


92 • A. W. Greely—The WorkVs Cities. 

In view of the preponderating influence exercised by great 
cities upon the progress and welfare of the world, it is extremely 
interesting to note that more than one-half of the cities herein 
named are either populated by English-speaking races or are 
under their control. Of these fifty-two cities, two are in Aus- 
tralia, two in Canada, one in China, two in Egypt, thirteen in 
England, ten in India, two in Ireland, two in Scotland, one in 
Singapore and seventeen in the United States. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to investigate the causes 
which particularly favor the enormous aggregations in modern 
cities, for such causes must be complex, local, and numerous. 
It is evident, however, at a glance, that the elements of easy 
transportation and a moderately rigorous climate are the most 
frequent concomitants, if they are not the predominating causes. 
As some one not very wisely remarked, " it is fortunate that 
great rivers run by so many great cities," and in this list but 
few cities are found which have not facilities for water transpor- 
tation. By far the greater number of large cities are situated 
climatically in an average temperature between 45° and 55°. 
In the parts of Europe and America where these annual tem- 
peratures prevail there is one city of 100,000 inhabitants to 
about every 2,000,000 of population. In Russia there is only one 
such city to over 9,000,000, and in India one to over 10,000,000 

With but few exceptions the populous cities of the world are 
the product of the age, as is illustrated by the fact that at 
the beginning of this century the United States had no city of 
one hundred thousand inhabitants, while now it has twenty- 
eight; England had one only, now it has twenty-four. 



{Presented before the Society April 28, 189S) 

Onr yoiingest volcano is in Alaska. There was an eruption 
at Bogoslov in October, 1883, and at other points since then, and 
there can be no doubt whatever concerning the existence of 
active volcanoes in Alaska. In our own country, exclusive 
of Alaska, there may be some doubt whether living volcanoes 

It is well known to all, no doubt, that the greatest volcanic 
region in the world lies in the northwestern part of our own 
country, occupying a large tract in Idaho, Washington, Oregon 
and California. There were many active volcanoes there during 
the middle and latter portions of the Tertiary period, and there 
is still a considerable number of them which can hardly be 
called extinct. 

Frequent rej^orts of volcanic eruption may be seen in western 
neAVspapers, but the large majority of them are of doubtful 
authenticity. There is considerable evidence, however, that in 
1842- '43 mount Baker and mount Saint Helens, in Washington, 
discharged large quantities of " ashes " with which the adjacent 
country was covered as with a light fall of snow. Professor 
Davidson, of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and 
Mr J. S. Hittel report eruptions of mount Baker in 1854, 1858 
and 1870. These reports are based on observations made at 
long range, and so far as I know have not been corroborated by 
actual ascent of the mountain. 

Dr Harkness, of San Francisco, reported to the California 
Academy of Sciences a volcanic eruption in Plumas county of 
that state, at a point about ten miles northeast of Lassen peak. 
He found the trees near the lava were scorched as if by the heat 
of the lava at the time of the eruption. He visited the locality, 


94 J. S. Dlller — Our Youngest Volcano. 

and from data he gathered there, with historical evidence from 
natives and earl}^ settlers in the Sacramento valley, he concluded 
that the eruption occurred in January, 1850. 

In 1885 Captain (now Major) Button and I visited the region 
and, approaching it from the same side as Dr Harkness did, saw 
no reason whatever to doubt his conclusions. A few years pre- 
vious Major Button had studied the active volcanoes of the 
Sandwich islands, and he was deeply impressed with the new- 
ness in the appearance of the lava field and cinder cone north- 
east of Lassen peak. 

Later in the same season I revisited the volcano alone for the 
purpose of studying the phenomena more thoroughly, and found 
good reason for believing that it is very much older than was at 
first sui^posecl. 

Pine trees grow from terminal buds in joints at the rate of 
one joint each year; so it was thought that if we could find a 
living tree that Avas well scorched we could climb up and count 
the number of joints above the scorching and could thus dis- 
cover the number of years since the eruption. 

We started out around the lava field to find a suitable tree, 
but to our great surprise on the further side of the lava field the 
scorched sides of the trees were away from the lava, so that it 
was evident that the scorching was not produced by the lava. 
A little further examination convinced us that a forest fire had 
swept through that region from the north and scorched all the 
trees more or less on that side. 

We returned to the cinder cone and, finding large pine trees 
growing close to the cone, it was doubted whether the trees could 
have survived so close to the volcano. The question arose as to 
the thickness of the layer of volcanic sand near the cone where 
the trees were growing ; and Avith soup-plates for shovels (we had 
no better in camp) we dug down to find the bottom, but the loose 
sand caved in and we could not penetrate it. A quarter of a 
mile away from the base of the cinder cone another attempt 
Avas made, and at that distance the layer of volcanic sand Avas 
found to be seven feet thick. Of course, it Avas evident at once 
that no living trees in the neighborhood could have surAaved 
such a shower of hot '' ashes." The large living trees must have 
groAvn up entirely since the eruption. 

Near the cinder cone there are some dead trees which have been 
partially burned. Examining these it Avas found that they had 

Halation of the old and new Forest Trees. 


not grown on the top of the layer of volcanic sand like the 
living trees, but that they extended down through this layer to 
the original soil beneath. The relation of the old and new forest 
trees, as well as that of the stumps of the older forest, is shown 
in the accompanying sketch (figure 3).* 

It is evident that the tree from the original soil beneath is 
older than the eruption, and that since the tree was either dead 

1 Volcanic Ashes Lapilli Lc 

2 Original soil. 

3 Present forest tree 

4Tree of former forest killed by shower of Volcanic Ashes Sand ic- 
5 Pit formed by the decay of old forest tree.^,. 

Figure 3. — Ixeladons of older and youiKjiT Forests to volcanic Sand. 

or killed at that time and has not comj^letely decayed, that the 
eruption cannot have occurred many centuries ago. Of the time 
that has since elapsed we have some measure in the age of the 
living trees. In the same region the timber is cut for lumber, and 
by counting the number of rings of growth it was found that the 

■ Reproduced from Bulletin 79, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1891, p. 20. 

96 J. S. Diller — Our Youngest Volcano. 

largest trees near the cinder cone are not less than 200 years 
old, so that the eruption at the cinder cone must have occurred 
a little more than 200 years ago. 

On the whole, it would seem probable, therefore, that our 
youngest volcano south of Alaska is not the cinder cone ten 
miles northeast of Lassen peak as once supposed,, but is most 
likely to prove to be mount Baker, in Washington. 



Vol. V, pp. 97-256 

January 31, 1894 






JULY 27-28, 1893 


Published by tke National Geographic Society 

Price 75 cents. 


Vol. V, pp. 97-256 January 31, 1894 







JULY 27-28, 1893 



Introduction 98 

Minutes of the Conference 101 

Memoirs and Addresses 112 

The Relations of Air and Water to Temperature and Life ; by 

Gardiner G. Hubbard ; 112 

Tlie Relations of Geography to History ; by Francis W. Parker. 125 

Norway and the Vikings ; by Captain Magnus Andersen 132 

Geographic Instruction in tlie public Schools ; by W. B. Powell. 137 
The Relations of Geology to Physiography in our educational 

System ; by T. C. Chamberlin 1 54 

The Relations of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador C-urrent ; by 

AVilliam Libbey, Junior 1 61 

The arid Regions of the United States ; by F. H. Newell 167 

Recent Explorations in Alaska; by Eliza Ruiiamah Scidmore. . 173 

The Caravels of Columbus ; by Victor Maria Concas 180 

In the Wake of Columbus ; by Frederick A. Ober 187 

Recent Disclosures concerning pre-Columbian Voyages to Amer- 
ica in the Archives of the Vatican ; by William Eleroy Curtis. 197 
Early Voyages along the Northwestern Coast of America ; by 
George Davidson 235 

U— N.vr. Grog. Mag., voi,. V, 1893. (97) 


Inasmuch as the World's Columbian Exposition, held at 
Chicago, Illinois, from May 1 to October 30, 1893, was in com- 
memoration of the greatest geographic discover}^ of recorded 
history, the National Geographic Society, felt that in some 
manner American geographers should participate therein. Since 
space and means were lacking for the installation and main- 
tenance in the Columbian Exposition of a geographic exhibit 
fittingly illustrating the evolution of geographic discovery and 
exploration in the American hemisphere, it became necessary 
to devise other means of celebrating the discovery of our hemis- 
phere by Columbus. 

For these reasons the President and Board of Managers of 
this Society took into consideration the advisability of participat- 
ing in the series of remarkable congresses which were to be held 
at Chicago during the period of the Exposition. It was thought 
that a separate congress of geography was inadvisable and that 
a meeting to be designated a " Conference of American and 
European geographers," should form a section of the World's 
Congress of Education. This decision was formally approved 
by the Society, and action in accordance therewith was promptly 

The Board of Managers decided that this conference should 
be held under the auspices of the National Geographic Society, 
and with this view appointed the following committee with full 
powers in the premises : The Honorable Gardiner G. Hubbard, 
General A. W. Greely, Dr T. C. Mendenhall, Professor W. B. 
Powell, and Professor T. C. Chamberlin. ■ 

The United States Commissioner of Education, the Honorable 
William T. Harris, President of the World's Congress of Educa- 
tion, cordially approved of the plans of the committee and 
offered all possible facilities for their satisfactory completion. 
The preliminary notices' were incorporated in the program of 
the World's Congress of Education. The Hall of Washington, 
Art Institute Building, was assigned as a place of meeting, and 
two days, Thursday and Friday, July 27 and 28, 1893, were 
set apart for a '" Conference of American and European geog- 
raphers " bv authority of the Congress of Education. 

(98) . 

Foreign Societies Particvpating. 99 

Formal invitations, in the name of the National Geographic 
Society, were extended to the principal geographic societies 
of the world to ^participate in the Conference by delegates, or by 
the j)resentation of memoirs, and many favorable replies were 
received. The Conference met on the designated day ; its pro- 
ceedings were marked by a degree of interest and an attendance 
quite beyond the expectations of the committee, and it is be- 
lieved that it exercised a material and beneficial influence 
toward the study of geograjDhy in the United States. 

With a view of affording variety to the meetings, and also of 
utilizing, in the interests of the Conference, the numerous objects 
of geographic interest in the Columbian Exposition, it was de- 
cided that the sessions of July 27 should be held in the Art 
Institute Building, Chicago, and those of July 28 within the 
Exposition grounds. 

As this Conference was the first international meeting of 
geographers in America, the Board of Managers of the National 
Geographic Society deem it proper to publish, under the 
auspices of the Society, the record of this Conference, together 
with such of the memoirs as it has been found practicable to 
incorporate therewith. 

Among the countries and societies which showed their lively 
interest in the Conference by designating delegates are the fol- 
lowing : 


Instituto Historico Geografico y Ethnografico (Rio de Ja- 
neiro) ; delegate, Baron de Marajo. 


Societe de Geographic (Paris) ; delegate, M E. Levasseur, Mem- 
bre de I'lnstitut. 

Societe de Geographic de Lille ; delegate, M Paul le Blau. 


Royal Geographical Society ; delegate, Colonel Sir Casimir S. 

Manchester Geographical Society; delegate, Mr James D. 
Wilde, Member of the Council. 

100 International Geographic Conference. 


Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica ; delegate, Senor 
Dr D. Inau N. Navarro, Consul-General of Mexico at New York. 


La Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa ; delegate, Mme Regina 


Royal Scottish Geographical Society ; delegates, Dr George 
Smith, C. I. E., LL.D., Member of the Council, and the Honor- 
able John Abercrombie. 


American Geographical Society (New York) ; delegate, Pro- 
fessor William Libbey, Junior. 

The Geographical Society of the Pacific (San Francisco); 
delegate. Professor George Davidson, of the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, President of the Societ3^ . 

The National Geographic Society was represented' by the 
Honorable Gardiner G. Hubbard, President, and General A. W. 
Greely, U. S. Army, Vice-President, as delegates ; Miss E. R. Scid- 
more and Mr F. H. Newell, Secretaries; Professor William B- 
Powell, of the Bqard of Managers ; Major J. W. Powell, Director 
United States Geological Survey ; Colonel F. W. Parker, and 


The sessions were opened in the hall of Washington, Art 
Institute building, Chicago; at 10 o'clock a m, July 27, 1893. 
There were present about four hundred individuals, including 
delegates and invited guests. 

The Honorable Gardiner G. Hubbard, President of the Na- 
tional GEOGRAPHIC Society, was called to the chair as presiding 
officer of the Conference, and Mr F. H. Newell was appointed 
Recording Secretary. 

Several communications from societies and individuals were 
laid before the Conference. 

The Royal Geographical Society, through its Secretary, Mr J. 
Scott Keltic, expressed its sincere regret that it could not be 
represented by a member of its Council in addition to the regu- 
lar delegate. Sir C. S. Gzowski. 

The Royal Scottish Geographical Society, through its Secre- 
tary Colonel Fred. Bailey, offered its congratulations to the Con- 
ference and expressed its cordial good wishes for the success of 
so important an assemblage. 

Dato Sri Amar cl'Rajah, of the Johore Commission, regretted 
that his unexpected departure for Europe prevented him from 
reading a paper on Johore. On the part of the Johore Commis- 
sion he expressed the hope to be able shortly to j)i'esent the first- 
complete map of Johore ever published. 

Baron de Marajo, delegate of the Instituto Historico Geog- 
rafico y Ethnografico de Rio de Janeiro, expressed the very lively 
interest of himself and the society he represented in the Confer- 
ence, and i^resented nine volumes of geographic researches, etc, 
published by his society. While he could not then speak on 
the geography of Brazil, he promised a memoir thereon for future 

Senor Graciano A. de Azambuja, Commissioner from Brazil, 
congratulated the Conference on its meeting, and promised for 
publication a paper on the development of southern Brazil. 

M E. Levasseur, Membre de I'Institut, delegate from the 
Societe de Geographic of Paris, wrote from New York that im- 


102 International Geogrdphk Conference. 

paired health prevented his attendance, greatly to his regret. 
His thirty years of geographic study and research inspired him 
with an intense desire to participate actively in the discussions 
of the Conference. He had hoped to set forth the importance of 
economic geograj^hy, and enclosed a bibliography of his works. 

General John Eaton, formerly United States Commissioner of 
Education, took the Chair and presented to the Conference the 
Honorable Gardiner G.Hubbard, who made the opening address, 
treating of the relations of the currents of air and water to the 
temperature of countries and to animal and vegetal life. 

Honorable John Abercrombie, delegate from the Royal Scottish 
Geographical Society, spoke briefly as follows : 

Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen : Though here to rep- 
resent the Royal Scottish Geographical Society I had not in- 
tended to address the Conference, as I am not a professional 
geographer, and indeed have only been actively associated with 
the work of the Society for less than a year ; I come rather to 
pick up information than to impart it, rather in the capacity of 
an absorbent sponge than as an overcharged rain-cloud. Such 
being the case, I confine myself to giving a brief summary of 
the origin and work of my own Society. 

The Royal Scottish Geographical Society was formed some 
nine or ten years ago with the laudable object of educating the 
Scottish public in the subject of geography and of keeping them 
thoroughly informed of the progress made in the subject in all 
parts of the world through the medium of a monthly magazine, 
which I am glad to say has also a certain circulation in the 
United States. Some of the earlier numbers contain valua- 
ble papers on the various methods employed by map-makers 
to overcome the inherent difficulty of transferring geographic 
points on an irregular globular surface like the earth to a flat 
surface like that of a map. Other technical matters have also 
been treated of at various times, so that the magazine has a real 
educational value apart from the papers descriptive of travel, 
adventure and the strange habits and customs of savage peoples. 
Our late secretary, Mr A. Silva White, contributed more than one 
monograph on the geography and history of that part of eastern 
Africa in which Great Britain and Germany are more nearly 
interested, and they will always possess a permaneut value, 

Spelling of Gaelic .Nmnes. 103 

In order to popularize the subject as much as possible, papers 
are read monthly before the members of the Society and their 
friends for nine months every year. Most of the explorers who 
have read papers before the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don are willing to speak before us in Edinburgh as well as at 
our branch societies at Glasgow and Aberdeen. The first speaker 
to address our new-born Society was Mr Stanley after his return 
from one of his earlier travels of exploration in the great African 
continent ; and the session this year was expected to close by an 
address from Lieutenant Peary, on his projected expedition in 
the direction of the North Pole. Unfortunately a letter arrived 
from him shortly before I left home expressing regret that owing 
to unforeseen circumstances he was obliged to abandon his 
scheme of coming to lecture in Great Britain before the de- 
parture of his expedition. 

I ought not to omit to mention that though we are a private 
society and receive no aid from the government, our library and 
the privilege of consulting maps, books and consular reports is 
freely opened to the public. Considerable use is made of these 
facilities by persons engaged in commerce, and almost daily our 
librarian is consulted by those who are not members of the 
Society, but are desirous of obtaining commercial information 
in regard to foreign countries. In this way the Society distinctly 
benefits the public. Another way in which the public may re- 
ceive instruction free of cost is by courses of lectures on physical 
geography or geology in relation to geography, on the distribu- 
tion of plants and animals over the globe, and other kindred 
subjects. These lectures are given either by a member of the 
Society or by some other competent person, and are generally 
well attended, especially by the young and by the fair sex. 

The most important work on which a committee of my Society 
is now engaged is a thorough and complete revision of the spell- 
ing of the Gaelic and worse names in northern Scotland, in con- 
junction with the director of the Ordnance Survey of the United 
Kingdom. On existing maps the Gaelic names are not always 
given correctly ; the spelling is irregular, and when given cor- 
rectly cannot be pronounced properly b}^ a person ignorant of 
Gaelic and its remarkable spelling. For instance, in the island 
of Skye the Culin hills are spelt on the ordnance map Cuchulin, 
as if they were called after the old Irish hero of that name, 
though they have never received that designation from the people 

104 International Geogra'phic Conferen.ce. 

of Skye. The committee is proceeding in this manner : Every 
local name on the map is submitted to three or four of the oldest 
men in the parish, and their pronunciation is taken down by a 
person speaking Gaelic. In this way the local pronunciation is 
surely fixed, and if the words have a significant meaning they 
can easily be written in standard literary Gaelic if that shoiild 
differ from the local pronunciation. As I am not on the com- 
mittee myself, I am not certain whether the words are to be 
given phonetically on the map or according to literary usage in 
Gaelic ; but I have no doubt that they ought to be rendered 
phonetically, so that even those unversed in Gaelic would be 
able to read them correctly. Old Irish was written as it was 
pronounced, but unfortunately the faddists of the sixteenth 
century — for there were faddists even in those days^invented 
an absurd rule, opposed to every philological principle, and still 
in force, which the^y called in Irish or Gaelic, " caol ri caol, 
leathan ri leatha.n ;" that is to say, if there is a slender vowel, an e 
or an i, in the first syllable, then the first vowel of the next 
syllable must be slender. Similarl}'-, if the voAvel of the first 
syllable is broad, as a, o, u, the first vowel of the second syllable 
must also be broad. These extraneous, inorganic vowels do not 
affect the pronunciation, and in a reformed spelling ought cer- 
tainly to be omitted. Another fruitful source of inaccuracy in 
writing Gaelic words arises from spelling in accordance with a 
fanciful and in reality a baseless etymology. The dictionary 
of the Highland Society and O'Brien's Irish Dictionary are full 
of examples of this sort, though there is this excuse for them, 
that both were compiled before philology became an exact 
science and before old Irish of the ninth and tenth centuries 
was known to the learned world. The task which the committee 
has to accomplish is therefore by no means an easy one. 

Another subject which the Royal Scottish Geographical 
Society has had under .consideration, though no action has yet 
been taken, is one that relates to lake basins. On all our 
ordnance maps the configuration of the earth's surface always 
ceases with the surface of the water; no soundings are given, no 
under-Avater contours, and all knowledge of the bottom of the 
lakes is left to the imagination. Such a state of thingsis clearly 
inexcusable, but unfortunately the funds of the society are in- 
sufficient for the task. The Admiralty, which considers fresh- 
water lakes beyond its province and draws the line at salt water, 

Definition' of Geography. 105 

has been applied to but without success, and so for the present 
the subject is in abeyance. 

General A. W. Greely, chairman of the committee on awards 
of prizes of The National Geographic Society, made an an- 
nouncement of the progress of the committee and of the steps 
taken to call public attention to the generous offer of the Society. 

The chairman then introduced Mme Regina Maney, delegate 
from La Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa, who made a few 
remarks concerning the attitude of that society and of the Por- 
tuguese people toward the Conference. 

General John Eaton, ex-Commissioner of Education of the 
United States, presented the following address on the relations 
which may or should exist between The National Geographic 
Society and geographic instruction. 

Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen : Voluntary acti\'ity 
in America for the benefit of mankind has an almost boundless 

The National Geographic Society, as one of our voluntary 
agencies, has proposed to itself as one of its object the promo- 
tion of the knowledge of geography among the people of the 
United States. 

Geography in its narrower sense, as a description of the surface 
of the earth which we inhabit, lays under contribution various 
sciences, and includes topics of deep interest. Its literature is 
not a collection of meaningless words. GeograjDhic discovery 
with its thrilling adventures is by no means at an end. But 
geography in -its larger sense not only includes as is said, " The 
forms and measures of the earth, its astronomical relations, the 
relative positions and distances of places, and the representa- 
tions of the whole or portions of its surface on globes or maps," 
which is known as mathematical geography; it describes as 
well " The principal features of the earth's surface as consisting 
of land and water, its atmosphere, its climate, and its various 
animal and vegetable and mineral productions," which is called 
physical geography ; it also considers '' The earth as the abode 
of mankind," and treats of all that relates to the moral or social 
condition of the different races or nations which dwell upon it. 
So comprehensive is geography in its bald definition. 

As mankind in all conditions must have a definite habitat on 
the face of the earth, so knoAvledge in all its forms has a local 

15— Nat. Geog. Mac,-, vol. V, 1893. 

106 International Geograjyhic Conference. 

habitation. Shakespeare has taught us that when the poet 
would make real " Forms of things unknown," he gives 

To airy nothings 
A local habitation and a name. 

Herein is recognized a law with which both the action of mind 
and the logic of the subject of thought are in accord. This fact 
is of supreme importance to the educator. He who has the 
facts in human progress fixed in the place where they occurred 
has a ready index to the history of mankind — to what man has 
thought and done. He may at will call up any actor, event, 
science, or philosophy. He has only to introduce the element 
of time to unfold, in order and at will, the record man has made 
for himself as he has ordered his ways under the hand of his 
Creator. Naturally, as the oak springs from the acorn, the 
human mind follows the tree from the seed to the fruitage, and 
in obedience to this law we have, in teaching, the historical 
method. Naturally, too, the mind looks on this and on that 
and compares one with another, and in obedience to this law 
we have, in teaching, the comparative method. 

Geography can furnish from its stores untold data adapted to 
use in both of these methods most essential to successful instruc- 
tion. Out of its data may be drawn in the greatest abundance 
that Avhich is fitted to the attention and understanding and to 
awaken the interest of beginners in school and of those of any 
grade of progress. If this view is correct, it cannot be doubted 
that schools among us have treated geography and related sub- 
jects most unfitly. As a result, there has been inattention where 
there should have been attention, dullness where there should 
have been enthusiasm, waste where there should have been 
gain. Let geography be put in its proper place and treated ac- - 
cording to sound pedagogical principles, and all that pupils 
acquire of what man is and what man has thought and done will 
be gained, with less waste of time, energy and purpose and with 
far more satisfactory results, in other subjects of instruction. 
Geography, if rightly taught, will furnish the pupil what is 
needed for nourishment of mind on the one hand, and for dis- 
cipline on the other. It will not unbalance the faculties ; it will 
not cultivate reason to the injury of memory, or reflection to the 
destruction of expression, or vice versa. 

Here, therefore, in this Department of Education, there is most 
ample scope for the efforts of the National Geographic Society, 

Objects of the Society. 107 

Voluntary in its methods of action, it may move with all the free- 
dom consistent with good reason. It has before it as its objects, 
(1) The perfection of geography itself; (2) The dissemination 
of the data of geographj'- ; (3) The selection of the data and -their 
adaptation to other subjects of instruction and to the best results 
in teaching; (4) The training of all teachers in the right knowl- 
edge of the subjects and in the best methods of teaching them 
for pupils in all grades ; and (5) The devising and use of all 
objects, graphics or stereoptics, and other aids in illustration 
to make most effective the presentation of places, persons, events, 
and their relations. Thus, travel will unite instruction with 
diversion. For the student, man, races, nations will arise and 
take their places on the stage of action in their true relation and 

The National Geographic Society, voluntary in its character 
as we have noticed, in promoting its great ends by improving 
the methods of education, may ally itself with .all cooperative 
official agencies. Its purposes are most strictly in accord with 
the statutes regulating that great disseminating agency, the 
United States Bureau of Education, now so ably and efficiently 
administered by its Commissioner, the Honorable W. T. Harris. 
By the aid of the facilities of that Bureau and the great confi- 
dence reposed in it, the Society may bring its helpful service, by 
its leadership, prizes, lectures and publications, to the aid of 
CA^ery teacher and school in the land ; other nations, too, may 
gain its cooperation ; and thus it may accomplish the great and 
beneficent purpose of its honored president and his collaborators. 

Following General Eaton's address the Chairman announced : 
We have with us to-day a friend who promised to speak pro- 
vided his name was not placed on the program. He will now 
address you; Major J. W. Powell, Director of the United States 
Geological Survey. 

Major Powell addressed the Conference as folloAvs : 

Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen; The occasion on 
which we meet, the anniversary of the discovery of America by 
Columbus, notes a great geographic event, the greatest event of 
human history. It had a Avonderful influence on the world, 
this discovery of America of which you have heard so much 
during the past year ; and it had an influence in a direction 
which perhaps you have not considered. 

108 International Geographic Conference. 

Prior to the discovery of America, all the humbugs of the 
world gathered under the skirts of religion. 'If any man had a 
nostrum which he wished to vend or a doctrine which he wished 
to inculcate, he claimed that it was a revelation from heaven. 
Somehow or other the discovery of America changed all that. 
Up to that time the people of the world had not believed the 
earth to be round. Here and there a scholar believed it, but 
the teachings of scientific men and scholars had but little effect 
on the world at large. When Columbus proved by sailing across 
the sea that the earth is actually round, that it is in fact a globe, 
so that the great multitude of people themselves came at last to 
believe it, it made science respectable ; and when the feat of 
Columbus had the effect of making science respectable, people 
came ultimately to place on the shoulders of science the respon- 
sibility for all the humbugs of the world. If a man now has a 
wonderful nostrum which he wishes to vend, he does not say it 
was revealed to him by heaven, but it Avas taught to him by sci- 
ence ; if a man wants to bombard the heavens for rain, it is 
scientific to do it ; if a man wants to recover the lost rivers of 
the arid regions, he has some scientific theory on which to do 
that work. So science has come at last to be the bolster and the 
foundation of very many of the humbugs of the world. 

That is not all. Science has gone forward to accomplish 
something, and since the time of Columbus science has accom- 
plished much in the great field of geography. The earth has 
three envelopes, movable, ever-changeable, moving vertically 
and moving horizontally. There is one envelope of air, another 
of water, and another of rock. These three envelopes are chang- 
ing their positions, moving back and forth over the surface of 
the earth horizontally, and rising and falling forever; three 
great classes of movements are discovered on the surface of the 
earth — one in the air, one in the water, and one in the rocks 
themselves. We study the movements of the atmosphere in 
modern scientific geography, and have learned much about 
them. Your president has to-day learnedly placed* before j^ou 
some most interesting results of scientific investigations in rela- 
tion to the movements of the atmosphere and the movement of 
the waters of the earth. As the winds blow about tiie earth, 
and the air rolls in vertical movements, storms gather and hur- 
ricanes blow here and there, and thus we find that the whole 
aerial envelope is forever in motion. In a similar manner the 
watery envelope is forever in motion ; it is not alone moving in 

The Earth's three Emeloxjes. 109 

currents in the ocean and in great rivers, but it is forever 
moving vertically. In some portions of the earth 20 inches of 
water are evaporated every year, and in other portions 120 
inches, and the envelope of water, varying from 20 to 120 inches 
in thickness, is lifted into the heavens and descends again as 
rain every year. 

There is a third envelope of the earth, which is in the same 
manner in motion : Modern geography is no longer engaged 
simply in the study of the position of geographical localities, no 
longer engaged solely in measuring the depths of the 'seas and 
the heights of the mountains, no longer engaged in simply de- 
lineating the currents of the seas and the winds Avhich blow 
about the earth, but modern geographic science has come to 
study the origin of the land areas and the reason why the rivers 
run Avhere they do and why the waters circulate as they do, 
and it is especially throwing vast light in modern times, in the 
last decade or two, on the origin of land forms ; it is classify- 
ing vallej^s, it is classifying plateaus, it is classifying mountains 
and hills and explaining their origin, it is classifying islands. 
This study of physiography, this new branch of the study of 
geography, is being cultivated in many lands, and it has dis- 
covered that there is an envelope of rock moving horizontally 
with the waters as the rivers wash the hills and valleys and 
mountains, and moving vertically by upheaval from beneath 
and by the pouring out of volcanic lavas from below ; so that 
the three movable envelopes of the earth, the air, the water 
and the geologic formations of the rocky envelope, are forever in 
motion, and the laws of these motions are being studied. It is 
thus that a new theme is being introduced into the study of our 
schools; and the reason that geographj^ is in this Conference 
allied with education is that these new facts, new laws, new 
principles of this systematic knowledge in relation to the earth, 
are to be introduced into our schools ; and it forms a theme of 
Avonderful interest. 

Colonel Francis W. Parker, principal of the Cook County 
Normal School, read a paper entitled " The Relation of Geog- 
raphy to History." It is printed on later pages. 

Captain Magnus Andersen, of the ship VlJcing, delivered an 
address on " Norway and the Vikings." This address also Avill 
be found on later pages. 

At 1 p m the session Avas adjourned ft>r tAvo hours. 

110 International Geographic Conference. 

Afternoon Session, July 27, 1893. 

At 3 p m the Conference was resumed, about 200 persons being 

The first paper, " Geographic Instruction in the public 
Schools," was by Professor W. B. Powell, Superintendent of 
Public Schools, Washington, D. C. 

Professor T. C. Chamberlin, representing the University of 
Chicago, read an essay on " The Relations of Geology to Physi- 
ography in our educational System." 

Professor William Libbey, Junior, delegate from the American 
Geographical Society of New York, spoke briefly on " The Rela- 
tions of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current off the Ncav 
England Coast," describing his researches into the effect of these 
currents on the distribution of food-fishes. 

Mr F. H. Newell, United States Geological Survey, read a 
paper entitled "The arid Regions of the United States." 

These communications appear among the " memoirs and ad-' 
dresses " appended hereto. 

The session was then adjourned until 8 p m. 

Evening Session, July 27, 1893. 

At 8 p m President Hubbard introduced General A. W. Greely, 
United States Army, who delivered an address on interpolar 
expeditions, making especial reference to his own expedition, 
the explorations of Lieutenant Lockwood and the terrible suf- 
ferings and partial destruction of the party on their retreat. 

There were about 500 persons present. 

At 9.30 p m the Conference adjourned to meet next morning at 
the monastery of La Rabida, in the Fair grounds, Jackson park^ 
and afterward to continue the session at 11 a m in Recital hall. 

Friday, July 28, 1893. 

The members of the Conference met in Jackson park, where, 
through the courtesy of Mr William E. Curtis, chief of the Latin- 
American department, they had the exclusive use of the mon- 
astery of La Rabida from 9 to 11 a m. Mr Curtis and Captain 
John G. Bourke, United States Army, escorted the members 
through the monastery and explained the precious collection of 
historical papers there exhibited. 

At 11 a m President Hubbard called the session to order in 
Recital hall, introducing Miss E. R. Scidmore, who read a paper 
entitled " Recent Explorations in Alaska," printed elsewhere. 

Closing of the Conference. Ill 

Dr Adolph Ernst, Venezuelan Commissioner to the World's 
Columbian Exposition, delivered an address on " Venezuela," 
and Ensign Roger Welles, -Junior, United States Navy, described 
a trip up the Orinoco river. 

Dr Eniil Hassler, Paraguayan Comraissoner to the Exposition, 
was present, but asked to be excused from attempting an ad- 
dress in English. 

The Brazilian commissioners to the World's Columbian Ex- 
position, Seiior Graciano A. cle Azambuja and Baron de Marajo, 
while expressing their highest regards, also made their apologies 
for not particij)ating more f^ll5^ 

At 1 p m the meeting adjourned until 3 p m. 

Afternoon Session, July 28, 1893. 

Present about 100 persons. President Hubbard first intro- 
duced Captain John G. Bourke, United States Army, who read 
a paper on the history of the old monastery of La Rabida, de- 
scribing the changes in that part of Spain in which it i-s located. 

Paul B. du Chaillu then spoke of his travels among the 
Norsemen and of the character of their ancestors, the Vikings. 

Captain Victor Maria Concas, commandant of the Spanish 
caravels, related what is known of the histor}' of the caravels of 
Columbus, and upheld the Spanish sovereigns and their court. 

Mr Frederick A. Ober read a paper entitled " In the Wake of 
Columbus," reciting his searches for relics of Columbus and his 
examinations of the places at which Columbus probabh^ landed. 

Honorable William E. Curtis, in a paper entitled " Recent Dis- 
coveries in the Archives of the Vatican regarding early Norse Voy- 
ages to America," described his successful search for records re- 
garding the probable early Norse voyages to America, and stated 
that there was evidence there showing a knowledge of land in 
the direction of North America. 

Several of these papers are appended. 

The representative of the Rajah of Johore was not able to be 
present, owing to an unexpected call to I^ondon. 

At 5 p m the Conference adjourned sine die. 






Circulation of Air and Water. 

It was said in olden times, " The wind blowetli where it listeth, 
and thou- hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it 
cometh and whither it goeth." 

That which was unknown, science hath revealed. The wind 
in its currents is governed and directed by laws as fixed as those 
of the solar system. If a moisture-laden wind passes over the 
country it leaves the land fruitful; but a dry wind leaves it 
barren. The currents of air are among the most important fac- 
tors in the physical geography of our earth, affecting not only 
soil and climate but also vegetal and animal life. 

The winds obtain their moisture through evaporation, Avhich 
goes on everywhere and at all times; in the equatorial and 
polar oceans, from the rich cultivated soil and the arid desert, 
from the valley and the snow-clad mountain. Reclus tells us 
that the evaporation from the equatorial ocean is from 13 to 16 
feet a year. This estimate is confirmed by the United States 
Geological Survey, which found the evaporation from the south- 
ern Colorado river to be 102 inches, or nearly 9 feet in a year. 
The quantity of water evaporated from the land must be very 
large, as only about two-fifths of the rainfall is returned by the 
rivers to the ocean. A great part, probably more than one-half 
of this quantity, is reevaporated to fall the second and third 
time as rain. 

The movements of the atmosphere depend either directly or 
indirectly on differences of temperature ; without these differ- 


The Origin of Trade Winds. 113 

ences the air and ocean Avould be stagnant. There is a constant 
interchange of atmosphere between the equator and the poles. 
Cool air from the north blows toward the equator, first in a 
southwesterl}^, then in a westerly direction, crossing the Atlantic 
about the tropic of Cancer. Cool air from the south blows in a 
northwesterly and westerly direction, and crosses the Atlantic 
near the equator. The difference of solar accession between the 
equator and the poles gives the northward and southward mo- 
tion to these currents; the revolution of the earth on its axis 
gives the westerly motion. 

Tliese air currents are the great trade winds which wafted 
Columbus across the Atlantic and Magellan across the Pacific. 
The trade winds of the northern Atlantic are about 20° in width 
from north to south ; those of the southern Atlantic are not 
quite so wide. These winds oscillate northward in August and 
southward in February, following the sun. Between the trade 
winds of the north and the trade winds of the south there is a 
zone of calm. 

While the winds blow over the land as well as over the ocean, 
their movements, interrupted by hills and mountains and af- 
fected by temperature, lose that broad sweep and uniformity so 
characteristic of the ocean. 

Return currents of warm air blow across the ocean from the 
torrid zone toward the northeast in the northern Atlantic, and 
toward the southeast in the southern Atlantic. The trade winds, 
or equatorial currents, blow around the world from east to west ; 
the polar currents blow from west to east. 

The great ocean currents follow the same general courses as 
the wind system. Their movements are initiated b}^ differences 
in density, caused chiefly by temperature and by evaporation ; 
yet the larger part of the motive power is derived from the 
wind. These movements have been ascertained by years of 
observation on vessels in every ocean, sea and gulf, by the cumu- 
lative evidence of drifting objects, some of which have had their 
influence on the spread of vegetal and animal life and even 
civilization itself, and by the researches of scientific exploring 
expeditions to polar regions and remote islands. These oceanic 
movements are as well understood as those of the great atmos- 
pheric ocean above us. 

When water has acquired its movement, the configuration of 
the bottom of the ocean and of the shore line, the rotation of the 

16— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

114 G. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temperature and Life. 

globe on its axis, and the direction and velocity of the wind 
modify its movement. 

South America. 

By this circulation the equatorial waters of the Atlantic blow 
across that ocean, impinge against the coast of South America, 
and are deflected northward and southward. The southeasterly 
trade winds blowing over it become surcharged with moisture 
and pass directly up the valley of the Amazon, watering the 
earth with frequent rains for 2,000 miles to the foot-hills of the 
Andes, where some of this moisture is deflected by the moun- 
tains southeastward to water southern Brazil; the remainder 
ascends the slopes of the Andes until it is condensed and falls 
as rain and snow, and only dry winds blow across the compara- 
tively narrow plains between the Andes and the Pacific. The 
vapor from the Atlantic falling in rain over the valley of the 
Amazon and along the eastern slope of the Andes and the Cor- 
dilleras flows back to the ocean through the Orinoco, the Amazon 
and la Plata, and makes the interior of South America one of 
the richest countries of the world. 

The Amazon, a great mediterranean sea as it is often rightly 
called, is projected into the heart of the continent. Its total fall 
from the foot-hills of the Cordilleras to the ocean is not over 300 
or 400 feet, affording for the largest vessels uninterrupted navi- 
gation and innumerable harbors for 1,500 miles into the interior, 
and 1,000 miles further for smaller vessels. The aggregate navi- 
gable waters of the main stream and its tributaries are estimated 
at 50,000 miles. The moist winds abundantly water the valley 
and modify its climate. Their influence in tempering the climate 
is felt directly more than 1,000 miles up the valley, and indi- 
rectly still further, through the shadows thrown by the clouds 
and through the rainfall and the cooling effect of the drops of 
rain falling from a high altitude. It is from 8° to 10° cooler 
than on either side of this rain belt, and it is more healthful 
than other equatorial regions. The tropical woods are so thick 
and the creepers and undergrowth so luxuriant that animal life 
is almost entirely confined to the trees above and the waters 
below. Nature has thus far been more powerful than man, who 
has struggled in vain to subdue this fertile valley to his use. 

The winds that pass up the valley of Rio de la Plata to the 
mountains of Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are not so heavily 

The South American Lowland. 115 

charged -nith moisture as those of the Amazon valley ; conse- 
quently the thick forests and dense vegetation gradually disap- 
pear, and, instead of an inland sea, there are vast plains or 
pampas, over which roam herds that could not live in the valley 
of the Amazon. Thus the difference in the rainfall changes the 
entire vegetal and animal life. 

Through the center of South America, from the Caribbean sea to 
the straits of Magellan, there is a vast stretch of lowland through 
which run the waters of the Orinoco, Amazon and la Plata, 
with low divides between their valle5^s. A boat can pass uj) the 
Orinoco, thence by Cassiquiare river to the Rio Negro, a branch 
of the Amazon, thence through the Amazon and its branches 
to a low divide between the valleys of the Amazon and Rio de 
la Plata. Here there is a carry of six or eight miles, and then 
continuing down la Plata to the Atlantic ocean, the traveller may 
make a water journey of over 3,000 miles between the Cordillera 
and the eastern plains of South America. 

The easterly currents flowing from the Antarctic pole are de- 
'flected by Cape Horn along both the eastern and western coasts 
of Patagonia. On the eastern coast the winds blow off shore, 
leaving that coast arid. The westerly current, as it approaches 
the tropics, is deflected further westward and forms the greatest 
of the equatorial currents. The moisture of the winds that 
blow over this antarctic current is precipitated on the cool 
shores of Patagonia and lower Chile, and these countries are 
correspondingly enriched, while the same winds continuing 
over the heated plains of upper Chile, Peru and southern Ecua- 
dor are rarefied and take up what little moisture there is in 
these plains, to be afterward condensed and precipitated on the 
mountain slopes. 

From this cause the western coast of South America for the 
3,000 miles from lower Chile to upper Ecuador is dr}^ and bar- 
ren, and would be uninhabited except for the mines of gold and 
silver in the mountains and the deposits of nitrates and guano 
along the coast and on the islands. Yet the rainfall in South 
America is greater than in anj^ other part of the world, and 
more than twice as great as the rainfall in Asia. 

North America. 

The northern equatorial current, less powerful than the south- 
ern, crosses the Pacific about the tropic of Cancer, where it is 

116 G. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temj^erature and Life. 

deflected by Japan, and flows northward as the Kuroshiwo 
current, recrossing the Pacific in a northeasterly direction. 

The Pacific ocean is so wide that it is doubtful if this current 
would reach the American coast were it not for the drift caused 
by the wind which blows across the Pacific with strong and 
steady force. When it strikes the shores of North America it is 
feebler and has a lower temperature than the Gulf stream of 
the Atlantic ocean on reaching the coast of Europe. 

The currents of wind strike the coast between the fiftieth and 
fifty-fifth degrees of north latitude, the region of greatest rain- 
fall, and are in part deflected northward and southward by the 
Coast range of mountains ; the remaining portion blows over 
the mountains and up the valley of the Columbia. Continual 
fogs and rains abound on these shores, and the coasts of southern 
Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon are covered 
with the densest and largest growth of evergreen forest in the 
world. These winds prevail as far southward as the latitude of 
San Francisco, where the southeasterly trade Avinds commence 
and blow off-shore, leaving southern California and the western 
coast of Central America a zone of calms, dry and barren. 

While the western coast of the continent is bathed by the 
waters of the Pacific, its eastern shores are washed by the equa- 
torial current of the northern Atlantic, which flows around the 
West India islands, through Caribbean sea and the Gulf of 
Mexico. The trade winds from the Gulf of Mexico water the 
eastern coasts of Central America and Mexico, and impinging on 
the mountains of the interior are deflected toward the north 
and east over the southeastern states and up the Mississippi 
valley, where they unite with the warm winds which blow 
directly up the valley from the Gulf of Mexico, and water the 
valley of the Mississippi. The rainfall in the upper part of the 
valley is derived largely from the Rocky mountains, the waters 
of the Pacific carried b}^ the winds and deposited on the Rocky 
mountains as rain and snow being again evaporated and carried 
eastward to fall as rain. 

This great valley extends from Canada southward to the Gulf 
of Mexico, and from the Rocky mountains eastward to the Alle- 
ghanies; it is 1,500 miles long and about 2,000 miles wide, the 
largest and richest valley of the temperate zone. 

A very low and narrow divide separates the Mississippi valley 
from another great valley extending from the Rocky mountains 

The North American Loiuland. 117 

eastward, with a gentle slope to Hudson bay and the Atlantic. 
It is as long from west to east as the valley of the Mississippi is 
from north to south, and is from 500 to 600 miles wide. The 
western portion of this plain is drained by Saskatchewan river. 
The winds which blow over this valley from the Rocky moun- 
tains in some years water imperfectly the western portion o-f this 
plain, but with a copious rainfall the land yields abundantly ; 
the eastern portion is watered from Hudson bay, lakes Winnipeg, 
Manitoba and the other large lakes of that province. As the 
climate is cold, less rainfall is required than in the valley of the 

Another very Ioav divide sei^arates this valley from the great 
plain, 2,500 miles long, descending with a gentle slope to the 
Arctic ocean, through which runs the Mackenzie river. The 
winds that blow from the Arctic ocean fall in rain and snow in 
this valley. 

Thus through the center of America, from the Arctic to the 
Antarctic oceans, there are no high elevations, while there is a 
more uniform distribution of rainfall and temperature than on 
any other continent. 

From the Arctic ocean cold currents of water flow along both 
the eastern and western coasts of Greenland and bear immense 
icebergs and fields of ice southward until they meet the warm 
waters of the Gulf stream, when the ice melts, causing fog banks 
and depositing the del^ris brought from the Arctic glaciers, thus 
aiding in the making of the great fishing banks of Newfoundland. 
The Arctic current, still cold, runs southward inshore from the 
Gulf stream, and affects the climate of North America to the 
latitude of New York if not to Cape Hatteras. 

From the "Caribbean sea and the Gulf of Mexico the Gulf 
stream passes around Florida and floAvs along the southern At- 
lantic States. The currents of air from the Gulf stream blow 
over slightl}^ cooler waters and deposit rain on the eastern side 
of the Alleghanies and water the* eastern coast of the United 


The main Gulf stream is deflected, by the shape of the ocean 
bottom and the contour of North America, northward and east- 
ward toward Europe ; but its drift is largely increased by the 
winds. The drift from the southward sets around the North 

118 G. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temperature and Life. 

cape of Norway, 71° north latitude, keeping the coast free from 
ice all the year round, and is felt in the Kara sea. It is by 
means of this current that Nansen hopes to be borne through 
the Kara sea and from the Lena delta by way of the north pole 
to Greenland. 

The winds that bloAV over the Gulf stream, water the western 
coast of France, Great Britain and Scandinavia, and temper 
the climate of these northern regions to such a degree that 
Stockholm and St. Petersburg have become great cities, while 
in a lower latitude in Labrador, on the other side of the At- 
lantic, " The country is so rocky and rough and the tempera- 
ture so intensely cold in the winter (lower than the inhabited 
parts of Greenland) that Labrador Would be worthless and unin- 
habitable except for the seals and fish." These currents are 
deflected by the coasts of France and Spain toward the west 
and are drifted in different directions by the wind, watering the 
eastern coasts of Spain and Portugal, but having precipitated 
their moisture they leave the high lands of Spain dry, cold in 
winter and hot in summer. 

In the Mediterranean the evaporation is much greater than in 
the Atlantic ocean; its water is therefore salt and heavier. To 
supply this loss by evaporation, water flows from the Atlantic 
into the Mediterranean from west to east as a surface current. 
The projection of Italy and Greece into the sea deflects these 
currents along each coast of both countries. 

The general course of the winds of southern Europe is inter- 
rupted by the Alps and Apennines in Italy, and by the high 
mountains in Greece. Land and sea breezes water these coun- 
tries in August and September, while the winter snow on the 
Alps fills the Italian streams in summer and irrigates the land 
through numerous canals. 

A plain, beginning in Holland and Belgium, runs through Ger- 
many, gradually growing broader, into Russia, Avhere it is known 
as the Black zone ; thence northeastward through a large part of 
Siberia. It is low in the west, gradually rising toward the east, 
though in- Siberia its northern margin dips gently beneath the 
Arctic ocean. The western part of this plain is Avatered by the 
winds from the Atlantic and from the North and Baltic seas and 
the Gulf of Finland. The eastern part in Siberia is watered by 
the winds from the Arctic ocean. These plains are the granary 

Effects of Mountain Masses. 119 

of Europe and Siberia, although a small' part, comparatively, of 
the Siberian plain is good for corn. 


The regularit}^ in the motion of the currents of air and water 
prevailing in the western hemisphere and the Atlantic ocean is 
apparently lacking in Asia and the Indian ocean. The moun- 
tains of America run northward and southward, and have little, 
if any, effect in originating currents of air, and none at all on 
the ocean currents. In Asia the largest and highest mass of 
mountains in the world runs east and Avest, and from their foot- 
hills the great plains of India and China extend to the Indian 
ocean and the China sea, bringing a polar climate into close 
contact with the torrid zone. 

Cold winter winds blow from the Himalayas and the high 
plateaus of central Asia southwestward into Indian ocean and 
China sea and drift the waters with them. When the sun turns 
toward the north in the summer solstice and the plains in India 
and China become heated by the torrid sun, the wind changes 
and blows toward the northeast. At the meeting of the winds 
the monsoon breaks, and the cyclones of India and the typhoons 
of China follow. They are soon over, and then the monsoon 
blows over Indian ocean and China sea. All India, Kashmir 
and western Tibet, Farther India, Annam, and eastern China 
and Japan are Avell watered, fifty feet of rain falling in a year in 
some parts of India. 

In these countries there are generally six months of rainy 
season and six months of dry. In parts of India the water of 
the rainy season is stored in large reservoirs for irrigation in the 
dry season, while in China numerous canals between the dif- 
ferent rivers in like manner irrigate the land. India and China 
are among the richest countries of the world and have the 
densest population, though destined to be surpassed in the 
future by the population of the Amazon and Mississippi valleys. 

We have thus seen the effects of the winds and ocean currents 
in modifying the climate and in enriching the great valleys of 
South America and North America, of Europe, India, China 
and Jajjan. 

Deserts or Basins. 

About one-fifth of the territory in each continent is arid and 
desert land. With one or two possible exceptions these arid 

120 6r. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temperature and Life. 

regions are basins, where the rivers and rainfall either run into 
salt lakes or are lost in the desert and never reach the ocean. 
These deserts are caused by the winds which blow either from 
colder over warm areas and are therefore dry, or over vast plains 
or mountainous regions upon which they have precipitated their 

The average rainfall on the great deserts does not exceed ten 
inches a year, and the evaporation is usually greater than the 
rainfall. They are situated generally between the twentieth 
and fortieth degrees of north latitude and between the twen- 
tieth and thirtieth degrees of south latitude. In the northern 
belt are the Carson and other basins of Nevada, the Salt Lake 
of Utah, the desert of Sahara, Arabia, Persia, the Aral-Caspian 
desert, the Tanin Gobi and Mongolia desert. In the southern 
belt is the desert of Atacama in South America, Kalahari in 
South Africa and the Australian deserts. These basins in the 
northern belt contained formerly, lakes much greater than are 
now found in either of the continents. 

Salt Lake was formerly much larger and deeper, for its waters 
once beat upon shores one thousand feet higher up the moun- 
tain sides than at present; its waters then found their way to 
the ocean. This was probably in the ice age, when the surround- 
ing mountains were covered with snow and great glaciers, and 
the evaporation was much less than the rainfall and the water 
from the melting glaciers. 

In the desert of Sahara numerous dry water-courses show 
where great rivers formerly ran into Lake Tchad. 

In Asia the Caspian and Aral seas were connected, covering a 
territory many times greater than at present, with an outlet to 
the Bosphorus and Mediterranean. 

We have not sufficient knowledge of x^rabia to know the former 
condition of that arid country. The process of desiccation is still 
going on, and how much longer it will continue no one can tell. 

Mountains of America. 

Next we will notice the influence of the mountains on the 
atmosphere, either in enriching or impoverishing a country, or 
in intensifying the movements of the currents of air and water. 

The mountains of America rise at the Arctic ocean and form 
the divide between the Mackenzie and Yukon rivers. A second 
range runs from northeastern Alaska through Mount Saint Elias. 

Longest Mountain Ranges of the World. 121 

Then these two bands extend through British Columbia, gradu- 
ally Avidening as new ranges arise until they obtain a width of 
500 miles at the boundary line between British Columbia and 
the United States, and a width of 1,000 miles on the line of the 
Union Pacific railroad. These two ranges, the Sierra Nevada 
and the Rocky mountains, come together in southern Mexico 
and extend as a single range through Central America and the 
Isthmus of Panama. On entering South America this range 
again divides, forming the Cordilleran and the Andes systems, 
and th-ence they extend southward, with a varying width be- 
tween them of from 40 to 200 miles. They are connected from 
east to west by several cross-ranges or spurs. From southern 
Chile the Andes continues as one chain through Patagonia and 
Tierra del Fuego to Cape Horn. This is the longest and most 
persistent chain of mountains in the world. The peaks gradu- 
ally rise in height from north to south until in Chile, Aconcaqua, 
22,427 feet in height, is the culminating point ; thence southerly 
the range gradually lowers to an elevation of a few hundred feet 
only at the Straits of Magellan and Cape Horn. Several vol- 
cafioes in this long range rise to a greater elevation than any of 
the non- volcanic peaks. 

In North America the currents of air from the Pacific ocean, 
in passing over the Coast, Sierras and other ranges, deposit a 
large portion of their moisture on the mountains. Between 
these ranges are warm valleys, and the winds chilled in crossing 
the mountains evaporate the little moisture in these valle3^s, and 
they are left dry and arid unless irrigated by mountain streams. 
Thus we have a succession of arid valleys and green mountain 
ranges moistened with rain and snow, and rich in forests and 
vegetation. A number of these valleys are enclosed basins, from 
which the mountain streams have no outlet to the ocean and in 
some of which saline lakes -are found. 

Mountains of Asia. 

In Asia we have the largest continent, the highest mountains, 
the most elevated plateaus and the greatest extent of desert land 
in the world. 

The Pamir, or '' roof of the world " — " the abode of the Gods," 
as it was called by the inhabitants — is a vast plateau of 30,000 
square miles area, Avith a north and south extension of about 
400 miles, and with a mean elevation of 12,000 feet. It is 

17— Nat. Gkog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

122 G. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temperature and Life. 

traversed b}^ a high range of mountains, culminating in the 
Taghama, 25,500 feet in height. The Pamir was the only bar- 
rier Alexander could not pass. Now, the English, the Russians 
and the Chinese meet on this plateau and struggle for the con- 
trol of Asia. From it branch all the great mountain ranges of 

The Hindu Kush range runs west through Afghanistan, be- 
tween Persia and Turkestan, along the southern shore of the 
Caspian sea, culminating in mount Ararat, thence as the Cau- 
casus mountains to the Black sea, while a spur of this chain 
follows the southern shores of the Black sea to the Mediterra- 
nean. The Himalayas run a little south of east from the 
southern part of the Pamir for 1,500 miles, separating India 
from Tibet and China. 

The Kuen Luen range, sometimes considered as an extension 
of the Hindu Kush, runs from the middle of the Pamir through 
western and part of central China for 2,700 miles. The Thian 
Shan runs from the northern end of the Pamir northeast, sepa- 
rating Tarim and INIongolia from Siberia. As it approaches the 
ocean it turns toward the north and ends in Kamchatka, forming 
the great divide between the waters of the Arctic and Pacific 
oceans. Between these mountain ranges are elevated plateaus, 
and the former dominate the rainfall and temperature of the 

The steeper slope of the mountains of Asia is toward the In- 
dian ocean. Between the Himalayas and Kuen Luen ranges 
and running from the Pamir east is the highest and longest 
plateau in the world, varying from 17,000 to 10,000 feet, its 
lowest elevation. 

Above this plain the mountains tower from 4,000 to 18,000 
feet. Their summits are covered with everlasting snow from 
8,000 to 10,000 feet below their crests. Here is truly the " abode 
of the snow." This plateau, from its height and position be- 
tween two ranges of mountains, is cold in winter and hot in 
summer. This is Tibet, the land of the Llama. Here all the 
great rivers that empty into the Pacific and Indian oceans, ex- 
cepting the Yukon, the Columbia, the Colorado, and the Zam- 
besi, have their source. 

In the western part of Tibet the Indus and Brahmaputra rise, 
one running west through a i^ass 14,000 feet in height into 
India ; the other running east, through passes thus far inacces- 

The populous Land of the Orient. 123 

sible and unknown into India. East of the head-waters of these 
two rivers rise the rivers of Siam and Farther India. 

Further to the northeast rise the great rivers of Cliina, the 
Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang. Their valleys are separated by 
high chains of mountains, extending in a northwest and south- 
east direction. The Hoang-ho runs north and east through the 
temperate zone of Cliina, and the Yang-tse-kiang south and east 
through the semi-tropical regions of middle China. As they 
gradually approach, they inclose a great valley and become the 
arteries of the superabundant life of the empire. The eastern 
part of this great valley, watered by the winds from the China 
sea, is crossed from northeast to southwest by parallel ridges, 
from which numerous streams descend. The valley of eastern 
China is thus abundantly watered and the rich soil yields boun- 
tiful crops. For thousands of years this region has been the 
home of the Chinese, a self-dependent world. It is a limited 
territory of 1,300,000 square miles area, no larger than the valley 
of the Mississippi ; yet it sustains a jjopulation of 400,000,000, 
or one-third of the joeople of the globe. 

North of the Kuen Luen mountains, and the valley of the 
Hoang-ho and south of the Thian Shan, is the plateau of the 
Tarim, sometimes called Eastern Turkestan. It is much lower 
than Tibet, and is traversed by cross-ranges of hills or low moun- 
tains, through which flows the river Tarim. Little rain falls 
on this plateau, the sand from the desert is gradually covering 
the fertile valleys, the ancient lakes are now little more than 
salt marshes, and Avhere formerly lived bands of Huns and Van- 
dals that overran Europe, now only a few shepherds find a 
scanty living. This part of the world seems exhausted. " With- 
out a shrub or tree or blade of grass," and no longer fit for the 
residence of man, it has become the sole home of the wild horse 
and the yak. East of this plateau of Tarim are the deserts of 
Gobi and Mongolia, which extend far eastward toward the sea of 
Japan, a high range of mountains separating Mongolia, however, 
from the sea-coast, so that only dry winds blow over these great 

North of the Thian Shan and the Altai mountains is the great 
plain of Siberia. It starts from a lower level than that of the 
Tarim desert and descends with a gradual slope northward for 
1,500 miles to the Arctic ocean. These plains resemble in some 
respects the great plains of the United States, but the latter 

124 Q. G. Hubbard — Air and Water, Temperature and Life. 

slope toward the east and south with a climate growing contin- 
ually warmer, while the Siberian plains slope toward the north, 
the temperature growing continually colder. The winds in 
summer blow from the Arctic ocean over these plains to the 
Altai mountains, while in the winter they blow from the moun- 
tains to the ocean. There is a slight evaporation from the Arc- 
tic ocean, but the temperature of Siberia is so low and the 
summers so short that the plains require comparatively slight 
rainfall to fertilize them. 

There is a large portion of Asia, Arabia, Persia, Turkestan, 
including Caspian and 7^ral seas, to Avhich we have not par- 
ticularly referred because it is entirely outside of the influence 
of either the monsoon, trade, or other moisture-bearing winds. 
This territory extends from Arabia northeastward beyond the 
Lake of Balkash into Siberia, a vast extent of countr}^, larger 
than Europe — a dry, rainless desert, hot in summer and cold in 
winter. Part of this region is from six to seven thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, part below the sea level, yet neither 
height nor depression makes any difference in this arid land. 
Formerly sections of these countries were thickly populated. 
The Aral and Caspian basins were called the " Garden of the 
world." In Mesopotamia Avere Ninevah, Bagdad and Babylon ; 
in Persia, Susa and Persopolis. Historians tell us of great 
cities, flourishing empires, where now is onl}^ a barren and sandy 
desert. We do not know whether the climate has changed or 
whether in ancient days the country was thoroughly irrigated, 
and now through neglect has been buried deep in the sand of 
the desert. Although four-fifths of Asia are either desert or 
mountainous land and are only scantily inhabited, two-thirds 
of the population of the world are found within its borders. 



Geography is the science of the present appearance of the 
earth's surface. Geology is the history of the present appearance 
of the earth's surface, the record of the countless changes which 
have led to the present phase of geology or geography. Min- 
eralogy is the science of the rock material which has undergone 
countless changes. Physics and chemistry are the sciences of 
the laws of change in the crust of the earth as well as in air 
and water generall}^ Meteorology is the study of heat acting 
through air and moisture changing the earth's surface, producing 
and sustaining life. 

Geography, with its kindred sciences of inorganic matter here 
named, ma}^ be called the science of the physical basis of 
life, since it deals with the environment, the support and the 
nourishment of life; it is therefore the interpretation of life. 
The modern geologist, wdio reads as an open book the present 
surface of the earth in all its varied forms, traces there the sig- 
nificance of each characteristic area ; in other words, the present 
surface forms of the earth are the visible revelation of its geologic 
history. Thus each particular form has its |)rofound signifi- 
cance ; it is to him the manifestation of all the changes that 
the earth has undergone by the action of forces through matter 
under law. 

But there is still a higher and more important significance 
of surface forms, that may be called functional. Geography 
has been defined as the physical basis of life ; life in its multi- 
plicity of organisms can best be studied by understanding the 
influence of structural and meteorological environment upon it. 
Ethnology and history are the sciences or philosophies, if you 
please, of the evolution of the human soul from the beginning. 
When the written record fails, then suppositions must fall back 

■ (125) 

126 F. W. Parker — Relation of Geography to History. 

upon all the influences which surrounded it in its earlier stages. 
Of these influences, probably, the geographical structure is the 
most potent. 

We owe to the founder of modea-n geography, Carl Ritter, the 
first systematic investigation in the direction of the relation of 
history to geography. Ritter's fundamental statement, though 
not given in his own words, may be stated as follows : That each 
and every characteristic area of the earth's surface has had a 
determining influence on the evolution of mankind. This state- 
ment presents us a Avorldng hj^pothesis for our study of this 
subject — the relation of history to geography, — but it needs some 
very marked modifications and limitations in order to make it 
valuable as a means of searching for truth in history. First, 
there are marked differences in the influences of a characteristic 
territory or a specially defined form of surface structure on 
man in each stage of his development. For example, a particu- 
lar structure may act as an obstruction to growth in one phase 
of man's evolution while in another phase it would be of the 
greatest assistance. The savage aborigines of India probably 
deteriorated in a land which afterward presented great advan- 
tages to the invading Aryans. If those savages could have been 
taken up bodily and put down on the vast steppes of Eurasia, 
they wouldxhave, in a forced nomadic life, taken a vigorous step 
in advance, while the Aryans, who had had the education of the 
plains, took a mighty step forward in the refuge Avhich the great 
mountain walls offered against the attack of their nomad en- 
emies. A land of swamp and morass exercises one influence on 
the savage, as a land of refuge ; to the barbarian and civilized 
man, however, it is a land easily defended by ditches, canals and 
dikes. It is of the first importance to know the degrees of de- 
velopment before we can have any understanding of the influ- 
ence of the structure of the country. 

The second modification is in regard to the community life of 
the people or the ethnographic relations in tribes and nations. 
These relations of gens and tribes and phratres in the evolution 
of peoples are common to all mankind in whatever part of the 
globe. They have had a tendency to overcome and control to 
a certain extent the influences of structure; the Aryan race, for 
instance, whether they lived in the tropics or in cold Norway, 
had in their community life the same general tendencies, the 
same habits and customs, the same worship of ancestors, mod- 

Dependence of Man on Environment. 127 

ifiecl, it is true, to a great degree by their environment of struc- 
ture and climate. 

The third modification is probably the highest of all, and is 
that which has been foreshadowed in the ethnic relations of a 
peo^jle ; that the human spirit in all lands, ages, and stages of 
growth from the beginning has had the same general tendencies, 
modified, it is true, greatly by structure and climate, but never- 
theless overcoming to a degree all external influences. This is 
shown by the fact, although it is still under discussion, that col- 
lision, contact and mutual influences of peoples with peoples 
have not been necessary to similar manifestations and common 
tendencies. It is also shown by the universality of like myths, 
of religious beliefs, fetiches, totems and religious tendencies, com- 
mon to the Eskimo and South Sea islanders, and arts that bear 
strong resemblances that grew out of these common tendencies. 
With these great modiflcations of the fundamental principle of 
the influence of surface structure on the growing life of man, the 
knowledge of geography — that is, of surface structure — is abso- 
lutely indispensable to the study of history. 

The study of history, briefly stated, is the study of the growth 
and development of the spirit, or soul, of man from the begin- 
ning ; the study of the individual, anthropology ; the study of 
community life of man, ethnology ; and with it, closely allied, 
is the study of the influence of surface structure, or geography, 
and its relation to that life. 

It is not my purpose to present a method for the study of 
geography in its relation to histor}^, but rather to call attention 
to the general direction of this study. We may begin in broad 
lines and show the common relations of similar forms of struc- 
ture, as for instance, the influence of mountains, natural for- 
tresses and enclosures, swamps, and desert oases, as places of 
refuge for tribes and nations after they have passed the lower 
phases of the development of the plains and steppes. The 
steppe or prairie was adapted to nomad life, a stage of evolution 
which may be considered as indispensable to human evolution. 
The periodic or scanty rains on the steppes made grass the 
principal means of nourishment. Nomad life on the steppes 
of Eurasia had far stronger influences on civilization than the 
prairies of America, for the old world had domesticated cattle, 
while the prairies were mere hunting grounds until river bends 
afibrded protection to barbarians emerging from lower stages. 

128 F. W. Parker — Relation of Geography to History. 

From tract to tract the nomad drove his cattle in order to gain 
sufficient nourishment, and in that life the attrition with other 
tribes, the struggle for existence, led to a higher stage, and the 
tilling of the soil and the building of the village began. The 
moment a barbarian discovered the art of agriculture and re- 
mained in one favorable place for a time, he took a long step in 
development ; but, surrounded by wandering savages, he was at 
a great disadvantage. He was the prey of his savage brother, 
who burned his house and stole his cattle. This led him to 
seek for a place of refuge, and here we see the direct relation of 
natural fortresses, mountain fastnesses, the inclosures by deserts 
or swamp lands, to history. Thus we have India, a great natur- 
ally inclosed fortress, walled in by high mountains on the north, 
easily defended by passes on the west. We have Persia, Pales- 
tine, desert-inclosed Egypt, Greece, Italy, Spain, Great Britain, 
Norway, Mexico and Peru. The Aryans of India, the Semites 
of Palestine, and the mound-builders of Mexico and the Incas 
of Peru no doubt fled from the open lands to the great structural 
fortresses of mountain and desert. Prolonged relief from con- 
tinued or threatened war made civilization possible. 

Again each natural fortress by its structure and climate deter- 
mines to a great degree the special influences. The structure 
and climate of India present a marked contrast to those of Nor- 
way, in their influences on the same race. Egypt in its valley 
unity, its unity of river source and silt distribution, led, we are 
told, to monarchy and monotheism. Greece, with its mountain- 
walled valleys, made polytheism a human necessity, and founded 
democracy. The little strait that separates England from the 
continent determined the peculiar civilization of Great Britain. 
The shutting out of Russia from the practicable harbors and 
natural seaports, hemmed in the civilization of that land. 

We have already spoken of the grassy plains. With regular 
rains forests spring from the plains, and make it possible for 
man to take higher steps in civilization. Wood and timber pre- 
sented the necessity for tools ; forests were the means of both 
protection and progress. The vigor of the early stages of the 
Ar3^an race may be traced to the forests on the northern and 
western slopes of Europe. 

It can be said that a shut-up condition is absolutely neces- 
sary during one "^^hase in the evolution of a nation ; but the 
contact of a nation with other nations by friendly intercourse 

Utilization of Environment by Man. 129 

or war is as absolutely necessary in higher stages of growth. 
China, a pioneer in human civilization, owes its present state 
of fixed ideas to the isolation of vast deserts and mountain re- 
gions. The contact of Greece with the Roman empire gave the 
tremendous influence of Grecian art, literature and politics. 
True, the Romans conquered Greece, but, in a far higher sense, 
Greece conquered the whole world through her aggressors, for 
the invading Romans not only gathered the rich fruit of the 
little peninsula but scattered its seeds over the whole civilized 

The plateau continent, Africa, is the most marked illustration 
of the influence of geography on human development. Rivers 
falling from highland to highland in cataracts make inland 
navigation exceedingly difficult, thus isolating her tribes from 
the outer world. 

It is a common inference that the higher the stage of civili- 
zation, the less dependent man is on surface structure. True, 
the path of progress is marked by overcoming and subduing 
physical obstructions, but that does not limit the developing 
influences of characteristic areas of surface. Utah, changed to a 
garden by man's invention and enterprise, exerts a far stronger 
influence than it did as a desert on the degraded savage. The 
savage hunted over Pennsylvania, totally ignorant of the riches 
that lay beneath his feet ; the civilized man comes and uses the 
vast treasures to his own advantage ; but in this change we do 
not say that he frees himself from nature; he simjjly uses natural 
products — uses environment for a higher stage of growth. 

The river valleys once marked the lines of migration of 
tribes and nations, of which the Danube is a notable instance. 
Under civilized man the same river cuttings and natural exca- 
vations are made the new pathway of the civilized world — the 
railroad. The vast plain, to a low stage of civilization, is either 
a hunting ground or a pasture of cattle ; in the higher stages, 
this plain becomes a place where civilized men from all nations 
and tribes under the sun can come together and live together, 
melt and fuse into one great nation. Different nations have 
gone through the wild, nomad life, the life of the fortress, and 
have reached a stage in which isolation means decay. The for- 
tress life hems in the intellectual and moral life, and they step 
back to the plains of their ancestors to live together in one great 
nation on the grandly modeled continent of North America. 

18— Nat. Geog. Mas., vol. V, 1893. 

130 F. W. Parker — Relation of Geography to History. 

These are only some of the phases in the interpretation of history 
in its relation to geography. 

There is a psychologic relation which is organically connected 
with the study of history. The earth's surface is the home of 
man, and geography is the study of that home. A psychologic 
definition may be given as follows : The study of geography is 
the formation of an individual concept of the earth's surface, 
gained either by observation or by imagination ; that is, the 
study of geography is the formation of individual concepts cor- 
responding to the earth's surface as a whole or any of its parts. 
The earth's surface, as the home of man, is the stage on which 
all human action has taken place. Not only does the struc- 
ture interpret, to a great degree, the events in the evolution of 
naan, but it is at the same time an indispensable factor in the 
retention or memorizing of historical facts. In other words, 
history can neither be understood nor reinembered without a 
clear mental picture of the stage, or the surface structure, on 
which the historical events took place. The knowledge of sur- 
face structure is of the greatest economical importance to the 
study of history. 

In the usual way of studying history, events, the march of 
nations, wars, are not clearly localized and defined. Facts and 
events " schweben in der Luft," as the Germans say. They are 
only related by the vague web of time without any notion of 
differentiated space, and are therefore easily forgotten, ^\^e all 
know in early youth how a child spontaneously cultivates fancy 
and imagination. Geograph}'' is essentially in its basis the pro- 
duct of imagination, the imagining of surface characters. To 
illustrate, a clear mental picture can easily be acquired of the 
beautifully modeled peninsula of Greece, with its great northern 
defensive barrier of mountain maze, iis midrib of the Pindus, 
its beautiful valleys, and its great walls of mountains. Here are 
the conditions for the autonomy of seventeen states, and the 
necessary proximity for mutual influence and defense. The 
separation, as I have already said, produced polytheism and 
initiated democracy ; the proximity, federal life. Now, a dis- 
tinct picture of this beautiful peninsula, surrounded by its seas, 
is an easily acquired product of geography by real study. 

It must, however, be said in this connection that there is 
very little true geography, the geography of Ritter and Guyot, 
now taught in our schools. We must all admit that the most 

Source of the Influence of Greece. 131 

of the so-called geography now taught in the schools is a con- 
glomerated mass (and mess) of disconnected and doubtful facts, 
with little or no psychologic unity and very little practical use. 
Witness the failure of the best geography ever written, the Com- 
mon School Geography by Guyot. It is doubtful wdiether that 
splendid book ever paid for its maps. Real geography is not 
taught because teachers do not understand it and because they 
have very little or no means of studying it. 

But, to return to the main point in question, how easy it 
is to develop by the imagination a clear concept of the penin- 
sula of Greece, the main range of the Pindus, the spurs and 
the plateau of Peloponnesus. On this basis, how easy and how 
delightful it is to follow the development of Greece from the 
ages of the gods and heroes through its struggles to its highest 
reach of art and intellect ! We can see Thermopylae and study 
with interest the memorable events connected with it; we can 
study the Marathon plain ; we can travel with the athletes to 
Elis ; we can picture the unwalled city of Sparta ! This is only 
one example of the countless instances in which the memorizing 
of history would be made permanent, effective and delightful. 
The causes are studied, the effects known and the ^^ictures be- 
come more and more distinct. Geography is the study of the 
earth's surface as the home of man, the influence of that home 
on man's growth ; and it is organically united, psychologically 
related to memory. 

Geography, the picturing of the divinely modeled earth, is 
beautiful and inspiring in itself. No art man ever produced 
equals in beauty and grandeur the sculptured earth ; but add 
to this intrinsic glory the function of the earth as the home of 
man, a home that throughout the ages has been his home and 
school alike ; trace human history in all its stages by the light 
that the study of geography throws over it, and we have a 
subject of extreme fascination in itself and of the highest use in 




I am called upon to speak of the Vikings. I do not know 
that I can tell much more about the Vikings than most of you 
have read in history, though it may interest you to know that it 
is an ordinary sailor who speaks of them. But I might improve 
the opportunity to tell you a little about modern Norway. 

As you know, Norwaj'' united with fSweden in 1814, on equal 
terms ; that is to say, each country enjoying the freedom and 
liberty of a government independent of the other, except as to 
the King and the diplomatic representation abroad. This union 
has benefited both countries to a large extent, and every true 
Norwegian of to-da}^ feels an admiration for his forefathers who 
had the courage to sacrifice home and almost everything dear 
to them to save the liberty of Norway, which was threatened 
not only by foreign foes, but by starvation which stared the 
people in the face in 1814. By reason of this union both Norway 
and Sweden have advanced in commerce, so that to-day we do 
not call ourselves a very poor nation. We have a commerce 
which we believe to be up to the times. The Norwegian fisheries 
are conducted on the most modern princii3les ; great improve- 
ments have been made, and new devices invented and utilized. 
The Norwegian department in the Fisheries building at the 
World's Fair speaks for itself, and I think every one will agree 
with me that it is astonishing what a small nation can do. Our 
fish exports amount to something like thirteen million dollars a 
year, which is very well for two million peo2)le. Besides the 
ordinary fisheries, the whale and seal industries have in the last 
forty years yielded a handsome income to the country. The 
pioneer of this trade is the still living Commander Sven Foyn, 
who, by his intelligence, energy, endurance and integrit.y, raised 
himself from an ordinary sea captain to the wealthiest man in 
Norway. He is now eighty-four or eighty-five years old, and 
has been going to sea since he was fourteen. 


Origin of the Word " Viking." 133 

We have also had, since the tenth or eleventh century, our 
wood industries, and the exporting of wood is next to the fish- 
eries. When the latter fail, we always have something to fall 
back on. The wood export consists mostly of dressed goods, 
wood-pulp, spars and poles, which are shipped all over Europe, 
though the largest consumers are Great Britain and the English 
colonies. Mining and quarrying are carried on, and in the last 
fifty years important manufacturing districts have sprung up 
where sufficient water power was found, and every year enter- 
prising young men go out to foreign lands and on returning set 
up fresh branches of industry. Another source of income is the 
great number of tourists within the last few years who are 
attracted by the beautiful scenery of the land of the midnight 
sun. Hov/ever, this has demoralized poor farmers somewhat, 
and we have always been proud of our farmers. 

The important place which shipping Norway occupies is 
world renowned. The Norwegian merchant flag floats on every 
sea, and each one of Norway's two million inhabitants repre- 
sents one ton of shipping, placing us fourth in the ocean-carry- 
ing trade. The bulk of our shipping is employed by foreign na- 
tions, indicating that shippers have confidence in us as seamen. 

A glance at the map will show that it is not an agricultural 
country, although the ruling class are farmers. Our rock-bound 
country, with its long and rugged coast, has a wonderful attrac- 
tion in the roaring North sea, and every boy, as soon as his arm 
has attained sufficient muscular strength, goes off' to make his 
living there. It is no wonder, then, that the Norwegians are found 
in every part of the world, and that they have gained a reputa- 
tion for being first-class sailors. 

The word " Viking " must undoubtedly have originated from 
the word " vik," and indicated in olden times what is now 
known by the term pirates. They were no doubt worthy of that 
name, as they committed many an evil deed. By perusing the 
Sagas it will be found that these men possessed many good 
qualities, which make their characters a very interesting study. 
They had a manly independence and a high sense of honor and 
liberty, as well as courage and pluck. Their word was never 
doubted and their promise never broken. They treated a weaker 
enemy fairly, and toward women behaved like true gentlemen. 
It is true that their expeditions gave them the name of plun- 
derers and fearful warriors, who ruined everything before them, 

134 Magnus Andersen — Norway and the Vikings. 

but history tells us that these men were also able to found 
dominions and rule countries. We are all acquainted with 
their voyages around North sea through English channel and , 
to the Mediterranean, as well as with their discoveries of the 
Faroe islands and Greenland; but the most interesting expe- 
ditions for us to study while we are at the World's Fair are 
undoubtedly those made to this country in the tenth, eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. Leif Ericsson sailed in 999 from Green- 
land to Norway, where he entered into the service of King Olaf 
Tryggvesson. There he was christened and started for home 
the following spring in company with a priest, steering what 
was afterward looked upon as the regular course from Nor- 
way to Greenland, between the Faroe Islands and Shetland ; 
but he must have been overtaken by storms and carried out of 
his course, for after having drifted about some time he reached 
an unknoAvn land in the far west, where he found wild grapes 
and uncultivated corn-fields. He returned to Greenland the 
same year, bringing news of the new land, which he called Vine- 
land, and this resulted in two attempts to colonize Vineland. 

It will thus be seen that the first discovery of this continent 
was by chance, as all discoveries generally are, and was the 
result of the good seamanship of our ancestors and their love for 
a seafaring life. Their voyages back and forth afterward show 
us also that they were great navigators and daring enough to ven- 
ture out on the open sea, guided only by the sun, moon and stars. 
The first attempt which was made to colonize the newly found 
land was made in the year 1,000, under the command of Eric 
the Red and Thorstein Ericsson, and failed, as the sailors steered 
too far south and found no land. They returned home in the 
autumn, thoroughly exhausted. The second time they were 
more fortunate, as Thorfinn Karlsefni, early in the spring of 
1003, took command of another expedition, consisting of three 
ships and 140 men, and set out for Vineland, which they must 
have reached safely, as we afterward have accounts of Helle- 
land, Markland and Vineland. By reason of the hostility of the 
natives they gave up their possessions and returned to Green- 
land in the summer of 1006. The inhabitants of Greenland 
were too few to enable them to keep up any colonization outside 
of their own land. Thus the expeditions must have terminated, 
for we only hear of another attempt made in the twelfth century 
by a bishop named Eric, who started off on missionary work, 

Finding of the ViJcing Ship. 135 

but as no more was heard of him and as a new bishop was 
elected in his place, he must have perished. - Vineland expedi- 
tions appear, according to Norwegian history, to have been 
brought to an end in 1121. According to Professor Horsford, 
the last ship returned from America to Iceland in 1347. 

Besides the history to prove that our ancestors were here, we 
also have the excavations in Massachusetts by Professor Hors- 
ford, who, with Professor Anderson, has done so much to en- 
lighten the world about the discovery of America. Professor 
Horsford is dead, but I am glad to know that a daughter has 
taken up the work, and on April 22 of this 3''ear found the log 
house built by the party of Thorfinn Karlsevne in 1004. 

It has often been said that the Vikings could never have 
crossed the northern Atlantic in an open ship such as they had in 
those days. I Avould not really say that we started on this trip 
to prove that they could, because when I first got the idea I had 
not heard much doubt expressed about it. What we really 
started for was to bring the ship over to the World's Fair, In 
1880 an old Viking ship was discovered buried in the clay of the 
Norwegian coast, and most of it as sound as it was the day it 
was put down ; consequently we were the only nation that could 
produce such a ship as was used in those days. We knew that 
Americans admired courage, and that if we could bring a ship 
such as this over to the World's Fair that it would be appre- 
ciated as well as interesting. We started a subscription. The 
government had already been asked for mone}^, but they decided 
that it was too risky an undertaking. They said if it is to be 
built for the Chicago World^s Fair and if you will send it over 
by a steamer, we will vote the money, but if it is to be sailed 
over, we think it is sport and very dangerous sport at that, and 
money will not be appropriated for that purpose. So we went 
to work and got subscriptions from nearly 15,000 people, rang- 
ing all the way from ten cents to two hundred dollars, and I 
believe two hundred and fifty dollars from one man. That was 
the man I mentioned, who was the most enthusiastic of the 
whole lot. Having obtained the money and the model, we 
started to build the new ship about three or four miles from 
where the old one was found. Even sailors doubted whether an 
open ship like that could be brought over safely, and with all 
my reasonings I was rather doubtful myself. The only argu- 
ment I had was that if the Vikings could sail the ship over, 

136 Magnus Andersen — Nonvay and the Vikings. 

we ought to be able to. I had confidence in the Viking. We 
got the ship fitted out and towed her around the coast to 
Bergen April 1. Finally, we were off for America. 

We had been out two weeks before we found what she could 
really do in heavy weather and how she could steer, encounter- 
ing then a heavy gale which lasted thirty hours. Up to that time 
there wasn't a man aboard that took so much as his boots off; 
but after we found that the ship steered in all kinds of seas, that 
the rudder on the side worked finely, confidence in our ship 
gradually stole upon us, and after that we took it as easy on 
board of that ship as on any other; we undressed' and went 
to bed, and I really was ashamed of myself for not believing in 
history. We were out six weeks altogether, forty-four days from 
Bergen to New London. The last four weeks we had a favor- 
able passage, encountering some gales during that time, none of 
them, however, lasting so long as the first one. We did not 
mind that, because, as I said before, we had obtained confidence 
in our vessel, and my opinion is that really not fifty per cent 
of our seafaring class use as safe vessels as the Viking. I would 
not hesitate to take that ship across the Atlantic any time of 
the year when I have a cover for it. We had only a canvas one. 
For eight or nine days the thermometer was down to zero, but 
we were well dressed and fed and we were not troubled. 

On arriving on this side we had a series of astonishments in 
the receptions tendered us. I was astonished also that every- 
body seemed to want to make the trip a kind of demonstration 
against Columbus's discovery of America,. That was something 
new to me. I tried at banquets and receptions to explain that 
we didn't wish it that way. During the construction it was pro- 
posed to the committee in charge of the ship that we call it the 
Leif Erickson, but we finally decided not to, as we did not want 
Americans to think us demonstrating ; the Norwegian is modest. 
But after we found that the newspapers had taken the case up 
on this line, we knew there was no use of further discussion. 
When I get home and they ask me how this came about, I will 
simply tell them that the American newspapers did it. 

I feel very grateful to the American people for the reception 
they have given us and it will be very gratifying to me to carry 
home their good wishes. I hope that we have made the im- 
pression we wished to make, that we had an old ship of the 
Vikings of long ago and that we have sailors at the present day. 



The purpose of teaching geography is the education of the 
learner. The methods of teaching tlie subject must be such as 
to secure the end sought. 

Different views exist among parents and also among teachers 
respecting what education should do for the learner, some per- 
sons, representing the extreme on one side, believing that the 
acquisition of knowledge is the main purpose of educa,tion ; 
other persons, representing the extreme on the other side, be- 
lieving that the training of the faculties of the child constitutes 
the main purpose of education. Between these two extremes 
every grade of belief and every grade of practice respecting the 
purpose of education finds its adherents. 

In arranging a course of instruction for the children of the 
public schools of the District of Columbia it has been assumed 
that both ends above named may be accomplished, namely, 
that the children maj^be trained for the purpose of gaining 
power, and that while being trained they may come into the 
possession of knowledge that will be of value to them, and 
furthermore, that such training may be on lines of experience 
and investigation that will contribute to develop a power to 
insure success in the future prosecution of the study and at 
the same time the acquisition of the knowledge that lies at the 
base of all geographic information. 

The first important end to be secured by the study of geog- 
raphy is to train the learner to see geographic facts or recognize 
geographic phenomena when he sees them. One who goes 
through the world with his eyes open is constantly learning 
and is ever in the possession of enjoyment. It is not an easy 
matter to train the beginner to see and know what there is to 
be seen and known by seeing wdien passing over a country : for 

Iq—Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. (137) 

138 W. B. Poioell — Geographic Instruction. 

instance, to see springs and know their causes ; to see the wear- 
ing of river banks and the clianging of the courses of streams 
and know their causes ; to see the denuding of elevations and 
know its causes ; to see the filling and making of valleys and 
know their causes. This, however, can be done by a systematic 
course of training. The steps of such training, however, to in- 
sure the desired result, must be sequential and each must have 
its definite and well-outlined purpose. 

Another important end to be secured by studying geography, 
and one which sequentially follows the first step, is that training 
which will enable the learner to see geographic facts and to 
understand geographic phenomena from symbols or from the 
examination of maps and by reading text in connection there- 
with. An attempt to teach geography by reversing these steps 
will prove fatal to educational success, for it anticipates the 
strength of the mind and its power to receive. The result of 
such instruction is not knowledge but rote-information. The 
latter purpose has in the past constituted the main effort of 
teaching geography in our schools. The first step, that of train- 
ing the child to understand geographic phenomena when he 
sees them, has in the main been omitted. 

A third purpose of teaching geography is the acquisition of 
knowledge. This purpose is easily secured, when the work for 
the accomplishment of the first two purposes has been done 
systematically carried out. If first knowledge is obtained in 
the right way its value is almost inestimable from either of two 
points of vieAV : 

First, as an acquisition of the mind on which it has made 
an impression because obtained by contact with phenomena 
first hand or from original sources, it will serve ever after as an 
interpreter of kindred information, whether received first hand 
by contact with things or through symbolic channels. 

Second, as a possession of the mind it is a nucleus to which 
all future information on the same subject obtained by original 
investigation or through symbolic channels will be added natur- 
ally and logically, thus insuring a well-arranged body of infor- 
mation on that subject at every step of acquisition. 

The process of learning to see is slow. It is, however, easy if 
the beginning is made simple and each step is made a sequential 
advance on its predecessor. The young mind grows by slow 
increments ; it exjaands by short stages, but it grows and ex- 

Study of Plants. 139 

panels easily, as does its physical home when given opportunity 
to do so naturally. To learn to see, the child must make pur- 
posive efforts in looking. He must be made to look for the 
purpose of discovering characteristics. Characteristics are not 
impressed easily. The young mind does not learn to see until 
it has looked many times and looked discriminatingly. 

Phenomena well adapted to the beginning of this kind of 
training are found in plants and animals. Fortunately these are 
geographic phenomena, a knowledge of which will be valuable 
in the future prosecution of geographic knowledge. A study of 
the forms of leaves, the colors of leaves, the parts of' leaves, 
the growth of leaves, involving comparisons and leading to con- 
clusions, will strengthen the mind systematically and develop 
its power to see. A study of buds, their forms, their positions 
and their development, will train the mind systematically, but 
on a slightly different line from that resulting from the study 
of leaves. There is in the study of buds a beginning of the 
study of cause and effect, but so simple, so easily understood, 
that the most childlike mind, if properly directed, can master it. 
Correspondingly it may be said of other parts of the study of 
plants ; then may it be said of plants in their entirety. By simple 
steps, each of which is taken many times, the child advances to 
the knowledge of the forms of plant life and many of the sequen- 
tial changes of the same. The child's mind during this study 
is strengthened, his breadth of seeing and thinking is enlarged, 
for it has involved his knowledge of the phenomena of cold and 
warm weather, of wet and dry weather, of sunshine and cloud, 
of springtime and summer, of fall and winter ; and his experi- 
ences, because of other relations of life than those of his school, 
have been made to form a part of his knoAvledge as one compact 
interrelated entirety, and to do office in that training which gives 
him power to see and strength to discover cause and effect. 
The work here indicated is possible in the school-room ; fortu- 
nately also it is the most profitable work that can be done for 
the accomplishment of those mechanical results which the school 
is expected to secure. In a corresponding way the study of ani- 
mals is equally profitable. It is a little more difficult because 
the phenomena are not so easily secured for study, a little more 
difficult again because the phenomena are not so easily under- 
stood as those of plants. The child has been prepared for this 
more difficult work, however, by his study of plants. 

140 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

It will be observed that in the study of units of work thus far 
named the child has been made acquainted with many geo- 
graphic phenomena and has come into the possession of a large 
geographic vocabulary, every word of which is the symbol of a 
geographic fact that has come into his possession by contact 
with the phenomenon itself. To this extent, then, has the mind 
been trained geographically; it may be said to have a geo- 
graphic bent. 

It will be observed also that the teaching thus far has had for its 
purpose, first, that training which leads to the perception of facts 
without reference to their causes— facts of size, color and form, 
of which the vegetal and animal world furnish so great and 
so delightful a variety, — and second, the perception of facts of 
size, color and form, and also of use or purpose, which involves 
an effort to see effect and to discover cause. 

■ The materials for use in training the child in these two steps 
are easily obtained. Their investigation affords a most delight- 
ful occupation for the child, which occupation correlates mental 
and physical activity in the acquisition of knowledge, thus in- 
suring both mental and physical improvement. 

. The next series of units or facts is learned by both experiment 
and observation. The child has become strong enough now to 
project causes and note results. The unit or series of work is the 
stucl}^ of vapor and its various phenomena, as steam, cloud, rain, 
hail, mist and dew. By experimenting the child sees water 
changed to dust, become invisible, return to dust, and, finally, 
look into his face from the ice pitcher as water again. By repeated 
efforts, by slow stages, he learns the causes of clouds and their 
precipitation as rain. He sees the morning mist, rising from the 
sidewalk as water, being carried away to be formed into drops 
to be relurned again to the hilltop as water ; and, by slow de- 
grees and by easy steps, he learns that the sun is lifting the 
water from the sea and from every other place where water is 
found, in whatever form, to the skies, where it is gathered and 
drifted and cooled, to be returned to the earth. Thus does he 
learn one great cause of geographic facts, of geographic phe- 
nomena, without which the mountains would not be denuded, 
valleys would not be made, springs would not become, and rivers 
would not flow. 

While the work in the study of plants and animals and in 
experimenting with water and studying its wonderful and in- 

The Sand-Board. 141 

teresting phenomena is going on, the child is being trained in 
some of the simpler steps of the study of position. He comes 
by this means into the possession of a vocabulary that is neces- 
sary for future use in the study of geography. He learns many 
terms used in showing the relative positions of objects, as ud, 
down, above, beloiv, farther, nearer, beyond, this side, that side. He 
studies the dimensions of definite areas, as the teacher's desk, 
the school-room in which he works. He learns to represent 
things on paper with the pencil, and, placing articles in various 
positions on the desk, he learns to represent them, not in per- 
spective, but as objects on a flat surface. Thus he is led from 
the things to the symbols of things, and thus does he gain 
power to see things in symbols. The school block or the park 
in front of the school or in some other part of the city is viewed, 
examined and talked about. It must be remembered that the 
talking about this block at this early stage of the work is most 
essential. By repeated viewing, repeated examinations and re- 
peated conversations, representing in oral symbols what has 
been seen and the relations of the things that have been seen, 
the mind is caused to grow continuouily and with a truly geo- 
graphic bent. 

An intermediate step is now thrown in, that is, a new symbol 
is introduced — a symbol between the oral symbol and that of 
the map,— representation by the sand-board. The block or lot 
or other portion of ground viewed and examined is represented 
on the sand-board in miniature in plastic material. This is 
most profitable work in the development of judgment. Having 
thus made a miniature block or park on the sand-board in the 
school-room, the child is led to represent the same on paper with 
the pencil, and is led to invent the mechanical means by which 
the elevations and depressions may be represented, giving fur- 
ther and valuable cultivation to the productive imagination on 
determinative lines. 

Next comes effort to read corresponding, correct maps of parts 
of the city, as blocks or parks, which work at first must be very 
simple. The measurable product of such reading is the con- 
versation of the child in oral description, and also the repre- 
sentation of what he sees on a little sand-board at his desk in 
plastic material. The product of such work of greatest value 
Avhich is not measurable is the growth of the child's mind in 
learning to reacl facts from symbols, for the world of geography, 

142 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

which is to be to him a source of profit and delight throughout 
his future life, will be presented to his mind mainly by means 
of symbols. 

During all the work thus far outlined the child has been 
assigned no tasks, or at most very few tasks. He has been 
led to put forth purposive effort by an interest that the teacher 
has aroused in him in the subjects under consideration. The 
kindergarten has been taken up into the primary school ; but 
the child has learned geographic terms, has learned their uses 
by using them, has learned their definitions by talking about 
them repeatedly, and has learned to spell them by writing them 
many times in his little compositions. He has learned the 
proper use of English idiom in the expression of geographic 
phenomena, whose forms and other conditions he has sought to 
explain to his teacher. 

Our young learner is yet in the primary school while doing 
the difterent kinds of work enumerated above. He has been 
learning to read, having read many stories and descriptions and 
poems relating to, and based on, the work which he has done 
and which enables him to understand thoroughly what he reads, 
and which causes him to be interested in what he reads, because 
it is the confirmation and expansion of that which he knoAvs to 
be true, as found by his own efforts. Very few, if any, tasks 
have been assigned, yet the child has become an original in- 
vestigator. Very few lessons have been prescribed,* 5^ et the child 
has learned to use English for the expression of exact ideas and 
in their exact relation. Very few requirements have been de- 
manded, yet the child has made a delightful beginning in the 
most interesting study of geography. 

If the purpose of the child's school life thus far had been only 
that he might learn to read, no more profitable, plan nor one 
more certain of true success could have been adopted. If the 
purpose of the work had been only to teach him to talk cor- 
rectly, to use his mother tongue for a purpose accurately and at 
the same time exactly, no better scheme could have been in- 
vented. If the purpose of the work had been to train the child 
to see, to discover, to project, to observe and to conclude within 
the limits of the possibilities of his mind adapted thereto, no 
better process could have been employed. 

The work, however, requires ideal teaching. It is not done 
by the assignment of lessons on the part of the teacher ; it is not 

Right Method' of Teaching. 143 

done by conninsi; on the part of the child. It is done hj self- 
imposed purposive activity on the part of the child ; it is induced 
by a loving appreciation of the way the child learns and by a 
broad, intellectual, thoroughly-planned leading on the part of 
the teacher. Thus far have I given what I am pleased here to 
state as the first circle in the teaching of geography in the schools 
of Washington. 

The giving of geographic knowledge has been but a secondary 
consideration in the teaching of the subject thus far, as will be 
readily seen. It has been, rather, the ever-present aim of all 
the work to put the learner's mind in a rational attitude toward 
geographic phenomena. Quantity is of little importance in any 
school work. More important is that presentation of subjects 
and that consideration of subjects that result in an attitude on 
the part of the learner toward these which may be characterized 
by intellectual alertness or interest, intellectual exactness or 
accuracy, and intellectual control or a cultivated will. 

The child who has finished a subject in school has not been 
put in a rational attitude toward that subject. The learning 
must be such that it will nourish and give appetite for more, 
and at the same time develop that intellectual activity and 
strength that will insure success and continued pleasure in the 
further prosecution of the subject. He who closes his German 
book to read no more because he has finished the subject has 
not been taught right and has studied largely in vain, no matter 
how high he stands on his final examination. So is it with any 
other subject. The fault is always in the teaching, and is 
found in the wrong idea of what should be taught or in a wrong 
selection no less than in the wrong methods of teaching. What 
to teach is harder to determine than how to teach. 

In our study thus far we have been brought in contact with 
two kinds of phenomena, geographic conditions and causes of 
geographic facts. Neither has been studied, however, in a way 
to show its relation in the groups of geographic categories. The 
child does not know that he has been studying geography. He 
has been growing familiar with the forms and other character- 
istics of naturalistic facts which, however, have been so grouped 
as to make their relations easily seen when he shall have reached 
the stage of progress in his development where it will be desira- 
ble and profitable for him to resolve his store of facts into cate- 
gorical series. He has been preparing for geographic study. 

144 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

This preparation is not yet complete ; it must include a knowl- 
edge of humanistic phenomena which he must get first hand, 
for geography involves a knowledge of men and of nations, with 
the conditions of their lives and their related industries and 
commercial characteristics and achievements. 

The second circle of studies may well begin with the study of 
humanistic iDhenomena. 

Now we study the life of the city in all its ramifications as far 
as the child is able to understand it ; — the buildings of the city, 
of what they are made, for what they are used, where the ma- 
terials came from of which they are made, how these are prepared 
and how they are transported ; home life under different con- 
ditions such as nationality and classes ; home interiors, schools, 
churches ; the uses of buildings, and their corresponding struc- 
tures thus fitting them for their uses ; the streets, how they are 
named or designated, how houses thereon are named or desig- 
nated ; where bridges occur, why they are there, thus deter- 
mining thoroughfares and principal streets by their causes ; 
the occupations of the people; the productions of the city, 
means of transportation, means of communication, means of 
lighting the city ; the water system of the city in its details ; 
the sewerage system, which leads to a knowledge of the use of 
the river as a scavenger ; all of which knowledge, with much 
more that cannot here be enumerated, is gained by actual ob- 
servation and experience and, if properly done, helps to lay the 
foundation for a correct understanding of geography ; helps to 
prepare the child for the study of other cities which he may not 
have visited, but of which he may know by reading and by com- 
parison with the facts of his ow^i city which he has studied. This 
group of facts should be taught thoroughly and with great care. 

Children twelve years of age are found in the city who have 
never seen the White House, who do not know the relative posi- 
tions of the Capitol and the Treasury. Children, graduates of 
the high school, are found who have never seen the Soldiers' 
Home and do not know what it is for ; who do not know how 
Washington is supplied with water, or understand the meaning 
of the name Conduit road. Such children are not found in great 
numbers, but that a few have been found suggests that others 
may have been ill-prepared for the study of geographic text, and 
that perhaps all have had less preparation by contact with 
things than they should have had. 

Another group of phenomena to which the children's minds 

Lessons in the Field. 145 

are directed and which must be taken up systematically, consists 
of interesting facts having climatic causes. The children do not 
study them as such, because they do not know what climate 
is. They, however, associate them in climatic categories while 
studying them, thus being helped to understand climate, its 
causes and effects logically, when later, they study the subject 
for that purpose. They observe the coming and going of birds 
and note the time of the year of each ; they observe the birds 
that do not leave and the kinds of homes that each species build ; 
they observe the coming of snow, the coming of flowers, and 
the length of the days with each of these times of year, and 
learn to associate them as correlated facts, but not as cause and 
effect. They are yet too young to know the distinction. This 
group of phenomena is large, interesting and valuable for edu- 
cative purposes. Like other groups to which I have called 
attention, it must be passed after alluding to it enough in detail 
to make its character and purpose understood to the hearer. 

Our children have now grown strong in their power to see, so 
purposive have been the steps by which their observation has 
been directed. They are next taken to the fields to observe the 
decay of rocks, the making of soil, the running of streams, the 
washing of hillsides, the making of valleys, the denuding of 
hilltops, and the numerous other phenomena which the casual, 
uncultivated reader does not see, cannot see, but which the 
student of geography should be trained to see before he is allowed 
to proceed further in the study. Much of this work is done 
in the school-room, involving the examination of rocks, the 
examination of pebbles, and the study of the causes of their 
forms. Miniature coal mines are made to appear in the school- 
room ; the different kinds of coal are examined (the ' causes 
for the existence of different kinds of coal need not trouble 
us at this time) ; the different kinds of rock— shale, sandstone, 
'etc, may be studied advantageously in the school-room. The 
purpose of this is to give information and especially to open the 
eyes of the children and to put them in a proper intellectual 
attitude to their surroundings, when, for any cause, they go into 
the fields or onto the hill-tops. 

During the progress of the study of this last unit the children 
learn many valuable geographic facts, facts that are valuable as 
interpreters in their further reading and as nuclei in their fur- 
ther acquisition of geographic information. vSome of these are 

. 20— Nat. Geog. Mag , vol. V, 1893. 

146 W. B. Powell — Geograpliic Instruction. 

concepts of valleys, of slopes, of water-divides, of drainage areas, 
of denuding of land surfaces, of filling of lake basins, and of 
changes in courses of streams. They are the geographic alpha- 
bet for further reading and investigation. 

Some of these lessons must be given many times because the 
real meaning of some of the phenomena is difficult of percep- 
tion. During the progress of this series of lessons the children 
handle many specimens and talk about them ; make many river 
basins in sand and talk about them; make many miniature 
ranges of hills and talk about them ; compound small- valleys 
into larger ones and talk about them ; gather the. waters of 
many little streams and carry them down in one large flow to 
lake or-ocean; define, that is bound, the smaller basins and in 
turn the large basins including the smaller ones, thus building 
in the mind concepts by means, of which in later study they 
may be made to understand the great basins or drainage areas 
of which a continent is made. During all this activity with the 
mind and hand they read about the subjects upon which their 
minds and hands are engaged and thus learn the real meanings 
of words and the correct uses of geographic terms, thus learn to 
get geographic information from the printed text. 

Our next group of work, for which the children are now pre- 
pared, is the close study of a section of country having various 
characteristics, first noting the different characteristics and 
recording them, then representing the section on the sand- 
board in plastic materials from the study of the field-notes. To 
do this in some cases it is found necessary to make the sand- 
map in the field from observation and afterwards make field- 
notes, that the children may learn how to make field-notes, and 
then how to use them in the workshop or laboratory. This 
power comes slowly, but like all other acquisitions of power, it 
comes easily if the steps are short, sequential and taken often 

The next step is the representation of the section studied with 
pencil. This representation is made from the sand-map rather 
than directly from the section studied. The next step is that of 
studying a wall map representing a section of country, and then 
translating it, in representation, on the sand-board. This whole 
unit of work is given chiefly for the purpose of training children 
to see contour and other geographic facts in symbols — that is, for 
teaching children to interpret a map. AV^e have thus far, if we 

Training of the Imagination. 147 

have done our work as we had hoped to do, trained our children 
to such a degree that, in part at least, they can be lead to under- 
stand maps and texts that describe them. They are now ready 
for the study of geography as found in the text book. The last 
group of units constitutes the second circle of geographic work. 

It should be stated here that during the progress of this tech- 
nical geographic work the children read much of people and of 
places, of industries, of products and of processes. This reading 
is made intelligible by the preparation the children have had 
for it and by the fact that most of it is either exemplified or 
illustrated in the school-room. The children have articles of 
clothing brought into the school-room to be examined and to be 
compared with corresponding articles of their own ; they have 
products, both natural and manufactured, on their desks in 
abundance, for study, for comparison, for conversation ; they have 
illustrations of fields, of factories, of processes ; they study the 
changed forms of materials, in connection with the processes 
and machines by which these forms are changed ; they compare 
the crude materials with the marketable materials, and show 
where the one kind is found, in a package on the grocer's shelf, 
and name the processes by which the transformation is made. 
Thus are the}^ made ready, in a further sense, to study the 
geography of the world and to understand some of the very im- 
portant and valuable facts which the study of geography dis- 
closes to him who knows how to read properly. 

One purpose of the work thus far has been that of training 
the imagination of the child. If he goes from home he sees 
other cities and compares them with his own, for which com- 
parison he has been prepared ; he sees hills, valleys, streams, 
plains and other phenomena, which he interprets by that which 
he learned in his home study, by comparing the two. If he 
does not travel from home he takes journeys in imagination, for 
books are put into his hands for that purpose. He thus, in im- 
agination, visits other cities in distant states. These he finds 
on river banks or by the seaside. He sees ranges of hills, val- 
le3''s, mountains, streams, dams, canals, factories ; he witnesses 
processes and examines products, in every step of which com- 
parison is made and conclusions drawn. In this work, too, he 
is trained to estimate distances by comparing the unknoAvn with 
the known, thus getting some adequate conception of direction 
and space, 

148 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

The children are now strong enough to look upon the world 
as a whole ; they are acquainted with much of the phenomena 
resulting from the facts that the earth is spherical and that it re- 
volves on its axis. They undoubtedly know these facts also, for 
an intelligent teacher could not thus long instruct children with- 
out being forced to tell them of these facts. They now, therefore, 
are to become acquainted with the globe representing the earth 
and its surface. They learn the grand land divisions of the earth 
and its chief water divisions and learn the relations of each to all 
the others; learn the relative size of each and approximately as 
as nearly as they can be made to understand the actual size of each 
in extreme breadth and length. They learn some facts of climate 
without special stud}^, of course, further than that derived from 
a knowledge of the relation of the axis of the earth to the plane 
of its orbit. This gives opportunity for teaching belts or zones, 
and as far as it is taught at all it is taught with accuracy. Now, 
the children's knowledge of plants and animals and kinds of 
people about which they have been learning may be further 
enlarged, and each kind or group of facts relegated to its appro- 
priate belt or zone home. The continents and oceans may be 
located in zone belts or climatic homes, and plants, animals and 
men located in their respective parts of continents or oceans ; 
thus correlating the old, or that which was previously learned, 
with the new. Thus may the learner see the globe divided into 
land and water, related to heat and cold, possessed of life, dis- 
tributed by climatic causes, possessing characteristics consistent 
with and lives induced by such causes. 

The children are now prepared to study geography as the 
home of man and as the result of man's skill and efforts ; study 
geography by states, by civilization, by socialistic phenomena, by 
economic phenomena. State lines may be made to mean Some- 
thing to the children now. Great and important lines of com- 
merce may be fixed easily, because the children find out not only 
where they exist but why they are there. But before these are 
studied in their detail it is desirable to study the continent in its 
special structure of mountain ranges and consequent basins or 
drainage areas. For this the children have been prepared by 
their previous work. To prevent making this part of my sub- 
ject too long and too tedious I will say that North America is 
studied physically, in which connection it is studied historically 
also, so that national lines or divisions are seen to move back and 

Study of the United States. 149 

forth and finally become fixed by physical causes when such 
exist, as is the case frequently. The relations of these States 
are studied historically and politically. Commercial centers of 
commerce are fixed definitely, and the reasons for their locations 
are ascertained either in history or in physical causes, or in both. 

The character, value and extent of the commerce of each city 
are definitely studied; the relations of the same are discovered 
and means by which such commerce is carried on are definitely 

The character of the people, their industries, their habits of 
life, are studied in each country. Comparisons are made and 
conclusions are drawn, and causes are sought and sometimes, 
if not in all cases, ascertained. Natural products and manu- 
factured products and articles of dress are studied. Other arti- 
cles, as of warfare or husbandry, showing conditions and habits 
of life, are brought into the school-room and examined and 
discussed. The imaginations of the children are called on in 
picturing the lives and homes of the people of these countries 
in comparison with their own lives and their own homes. The 
cultivation of the imagination is helped by the use of pictures 
and by the reading of text, describing and narrating ; by reading 
tales and poems, the result of which is tested from time to time 
by the writing of essays and the representation in graphic form 
of what is in the minds of the children. During the progress of 
this study the children are made to know how to get to these 
centers of commercial life. Thus do the children learn the rela- 
tion of each state of the continent to the other states. To say 
that they learn of steamboat lines and railroad lines, and tele- 
graph lines and express companies, is unnecessary. These are 
taught necessarily, but as a means, not as an end. 

Now the children are to study the United States as an entirety 
in a corresponding way, the details of which need not here be 
given. It should be said, however, that the states are grouped by 
physical characteristics and climatic conditions, which in turn 
help to group them according to productions and industries and 
resources, which in turn enable us to determine the character and 
occupations of the people in large belts or sections, and at the 
same time to locate commercial centers. Now we have only to 
get the connecting links between these commercial centers or, 
in other words, the ways and processes of communication and 
transportation, then we have a good general view of the United 

150 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

States and of the people of the United States, where thej' are, 
and what they are doing. Details in great number are avoided ; 
the definite locality of important places is insisted on, as well as 
the means of communication by land and Avater between such 
important places, the geographic history of the states and their 
cities having been learned at the outset. 

We are now prepared to look again from the United States 
out on the continent and get the governmental relations between 
the states of the continent and the United States as a whole, as 
well as with large commercial centers of the United States, and 
the child is led to see lines of communication, freighted with 
commerce and human life, stretching between cities of different 
states, each end of which is guarded by representatives from 
other states. The child is made to know why such guards are 
placed there and what some of their prerogatives are. It will 
be seen that this is the geography of man and his doings, and not 
the geography of state-line boundaries and locations of capital 
cities and their sizes. 

The relativity of the values of industries, of the values of 
products, of the areas of states, of the populations of states, of 
the sizes of cities, the industries of the cities, etc, are studied 
and represented in graphic form for comparison, innumerable 
examples of n which may be found in our schools at the proper 
time of year. 

Now, before South America is studied, we need to know a 
little more of the causes of climate, many of the results of climate 
having been taken on faith, without having had recourse to their 
causes. Some physical phenomena of the United States would 
have been better understood had the children known better the 
climatic causes ; such causes however, it is believed, are too. dif- 
ficult for them to master at the time of their development, when 
the facts Avere learned. The children are now stronger. The 
climate of South America and its resulting eff'ects are a little 
more difficult to understand than those of North America, partl}^ 
because they are farther from home ; so we give a little study 
of the trade winds, their causes and effects, and try to give an 
understanding, if not of the causes, certainly 'of the existence of 
the Gulf Stream and its efl'ect on climate, which prepares the 
children for the study of South America in a Avay corresponding 
to that in which they studied North America. It may be stated, 
in passing, that South America is studied largely in its commer- 

. Study of Foreign Countries. 151 

cial relations to the commercial centers of the United States. 
The people of course, demand a large part of our effort in the 
study of this countr3^ In point of quantity, the study of South 
America is very small compared with that of North America or 
even of the United States. 

Now Europe is studied in a corresponding way ; but Europe 
is more difficult to study than South America. The geographic 
history of North and South America is easily obtained and easily 
remembered because of its sequential character and because of 
its relation to our present condition. The historical geography 
of Europe, however, is long and complicated. Not much of it 
therefore, is attempted. The causes of climate however, are 
studied and physical reasons for present state lines are consid- 
ered. Europe is studied by representative nations in their 
relation to the United States and representative commercial 
centers of the United States. In this study the locations of , 
commercial centers are definitely fixed and means of communi- 
cation are considered and learned. Of course the people are 
studied, and their lives, habits and industries are considered. 
To accomplish these ends we study the habits of their repre- 
sentatives among us and ascertain their home life in fatherland 
by studying the causes of their coming here. Their manufact- 
ures are brought into the school-room and studied by compari- 
son with our own. The location of some of their reiDresentatives 
in this country is ascertained ; the location of some of our rep- 
resentatives in their country is ascertained ; the result of having 
such representatives in two countries is ascertained to some 
extent. Thus the children are made to know as far as they are 
able to understand, the governmental, the social, and the com- 
mercial relations existing between the great centers of Europe 
and of those of America, and while learning them they are led 
to consider their causes and their effects upon our lives and 
upon our industries, and thifs they come to know how man is 
making and changing geograjDhy. 

Now Asia, Africa and Oceanica are studied, but to only a 
limited degree by comparison with Europe or even by compari- 
son with South America, because there is not time to study 
them more. The purpose of teaching geography in the school, 
as has been before stated, is to train the children how to study 
it. It is not possible to teach anything exhaustively ; it is not 
desirable. We have trained the children to see that an interest- 

152 W. B. Powell — Geographic Instruction. 

ing purpose of their Avork in school is the knowledge of the 
geography of man, of what he is, of what he has been, of what 
he is doing, and of how he is related to the activities of the world, 
and to the ever and constantly changing geographic phenomena 
of the world. 

Later in the school course, if I may speak definitely, in the 
eighth grade, the children have a study of the essential outlines 
of physical geography from a logical and scientific standpoint, 
during which study there is opportunity for relegating the vast 
amount of phenomena with which they have become acquainted 
during their study of geography into categorical series, and thus 
classifying them sequentially and logically. 

I must not omit one other point. I have stated from time to 
time that our children do much reading from standard authors, 
accounts of travels, descriptions of peoples and of countries, ex- 
positions of processes etc, which they are able to understand 
because of the character of their preparation for such reading, 
namely, their contact with things first hand. I have stated 
also that the teacher and children avail themselves of charts 
and maps and pictures or graphic representations almost with- 
out number or limit for the purpose of explanation, elaboration 
or more definite view, some school-rooms being veritable mu- 
seums or picture galleries. For instance, when a city like Lon- 
don or Philadelphia is being studied, these pictures hang side by 
side with Washington pictures, with which they are compared. 
But there is one other class of reading for which we have been 
preparing our children, which without this preparation could 
not be appreciated by them, even if it could be made intelligible 
to them. I mean pure literature that has for a part. of its con- 
tents, facts of nature, all of which when properly studied, is a 
part of the study of geography. I do not refer to that valuable 
literature used largely in getting information, of wdiich I have 
spoken so much in this paper, a^ that for instance, by Bayard 
Taylor, in his account of other lands ; Washington Irving, in 
tales of travel, such as his voyages, Italian scenes, description 
of London ; John Burroughs, in his fascinating accounts of 
animals and their haunts, and other similar authors. This 
is studied as a means of getting information. I refer to a body ■ 
of pure literature, whose office is to please and cultivate rather 
than to instruct and cultivate. Alhambra by Moonlight ; A 
Description of Niagara ; A Description of a Storm at Sea ; Oli- 

Study of Nature. 153 

ver Wendell Holmes's Chambered Nautilus; Gray's Elegy in 
a Country Church-yard; Whittier's Barefoot Boy; Bryant's 
Waterfowl, and Proctor's The Sea, represent this literature. 

" I thought the sparrow's note from heaven, 
Singing at dawn on tire alder bough ; 
I brought him home, in his nest, at even. 
He sings the song, but it pleases not now, 
For I did not bring home the river and sky. 
He sang to my ear— they sang to my eye." 

One must get close to nature and know it well ; must learn 
much of birds and flowers ; must commune Avith river and sky 
as a lover, to understand how Mr. Emerson could see in them 
the enchanting part of bird song. 

" Ye banks and braes o' bonny Doon, 

How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair? 
How can ye chaunt, ye little birds. 
An' I sae weary, fu' o' care ? " 

No dictionary can define for the student this most masterful 
contrast of English tongue ; no grammar or rhetoric explain it ; 
no eloquent master develop it. He alone can know and feel its 
full force who, though life may have given to him the darkest 
sorrow, knows by experience of the caroling of birds, of flowery 
banks, of chattering brooks, and of carpeted meadow lands stretch- 
iijg to shaded nooks in the hillside beyond. 

A large part, not the larger part, of our literature can be under- 
stood and appreciated only by him who has been jjroperly pre- 
pared to study geography aright. How many men and women, 
how many students, read such literature only as words. This 
body of literature is to be studied and classified and known by 
authors as literature proceeding from a knowledge and love of 

21— Nat. Gkog, Mar., voi,. V, 1893, 




There was a time when it was necessary to search for the 
material of instruction, but tliat time has passed. Researcli has 
not only supplied a sufficiency of intellectual matter, but has 
overwhelmed us with a plethora of knowledge. There is much, 
infinitely much, yet to learn, but more is in hand than can be 
taught. The day of selection has come. It falls to us now, as 
educators, to look over our several fields and choose that w^hich 
is most serviceable for general educational purposes, setting 
aside the remainder for specialists. This is not less true of the 
field of geography and geology than of the fields of other 

The primary question is, What shall be the criteria of our 
selection? Granting that all knowledge and all culture are 
good, the question that presses for solution is. What is best — 
best on the whole ; best for the average student ; best at the 
several stages of stud}^ ? It will be but repeating an ancient and 
much-worn maxim to say that the selection should have high 
regard for disciplinary culture. It does not follow, however, 
that disciplinary culture is not compatible with other desirable 
characteristics, and that these should not determine the selec- 
tion. An intellectual wrestling Avith an economic problem or a 
struggle to gain knowledge inherently valuable may be as dis- 
ciplinary as though the problem or the knowledge were value- 
less in itself. The quest is rather to find that which shall 
possess value in itself when attained together with disciplinary 
value in its attainment. It is not one merit alone that should 
be sought, but a combination of the greatest possible merits. 
The selection should, therefore, have high regard to the value 
of the knowledge involved. 

The selection should embrace a due measure of phenomena 
with which the student may come into direct contact. The 


Union of the Disciplinary and the Useful. 155 

more immediately he deals with the phenomena themselves, the 
more clear and definite will be his basal conce]3ts, and the more 
solid and tangible his fundamental ideas. The basal factors of 
thought in any department should be vivid, and in the study 
of earth-forms and earth-structure this vividness may be best 
derived by work on the part with which the students are in 
immediate contact. 

The selection should be such as to call forth not simply ob- 
servation a-nd acquisition through memory, but the higher 
mental processes, analysis, induction, imagination, interpreta- 
tion, and so forth. The selection will fall short of the highest 
merit if it does not invite and promote a constant inquiry into 
the causes that lie back of the phenomena, the history through 
which they have passed, their significance, and the extension 
and application of the results of the study to remote phenomena 
and to broader fields. 

The selection should embrace matter that has inherent and 
stimulating significance, that will lead students to read similar 
significances in like phenomena whenever and wherever pre- 

The value of the selection will be enhanced if it has immediate 
and evident relationship to human affairs. However beautiful 
the purely idealistic conception of mental activity and mental 
acquisition for its own sake may be, the fact remains that we are 
human beings and more easily and efiectively interested in 
human affairs than in that which is remote from man's interests. 
K the selection shall have an evident relationship to economical 
and industrial interests, its effectiveness will be promoted ; but 
if it does not also bear upon man's sociological, intellectual, 
esthetical. and ethical interests, it will fall short of the full 
measure of merit. It should make its contribution to these not 
only by helpful knowledge, but by the culture that accompanies 
its acquisition, by the suggestiveness of its laws, its modes of 
action, and its analogies. 

In addition to these qualities, which may be common to other 
subjects, the selection in each field should be so made as to open 
to the student a special realm of culture, and to familiarize him 
with some great factor of thought not equally well developed by 
any other subject of study. Each great field may be assumed 
to possess a richness of its own and to be competent to yield a 
fruitage Avhich has its own peculiar and incomparable qualities. 

156 T. 0. Chamberlin — Relations of Geology to Physiography. 

Now, the study of the earth may assume the phase which we 
term geography, or the phase which we term geology, or the 
intermediate phase which we are coming to designate phj'-siog- 
raphy. Each of these has its pecuUar place and merits, each 
makes contributions to the other, and each imposes the duty 
of selection within its own field. But besides this there are 
questions of the inter-relationship between these. It falls to 
me to discuss the relations of geology to physiography in general 
education. * 

It may be assumed that the natural order of succession of 
the phases of earth-study in our educational system is — first, 
geography, then physiography, and lastly, geology. A practical 
question of importance presents itself on the threshold : How 
far will the best selection and adaptation of subject-matter take 
material from the field of geology and use it in the field of physi- 
ography? How far, on the other hand, should physiography 
relinquish its field to be cultivated in the name of geology ? Or, 
since the field is a common one in a large degree, with no sharp 
dividing lines, what shall we select as the chief subject-matter 
of instruction and training in physiography ? ■ The great features 
of the earth are at once geographic, physiographic, and geo- 
logic. We may shift our somewhat arbitrary lines of distinc- 
tion very much as we see fit. We may choose that which is 
educationally best with little regard to these. 

From the geologic standpoint the physical study of the earth 
divides its attention between three great elements : First, the 
agencies and processes engaged in the sculpturing of the land 
and their results; second, the agencies and processes concerned 
in the deposit of the waste of the land in the seas and other 
basins and in the building up of strata ; and third, the internal 
agencies and processes Avhich disturb and distort the surface and 
modif}^ the preceding activities and their results. Now, if we 
are to study processes and agencies in the geologic phase, we 
must make selection from these three great fields, and our study 
should embrace agencies and processes if it is to meet the criteria 
of merit alread}^ sketched. 

To some extent we may make selection from all these fields, 
and within limits this is eminently desirable to give balance, 
scope and completeness to the general conception ; but an 
equable distribution will prevent thoroughness of study in any 
one field. Besides, they possess unequal merits as educational 

The Prevalence of Land Sculpture. 157 

factors. There is furthermore, a natural order of succession that 
cannot wisely be ignored. That should be selected which comes 
first to hand in natural order and is least dependent on other 

It is obvious that the study of the internal forces presents the 
most obscure and difficult of the three fields. These forces were 
very influential in determining the grosser outlines of the earth's 
physiognomy, but they were onl}^ indirectly involved in de- 
veloping the finer tracings of the earth's features, the lineaments 
of which furnish the best subjects of detailed study in the earlier 

When the selection is limited to a choice between the sculp- 
turing of the land and the deposition of the seas, the application 
of the criteria above indicated seems at once decisive. We may 
be said to be everywhere in contact with the land and in the 
presence of land-sculpturing. We are only here and there in 
contact with the seas or other depositional basins, and the pro- 
cesses of strata-building and land-growth are not everywhere sub- 
servient to direct study. We may be said to be constantly deal- 
ing with the results of the disintegration, wear and wastage of 
the land. We are only here and there immediately concerned 
in the depositions of the seas or of like agencies. 

The natural sequence of processes brings the land action first 
to our study. The material must be loosened and borne down 
to the basins before it can be deposited. Derivation goes before 

•The surface-shaping processes are simple in part and complex 
in part. They present a gradation from simplicity to complexity, 
and from ease to difficulty, that makes them happily subservient 
to the skillful teacher in leading scholars on step by step from 
the mastery of one point to another as their capacities develop 
and their previous successes warrant. The processes of deposi- 
tion and of land growth are simpler and have narrower limita- 
tions and hence aff"orcl a less rich and pliable field for disciplinary 

The surface-shaping agencies are more intlmatel}^ associated 
with human affairs and more determinative of human interests 
than are the depositional processes. From many points of view, 
therefore, if not from all, the sculpturing of the land constitutes 
a more rich, pliable, and inviting field for the earlier educational 
processes than the depositional work of the basins or the crust- 
disturbing activities of the more obscure forces within the earth. 

158 T. C. Chamherlin — Relations of Geology to Physiography. 

Obvious as this seems upon mere statement, it is nevertheless, 
true that the sculpturing of the land has been rather the last 
than the first field systematically and adequately cultivated by 
geologists, and contributions from it to geography and physi- 
ograph}^ have been among the tardiest and thus far among the 
most incomplete. 

The earlier efforts of geologists were largely bestowed on the 
old strata that form tlie outer part of the crust and that were 
produced by ancient deposition, and to the great wrinklings and 
reliefs of the surface produced by the earth's internal forces. It 
is only within recent years, perhaps we may be justified in sa}^- 
ing only within the last decade or two, that the detailed pro- 
cesses by which the surface contours, the drainage features, and 
the agronomic adaptabilities were wrought out and are being 
wrought out, have received systematic and anal3^tic study at the 
hands of any considerable body of specialists. It is now, per- 
haps for the first time in the history of the earth-study, possible 
to teach effectively the processes by which surfaces take on the 
forms they possess, and to read the history and the significance 
of the physiognomy of the land. The face of the land has its 
ages and stages as truly as does the face of man. It has its 
babyhood, its youth, its maturity, its advancing age, its senility, 
and its end. Ever}^ portion of the earth is in some one of these 
ages or stages and is passing on to the next succeeding. There 
may arise intercurrent events which cut off the history of a land- 
scape as accidents cut off the histor}^ of a man, but a ncAV his- 
tory begins and a new succession of stages is inaugurated. 
Every part of the surface of the earth is, therefore, full of signifi- 
cance. Every valle}^ every stream, is young or old, and is 
working out a definite histor3^ Every hill and every mountain 
is developing toward maturity or decadence. Every part of the 
earth carries on its face a record of what is being done, of Avhat 
has been done, and of what is to be clone, unless intercurrent 
events cut off its natural progress. There is, therefore, a phj^si- 
ognomy of the earth as well as a physiognomy of man, full of 
interest, full of significance, full of bearings upon industry and 
upon civilization. 

This new field, though chiefly opened up by the geologists, is 
ground common to geography, physiography and geology. As 
a field of original investigation it will doubtless remain largely 
the possession of the geologists until there shall arise a special- 

Disciplinary Use of pliysiograpliic Study. 159 

ized class of jDhysiographers who sliall assume its particular culti- 
vation. It is yet rich in unsolved problems and invites the 
advanced student and the young investigator as well as the ex- 
pert specialist. In our established educational system there 
appear to me sufficient grounds in the considerations offered, for 
urging that this phase of activity should constitute the central 
training ground in physiography, not to the exclusion of the 
other departments, but as that basal part of the subject on 
which the early disciplinary endeavor should be chiefly ex- 
pended and from which the work of the beginner may proceed 
to other fields. 

Respecting the place of physiography, the same considerations 
seem to assign it an intermediate position between geography, 
as usually introduced, and geology. 

Geography may be said to have for its special function the 
presentation of the features of the earth as they are ; physiog- 
raphy has for a part of its special field the study of the physiog- 
nomy of the earth as an exhibition of agencies and jDrocesses 
and as a portrayal of the forces that are making and unmaking 
the face of the land and influencing its inhabitants ; while geology 
has for its function the revelation of the history and structure 
of the earth and of the forces that work within as well as with- 
out it. These are only the salient features. Each has a wider 
field when given its full compass. 

It is the peculiar province of geology to teach us something of 
the extent and significance of time. No study ojDens up in like 
degree the great vista of time and extends and amplifies our 
conceptions in terms of this fundamental condition of thought. 
Astronomy performs a like function respecting space. These 
are the twin expansive studies in terms of time and space. The 
special function of physiography is to develop our perceptions 
and conceptions of present surface activities and environment 
and to give us an intellectual command of the agencies which 
are constantly engaged in moulding its configuration into that 
wide variety and expressiveness and that diverse utility which 
gives to its intellectual and physical reactions upon the human 
race such scope and potency in the development of human 

Not the least of my purposes has been to invite attention to 
the important contributions which recent studies have made to 
physiographic study, and to the important place it is entitled 

160 T.C. Cham her Ivn — Re lation s of Geo logy to Physiogra2y hy. 

to occupy in our educational system. It is my conviction, as 
already indicated, that physiography should be given a distinct 
recognition under this distinctive term and a definite place in 
our curricula intermediate between geography, as usually un- 
derstood, and geology. 

To avoid possible misunderstanding, joermit me to say that I 
recognize, as already intimated, the breadth of the field appro- 
priate to iDhysiography. It may be made to embrace the entire 
physical environment of man and so to include large factors of 
meteorology and astronomy as well as the distribution and 
physical relations of plants, animals, the races of man, and the 
types of civilization. Its realm is broader than that of either 
geography or geology, and in this breadth and comprehensive- 
ness lies one of its claims to a place in our high-school courses. 
It is because of this very breadth that I urge selection and a 
sufficient concentration upon the part most available for educa- 
tional purposes, to furnish typical ideas and basal training. I 
urge concentration upon the immediate environment of man 
and upon the processes and activities transpiring in our very 
presence, as a groundwork and jDoint of departure for the broader 
view of man's physical surroundings. The immediate environ- 
ment involves an important meteorological factor, but that does 
not fall within my special theme. 

When physiography shall be developed effectively along these 
lines, it may very wisely, I think, replace the formal study of 
geology in our high schools except in special cases where there 
are local or personal reasons for retaining it, for physiography 
taught in this vital and genetic wa}^ contains many of the most 
essential and fundamental elements of geology. 



The problem assigned to the writer in the fall of 1888 by 
Colonel McDonald, the United States Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries, was the study of the movements of the schools offish 
along a portion of the Atlantic coast. These movements have 
been a constant puzzle to the fishermen in their efforts to follow 
the schools. 

The object of our investigation was to see if some relation 
could not be discovered between the changes in temperature in 
the water and the migrations of the fish which inhabit it. 

Colonel McDonald has shown that such a connection exists, 
in his researches on the shad, and the same was found true in 
Professor Goode's study of the menhaden. We attempted to 
verify this on a larger scale and in a systematic manner. The 
United States Fish Commission schooner Grampus was placed at 
our disposal and especially equipped for the work assigned to 
the party. 

The body of water off the New England coast was chosen be- 
cause it was supposed that in this region the contrasts between 
the currents would be more distinctly shown, from the fact of 
their being forced closer together by the projection of the main- 
land so far southeastward from its general curve. This expecta- 
tion was realized in the course of the work. 

We aimed to cover the space lying between Block island and 
Nantucket, and extending southward to a distance of 150 miles 
from the land, with a network of stations which should be 10 
miles apart in all- directions, and on which, at as regular inter- 
vals as possible, observations were to be made. 

These observations related to the temperature and specific 
gravity of the surface water, together with a regular hourly 

22— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. (161) 

162 William Libbey — Gulf Stream and Labrador Current. 

series of meteorologic observations ; and serial observations were 
made on the temperature of tlie water at each of the several 

In the serial temperature work the thermometers were fastened 
to a wire cable of 19 strands of number 24 crucible steel music 
wire, with a breaking strain of 1,500 pounds. The interval be- 
tween the instruments varied'as the depth increased. They were 
placed closer together where the changes were quickest — i. e., 
near the surface — and Avhere the temperatures became more 
regular they were placed further apart. We onW adopted a 
regular system for the distribution of the thermometers along 
the cable after having examined the whole area to be studied 
from north to south along several lines and were sure that all 
the facts were covered by the system. 

The area was studied by running out a series of lines 10 miles 
apart, along which at intervals of 10 miles the stations were made- 
These lines were repeated as often as possible, and temperature 
profile curves were plotted along these lines, based on the observa- 
tions made at the stations. On most of these temperature pro- 
files we have given the curves of 70°, 60° and 50° as being the 
most important. 

The 50° curve has been an interesting one from the beginning, 
as it was the means of showing us that there were two sets of 
conditions under which the two measurably distinct bodies of 
water came in contact. 

It will be convenient to speak of these two portions of the 
main current of the Gulf stream separately. I shall therefore 
speak of the upper portion first. 

/. Upper Portion. 

The boundary between the cold and the warm currents of the 
surface is ver}'- seldom a straight line, perpendicular to the sur- 
face. It marks the position of the resultant of all the forces at 
work. Of course the general position of the boundary will be 
determined by the velocities of the two bodies and the direction 
of their currents when they come in contact. 

If we leave out of consideration the wind as an efiective agent 
in the production and directing of the oceanic currents, Ave find 
that it becomes a most potent factor in the clianges wliich are 

Influence of Winds on the Gulf Stream. 163 

produced in the position of this line at the surface. The winds 
sway the surface of these currents one way or another, some- 
times for many miles, and they may retard or reinforce th ecur 
rents in their flow. 

The winds which blow over this portion of the northern Atlantic 
may for convenience be grouped in two classes. One may be 
said to blow in a southeasterly direction and the other in a north- 
westerly direction. The general tendency of the first group, or 
the summer set, will be to drive the warmer waters at the sur- 
face over toward the coast, thus forcing them above the colder 
waters of the Labrador current. The other, or winter set, may 
be considered to have the opposite effect on these waters, and 
the final position reached after a cycle is completed will depend 
on the relative velocities of the winds. It is not denied that 
there are other factors which enter into this result, nor that this 
position is not affected by the physical characters of the waters, 
viz, their relative temperatures, densities, etc ; but it is claimed 
that, after due allowance for other factors, the winds are the 
most active causes of the daily and seasonal variations which 
take place in this boundary. 

While these motion^p may equalize one another and the re- 
sultant position remain the same from year to year, it is sup- 
posable that there may be an excess in one of these directions 
for a series of years, with the result that the boundary will be 
carried far inshore from its normal position and thus to a great 
extent obliterate the surface indications of the other current near 
the surface. 

//. Lower Portion. 

Here only the general causes which produce and modify the 
currents in the oceans can produce any change, unless by the 
cumulative effect, spoken of in the previous section, modifica- 
tions are brought about. As a rule, however, the variations 
referred to might almost be classed as accidental, because they 
are rarely productive of changes below 25 fathoms. When these 
changes are brought about, they are usuallj^ of such a character 
as to evade detection unless the averages of many observations 
are carefully studied, when the change in the position of the re- 
sultant can be seen. 

164 William Libbey — Gulf Stream and Labrador Current. 

These two portions of the Gulf stream are therefore seen to 
have different characters. The lower one, being more steady 
and constant, is further characterized by the slight changes 
which take place in it. The upper one, on the other hand, 
might be said to be characterized by the rapidity of its changes 
of position. As has been said, the 50° temperature curve is the 
line which bounds these two portions. 

The shape of this curve beyond the edge of the continental 
platform is that of the letter S inverted. The lower part of the 
letter represents the main body or lower portion of the Gulf 

In the year 1889 the lower portion did not touch the edge of 
the continental platform at any point within the area we were 
studying. In 1890 this portion of the curve touched both at 
Block island and at Nantucket in the latter part of the season ; 
•and in 1891 it touched along the whole edge for the greater part 
of all the summer months. The change which was thus pro- 
duced in the temperature at the bottom along this edge of the 
continental platform was somewhere in the neighborhood of 10°, 
an item of considerable importance. The effect produced by 
this temperature change can be seen to l^est advantage by refer- 
ence to a very interesting problem in biology on which it directly 

In the years 1880 and 1881 a new edible fish was found in 
considerable numbers in the area we were studying, and had 
attracted so much attention among fishermen that preparations 
were made to take it on a commercial scale for the New York 
and Boston markets during the ensuing season. 

Unfortunately it happened, however, early in the summer of 
1882, before the fishermen could enter upon their work, that the 
water from Cape May to Nantucket, in a long crescent-like curve 
following the continental edge, was covered with the bodies of 
this fish, dead and dying, in countless millions. From that 
time the tile-fish (Lophilatllus chamseleonlice'ps) disappeared from 
this area entirely, and attempts to find the fish since that time 
have been unsuccessful. The subject, moreover, had become a 
sort of biologic puzzle. Fortunately the temperature of the 
water in which the fish was caught had been noted at a number 
of points. 

In studying over the three sets of profiles for the three years, 
1889, 1890, and 1891, obtained from our work I noticed the fact 

The Puzzle of the Tlk-Fish. 165 

that there had been a progressive movement of tlie warm body 
of water toward the shore, and saw plainly that if the same rate 
were to hold good this year the whole of the continental edge of 
the area in question would in all probability be covered by the 
warm water. The idea then suggested itself that if such were the 
case the conditions for the reappearance of the tile-fish would 
be established, if environment meant anything in the case. The 
fish had been previously in a depth of water varying from 70 
to 120 fathoms, and its feeding ground, being on the bottom, 
would occur just at the edge of the platform. It was probably, 
moreover, a tropical deep-sea fish, and the temperature at which 
it was caught (50° to 58°) could only be established on the 
New England coast by just such an invasion of the continental 
edge as has been described. It is only necessary to conceive 
that the whole of the continental edge from Florida to Nantucket 
is thus overflowed by this warm band of water to see how the 
regular feeding ground of a tropical fish could be extended so 
that the fish could follow it tliroughout the whole of this largely 
increased area. 

While in the midst of this interesting theoretic work I was 
aroused by a letter from Washington, from Colonel McDonald, 
stating that owing to an economical turn, Congress had largely 
reduced the appropriation for the Commission, so that we should 
have to give up a great portion of the scientific Avork. I went 
to Washington with my facts, and they interested the Commis- 
sioner to such an extent that he agreed to give me the chance 
to test the theory, and further expressed a wish to take part in 
the work himself. 

We first went out south of Marthas Vineyard, found that 
the temperature was right, set the trawl lines and caught the 
fish. During the next two months I spent considerable time in 
tracing up the area over which the temperature of 50° and over 
was to be found on the continental edge, fishing at the same 
time with the trawls to see if the fish were there. We found 
them all the way to the Delaware capes, and were satisfied that 
though they were not numerous they had taken advantage of 
changed conditions over the area to occupy an enlarged feeding 

The exjjlanation of the disappearance of the fish in 1882, as 
suggested by Colonel McDonald, seems now to cover the ground 

166 William Libbey — Gulf Stream and Ladrador Current. 

perfectly. If we suppose this area to have been flooded b}'' warm 
water in the j^ears previous to that date in the manner suggested 
above, it is easy to see that when this warm band receded the 
first break in its continuity would occur in that extreme part of 
the bend in the coast between Cape Ma}^ and Nantucket. The 
fish over this portion of the bottom would, in the event of the 
withdraAval of the warm water, be suddenly exposed to a bath 
of water of sufficient degree of coldness to benumb them and 
start them on their way to the surface. After they had reached 
a point in the water which marked the limit of their adjustment 
to water pressure, they were bound to go the rest of the way to 
the top, where they arrived in abnormal condition, as their 
bodies were all puffed up, and in most instances their stomachs 
protruded from their mouths as a result of the diminution of 

This study of the environment of the life forms in this area 
has therefore led to interesting results. It is to be hoped that 
Congress will some day see the connection between pure and 
applied scientific work clearly enough to enable them to supply 
the means for the carrying out of investigations which can lead 
to practical results, and that the scientific commissions of the 
Government will not be forced to suffer through the lack of in- 
telligent support which should be given them. 



Our honored President in his opening address on "tlie rela- 
tions of the currents of air and water to animal and vegetal 
life and to the temperature of countries " gave an admirable 
description of the interdependence of climatic forces and showed 
in a concise manner how the topography of a country modifies 
the character of life, and through this fixes the industrial and social 
relations of its inhabitants. His address renders it unnecessary 
to discuss the causes of aridity, or to more than mention the 
general effects ; so this paper, supplementing what has been 
said, will dwell more upon the industrial or economic side of 
the matter, describing in general terms the present utilization of 
this vast region, much of it consisting of vacant lands. 

To the i^eople of many countries, as well as our own, the geog- 
raphy of the arid regions of the United States has a peculiar 
interest, owing to the fact that they include by far the greater 
part of the public lands, upon which new homes can be freely 
made either by our citizens or by foreigners intending to become 
citizens. These regions may be described in a general way as being 
in the western half of the United States, beyond the great plains, 
and extending westward nearly to the Pacific coast. On the north 
and south they are bounded by territorial lines, tlie conditions 
of aridity prevailing in the north through Canada nearly or quite 
to the Arctic circle, and south through Mexico until interrupted 
by the belt of tropical rains. Although characterized by pre- 
vailing or occasional droughts, these areas are by no means a 
continuous desert. On the contrary, the deserts, as the term is 
applied in the old world, are comparativel_7 rare and relatively 
small in extent. 

The arid regions may be defined as those portions of the United 
States where the rainfall, in quantity or distribution, is not favor- 
able for the production of the ordinary cultivated food products, 


168 F. H. Neivell — Arid Regions of the United States. 

The limits are not easy to place, for they depend upon climatic 
forces which vary in intensity from year to year — that is to say, 
in aay given locality within the arid regions there may not be 
for several successive years sufficient moisture for maturing 
crops of grain, while in the following year rain occurring at the 
right time may enable a farmer to produce a heavy crop. Thus 
in the latter year these arid regions might be considered as re- 
duced in size, to be again increased as drought follows drought. 
It is necessary, therefore, to assume certain arbitrary boundaries 
based upon considerations of general success or failure of ordi- 
nary agricultural operations in so far as they are dependent 
upon rainfall. 

For the eastern boundary it is convenient to assume the one 
hundredth meridian west of Greenwich, although, as a matter 
of fact, " dry" farming has been. successfully carried on as far 
west as the one hundred and fifth meridian or even beyond. 
The western boundary is more irregular, owing to a wide differ- 
ence in the topography of the country which lies between the 
well-defined arid and humid areas near the Pacific coast. 

As laid down by Powell* on the maps of the Geological Survey, 
the southwestern boundary of the arid region is the Pacific 
ocean up to a point on the coast of California north of Monterey 
bay. From here the line turns inward across the valley of the 
San Joaquin, then, excluding the bay counties, follows northward 
along the western foothills of the Sierra Nevadas and the eastern 
slopes of the Cascade range of Oregon and Washington, in which 
latter state it turns eastward, excluding from the arid regions the 
northeastern portions of Washington and Idaho. These lines, 
as originall}^ drawn, were based largely upon the assumption that 
twenty inches of annual rainfall were necessary for farming opera- 
tions, but were modified, however, by considerations of the sea- 
sonal distribution.f The lines thus laid down, although they 
may be criticised from various standpoints, are sufficiently exact 
for any general discussion, and are, perhaps, more useful than 
others drawn with greater nicety and attempting to reach higher 

*J. W. Powell : Second annual report of the irrigation survey, in Elev- 
enth Annual Eeport of the United States Geological Survey, part 2, irri- 
gation, Washington, 1891. 

t Lands of the Arid Eegions of the United States, J. W. Powell, Wash- 
ington, 1879, p. P> et seq. 

Reclamation of the arid Region. 169 

Within this great area, the extent of which is nearly half that 
of the United States, there is almost every variety of topography 
and climate, from the low sandy plains exposed to almost tropical 
heat to the lofty mountain ranges with alpine snows and winds. 
Portions of it are as truly humid as any part of the east, but 
these are too small and isolated to be severally distinguished in 
a broad survey of the whole. Plant life is everywhere abundant, 
but it is of a kind strange to the eyes of the traveller from the 
Eastern states, appearing to him sparsely distributed and ]3ar- 
taking of the general dry sun-burned character of the landscape. 
The bright green of fields and trees is rarely seen in the natural 
conditions, except after the rainy season, or on the high, well- 
watered mountain slopes. During the long seasons of drought 
the vegetation becomes brown and dusty, apparently dying, to 
revive, however, after the occasional rains. 

During the many years in which the population was spread- 
ing from the Atlantic coast westerly over the broad Mississippi 
valley the arid regions were regarded as of little or no value, 
and were left for the Indians, the wandering trapper or pros- 
pector, and the despised Mormon ; but when at last the fertile 
areas of the east were exhausted and places for homes jiiust be 
had elsewhere, the people of the eastern part of the United States 
suddenly awoke to the realization that there were great resources 
yet to be developed within this vast extent of country. Thus 
within comparatively few years the population of the arid region 
has enormously increased. Every possible resource is being 
rapidly exploited, and the results of geographers and other in- 
vestigators are being immediately acted upon to aid in pushing 
forward the development of this new land, which from its 
enormous extent promises to furnish homes for future millions. 

The arid regions, as a whole, are best known by their mineral 
wealth, especially of the precious metals. For many years min- 
ing has been the principal industry, the necessary supjslies being 
originally brought from great distances. Agriculture was then 
deemed not only as too slow a road to wealth, but it was even 
asserted that owing to drought it would be utterly impracticable. 
Stock-raising, however, gradually encroached upon the areas 
hitherto regarded as deserts, the cattle men, as they were forced 
westward by the advance of civilization, gradually displacing 
the roving bands of Indians and buffaloes. A peculiar form of 
agriculture, looked down upon by the adventurous miners and 

23— Nat. Grog. Mag , vol. V, 1803. 

170 F. H. Netvell — Arid Regions of tlie United States. 

cattle men, had long been practiced by the Pueblo Indians and 
neighboring Mexicans, and to a certain extent adopted by Mor- 
mons when driven into the wilderness by their fellow-Christians. 
This depended upon the cultivation of the soil by artificial 
application of water, obtained usually from a small river or 
creek, and conducted to the field by laboriously-made ditches, 
often miles in length. The expense and trouble of applying 
water necessitated the tillage of relatively small farms, this 
disadvantage being compensated in part by a larger average 
production. Nothing could be in greater contrast to the broad 
corn fields of the Mississippi valley, extending oh all sides to 
the horizon, than the miniature gardens, from which, however, 
come luscious fruits and extraordinary vegetables. 

As mines were opened and towns .established it soon became 
evident that in the long run the furnishing of food-stuffs and 
forage would be equally profitable with laboring in the mines and 
mills, if not more so. The methods of the Mormons and Mex- 
icans were copied, new sources of water-supply sought, ditches 
dug, and land brought under cultivation wherever it could be 
irrigated. Thus it has resulted that within a few years towns 
have sp,rung up in every direction, most of them dependent to a 
large extent upon mining, but having, through practice of agri- 
culture by irrigation, capabilities of self-support and of future 
extension. These areas are so vast that the land irrigated or 
occupied by towns and mines or other industries forms but a 
very small percentage of the total area, most of which still be- 
longs to the United States and is open to entry and settlement 
under the homestead laws. 

The total land area west of the 100th meridian and exclud- 
ing certain of the more humid portions of Oregon and Washing- 
ton is 1,371,960 square miles,* or, in round numbers, 878,000,000 
acres. Of this, about 7 per cent, or 64,000,000 acres, ma}^ be con- 
sidered as desert, having no known value, even in its minerals. 
A somewhat larger area — about 9 per cent, or 83,200,000 acres — 
is timbered, this heavily wooded land consisting mainly of moun- 
tain slopes and plateaus. Fringing this and scattered on the 
hill slopes and along the streams are clumps of trees capable of 
yielding firewood, fence posts, etc. The aggregate area of these 
scantily wooded lands is estimated to be 115,200,000 acres, or a 

* Thirteenth annual report of the United States Geological Survey, 
part 3, p. 8. 

The Extent of Irrigation. 171 

little less than 13 ^ex cent of the total. Deducting the aggre- 
gate acreage of desert and wooded lands, there are left about 
615.600,000 acres, the greater part of which supports a scanty 
herbage which, either green or sun-cured, is readily eaten by 
cattle. This may all be grouped under the head of grazing 
lands, since at one time or another of the year herds of cattle or 
sheep can find sustenance. Most of this latter class of land, com- 
prising over two-thirds of the area west of the 100th meridian, 
has a fertile soil and climate favorable to agriculture in all re- 
spects save that of moisture. With water, great crops could be 
produced, but without it nothing but the scanty native grasses 
succeed. The area which has actually been redeemed by irri- 
gation is quite small, not to exceed 1 per cent. The eleventh 
census of the United States found that in 1889 only 3,631,381 
acres* were irrigated, this being but four-tenths of 1 per cent of 
the entire area west of the 100th meridian. Besides the area 
irrigated a relatively small area was cultivated by "dry "farm- 
ing, the yield being, however, small. 

The further extension of agriculture within the arid region 
rests on the complete utilization of the water supply. As 
previously stated, the streams have been employed to a large 
extent and there now remain only a few rivers from which 
water for irrigation is not diverted.f These flow on undisturbed 
because of the great expense, and the engineering difliculties 
encountered rendering doubtful the financial success of any 
undertaking. In the case of many of the smaller streams the 
aggregate of the claims to the water exceed by far the ordinary 
quantity discharged, and, as a result, most of the claimants must 
be satisfied with an amount of water less than that to which 
they assert ownership. At the same time a large proportion of 
the water of these streams flows to waste either in floods or in 
winter, all of which could be used to advantage if it could be 
held by storage.'! The enormous cost of creating reservoirs for 
the waste waters and the small apparent profits have to a large 
extent deterred private capital from entering upon such projects. 

* Eleventh Census of the United States, 1890, Irrigation in Western 
United States by F. H. Newell, p. 3. 

t Water Supply for Irrigation by F. H. Newell, in thirteenth annual 
report of the United States Geological Survey. 

j Hydrography of the Arid Regions by F. H. Newell, in twelfth an- 
nual report of the United States Geological Survey, p. 224 et seq. 

172 F. H. Neioell — Arid Regions of the United States. 

The tillable lands to be benefited by water conservation or by 
the utilization of the larger streams not now diverted by canals 
are almost wholly owned or claimed by individuals or corpora- 
tions, so that future developments must rest most largely with 
these. Wise legislation will do much to aid in making feasible 
many great undertakings, but as a rule it may be said that de- 
velopments in this line must depend largely upon individual 
efforts and upon the ordinary laws of supply and demand. 

It has been estimated that by a complete utilization of the 
water supply of the arid regions about 40,000,000 acres can be 
irrigated ; but, allowing even that 100,000,000 acres of the fer- 
tile grazing land can be thus redeemed, there still remain over 
500,000,000 acres, most of which, as well as the desert and 
timber acres, are still in the hands of the general Government. 

The question as to the best utilization of the great body of 
unoccupied lands is one of immediate concern to the country at 
large, as well as to the inhabitants of this area. In a general 
way it may be said that the more easily available resources have 
already been taken possession of by individuals or by associa- 
tions of men, and there remain only such as were rejected or not 
available. Much of the best mineral land is owned by private 
parties, but even on the explored Government land tliere are 
probably many mines yet to be discovered. The herds of cattle 
have increased to such an extent that the lands, whether owned 
by the Government or by corporations, are thoroughly grazed 
over, and in many localities the herds must be fed with hay, 
during part of the year at least. All of the Avater supply of the 
country which caii be readily diverted is claimed or appropriated 
by irrigation or land companies, and almost without excep- 
tion the irrigable lands along perennial streams has passed out 
of the hands of the Government. ' Still the demand for homes 
continues, and settlers are from necessity forced to attempt to 
make a living where conditions seem to be against them. There 
are thousands or perhaps'millions of farms which can be pur- 
chased from individuals or corporations, but the possibilities of 
obtaining agricultural land from the Government seem to be 
almost exhausted. - 




When the United States made purchase of Russian America 
by the treaty of June 20, 1867, there was acquired a vast empire, 
whose shores were not even wholly surveyed or explored, whose 
interior was untrodden by whites, and of whose resources almost 
nothing was known. It had been maintained only as a fur- 
preserve by the Russian company holding lease of the entire 
country. They had made no effort to explore the interior, satis- 
fied that the natives should bring their pelts down to the coast 
forts. They had traced only the largest river for a few hun- 
dred miles, and the Hudson Bay Company's men had dis- 
covered its head-waters and found out that the Yukon and the 
Russian Kwichpak were the same. The Coast range and its 
great peaks were only known as navigators of the Pacific had 
seen them, and of the interior ranges only the surveys of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company in 1863-'65 had given any 

There was a considerable interest in the new territory at the 
time of its purchase, and Secretary Seward immediately arranged 
for a scientific reconnaissance in the summer of 1867 under 
the charge of Professor George Davidson, of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. His observations covered the coast 
country from Dixon entrance to Unalaska, and so much of in- 
terest resulted that the American Geographical Society of New 
York petitioned Congress to have a thorough survey made of the 
newly acquired territory. 

A quarter of a century has elapsed without the general govern- 
ment yet undertaking any systematic scheme of survey or ex- 
ploration. There are no official maps of the mining regians, 
which have been adding $1,000,000 in gold to the wealth of the 
world each year. Only the mineral laws and not the general 
land laws apply to the territory, which has but a skeleton form 
of government and no voice or representation at Washington. 


174 E. R. Scidniore — Recent Explorations in Alaska. 

None can explain this neglect of and indifference to such a valu- 
able territory, and Elisee Reclus in his " Boreal America " rather 
sharply notes that the United States considered Alaska " un- 
worthy of its attention until the pockets of its concessionaires 
[the seal island lessees] were touched." 

During the first ten years of military rule (1867 to 1877) no 
reconnaissances or expeditions were attempted. The presence 
of a naval ship in southeastern Alaska for fourteen years has 
added nothing to our geographic knowledge of the country. 
With the exception of the expeditions sent from the Columbia 
by General Miles, all exploration has been by private enterprise. 
Miners found their own way over to the Yukon, and their camps 
and communities are still without shadow of government con- 
trol. Professor Muir discovered and first reported the ^ great 
glacial system as the result of his own investigations, and the 
National Geographic Society's two expeditions to mount Saint 
EHas anticipated government surveys and measurements of that 
corner-stone of the continent. 

After General Miles' summer pleasure trip to southeastern 
Alaska in 1882, he had some expedition to Alaska always in 
hand so long as he remained at fort Vancouver. At his in- 
stance Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka was detailed to make a 
military reconnaissance of the Yukon river, following the route 
used by some three hundred miners during the two seasons 
preceding his famous raft voyage. It was not discovery in any 
sense, as not only these miners but the surveyors of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company had long preceded him, and the Drs 
Krause, of the Berlin and Bremen Geographical Societies, had 
but a short time before mapped the passes over the range at the 
head of Lynn canal. 

General Miles next detailed Dr Everette to further explore 
Chilkat pass and the source of the Alsek, and dispatched Lieu- 
tenant Abercrombie to a,scend Copper river, but neither expe- 
dition fully successful. ■ 

His detail of Lieutenant Henr}^ T. Allen for a reconnaissance 
of the Copper river in 1885 resulted in the first discoveries and 
really important contribution to the geography of the country 
since the transfer. He traversed an absolutely unknown region, 
tracing Copper river up to its head-waters and the Tanana 
down from that same divide to the Yukon, and made a hasty 
survey and track-chart of the Koyukuk river before hastening 

Work of the National Gcor/rapJtic Society. 175 

to Saint Michaels. His triangulations gave the first reliahle 
data concerning the active volcano of mount Wrangell, whose 
summit is by his estimate onl}^ 17,500 instead of the fabled 
28,000 feet al)ove the sea. He accomplished all this in the face 
of the greatest hardships; and while the Allen expedition was 
the most successful and noteworthy of any thus far made in 
Alaska, it has been the least exploited and appreciated. Had 
his rivers, canyons, glaciers and great volcano been in Green- 
land, New Guinea or central Africa, two continents would have 
applauded and bestowed medals on him. 

The National Gp:ographic Society has not only equipped 
two expeditions to Alaska, but it claims enrolled in its member- 
ship nearly every individual who has discovered, explored, ex- 
ploited or made any special contributions to our knowledge of 
this farthest northwest territory. It has twice attempted to have 
mount Saint Elias scaled, and it may yet find the navigable 
channel of the Yukon, a river easily navigable for two thousand 
miles were a deep channel known through the fiats that extend 
a hundred miles ofi' its mouth. While ships run aground before 
they are within sight of land, the white whale enters the slug- 
gish river by some deep pass and spouts for hundreds of miles 
uja the stream. 

One eminent member of the Society, Professor John Muir, 
discovered the great bay full of tide-water glaciers at the foot of 
mount Fairweather in 1879. Captain Lester Beardslee, another 
member, named this Glacier bay, and furnished its first rough 
sketch majD ; and a third member, Captain James Carroll, suc- 
cessfully navigated it by ocean steamer in 1883, and named the 
great Muir glacier. There has not been an actual government 
survey of the Avaters since the bay was discovered, and all charts 
are compiled from private sources. 

In 1890 Professor Harry Fielding Reid, another member of 
the Society, explored and mapped Muir glacier and its twenty- 
six tributary ice streams. In 1892 Professor Reid explored 
the upper end of the bay, finding and naming the Woods, 
Charpentier, Johns' Hopkins, Rendu and Carroll glaciers, and 
mapping also the Geikie, Hugh Miller and Grand Pacific glaciers, 
which Professor Muir saw from the mountain summit ten j'ears 
previously. Four other members of the National Geographic 
Society camped at the Muir glacier one season, exploring the 
region as a- huntiug ground, while Professor T. J. Richardson 

176 E. B. Scidmore — Recent Exvlorations in Alaska. 

made careful record of its landscape features in the series of ice 
studies and other paintings exhibited in the Alaska section of 
the Government building at Chicago. 

In 1890 the late Frederick Schwatka, who had then resigned 
from the army, led an expedition through the British north- 
west and Alaska to seek an easier route from Juneau, the mining 
center of Alaska, to the head-waters of Yukon river, and a 
new route from that region to the seacoast. His untimely end 
prevented his publishing the narrative of a journeyas hazardous 
and important as any he ever attempted. He was accompanied 
by Dr C. Willard Hayes, of the National Geographic Society. 
The first half of their journey, while not over wholly unknown 
ground, was virtually an exploration, in that it was a practical 
search for and trial of a new route to the Yukon. They as- 
cended Taku river, crossed the Cordilleran divide, and rafted 
down rivers and lakes to the junction of Pelly and Lewis rivers 
which form the Yukon; thence, following White river to its 
source, they crossed a divide formed by a spur of the Saint Elias 
range and descended the Nizzenah to Copper river, and thence 
to the ocean — their route describing a great arc behind the Coast 
range and twice crossing it. A brief narrative with maps and 
descriptive text representing the scientific results of this expedi- 
tion, prepared by Dr Hayes, has been published in the National 
Geographic Magazine. 

Mr E. J. Glave, fresh from African exploration, spent two 
seasons in exploring between the Chilkat pass and the Alsek's 
mouth. His later success in taking pack-horses over Chilkat 
pass in 1891 and finding rich pasturage for them in the bush 
country beyond proved the feasibility of pack-trails all through 
those mountains. The miners have vainly urged upon the gov- 
ernment the building of a military road across the Yukon passes, 
but even Mr Glave's demonstration of the pack-horse problem 
does not incline that institution to heed the request of the thou- 
sand wholly ungoverned miners. 

There is no record that any of the navigators who sighted 
mount Saint Elias and made such varying estimates of its height 
ever made any attempt to reach it. The first known attempt to 
climb the great mountain was that made by Professor Charles H. 
Taylor, of Chicago, in 1877. He went out admirably equipped 
and accompanied by Lieutenant C. E. S. Wood, of the United 
States Army. The refractoriness and final mutiny of their In- 

Russeirs Work on Saint Ellas. 177 

dian canoemen after leaving Sitka prevented their scaling this 
keystone of the great Cordilleran arch. 

The unfortunate New York Times expedition, led hy Lieu- 
tenant Schwatka in 1886, did- not succeed in reaching even the ' 
base of the mountain. The Topham expedition, led by Messrs 
Topham of the Royal Geographical Society, included also Mr 
William Williams of the National Geographic Society. They 
were the first to stand on mount Saint Elias itself, and climbed 
to a height of 11,4G0 feet on the crumbling rim of the crater 
on the southern face of the mountain. Further ascent was im- 
possible from that side, and Mr AVilliams left the American flag 
and his tin box of records at that point in July, 1888. 

Professor Israel C. Russell was given charge of the National 
Geographic Society's first expedition to mount Saint Elias in 
1890. He landed in Yakutat bay, at a point 60 miles southeast 
of the great peak, and ascending to the snow-line followed the 
glaciers along the slope of the range to Newton glacier, on the 
southeastern slope of Saint Elias. He was imprisoned in his 
tent alone at the highest point, 9,500 feet, for two days by a 
heavy storm which, covering everything with soft snow, ren- 
dered climbing impossible for the rest of the season, and made 
the return difficult and dangerous. 

In 1891 a second mount Saint Elias fund was raised by vol- 
untary subscription Avithin the Society, and Professor Russell 
was again given charge. He landed at Icy bay, 40 miles directly 
south of the mountain, and in a measure followed theSchwatka 
and Topham routes to the foot of Libbey glacier. There he 
diverged toward the east and joined his trail of the preceding sea- 
son. He followed up past magnificent ice falls and ice ampithe- 
aters to the head of Newton glacier, and attained an elevation of 
14,500 feet on the northeastern face of the mountain. From that 
outlook he saw for 100 miles northward myriad dark peaks 
pricking through the great mantle of snow and ice, and mount 
Saint Elias showed itself a detached peak — an abru23t spur 
running out from the main range of mountains. He camped 
at an elevatioii of 10,000 feet for days, waiting for the favorable 
day to scale the summit, but the storms continued, the provis- 
ions ran low, and they retreated from that near point when as- 
sured that all chances Avere against them for the season, and 
their strength failing from the meager diet to Avhich they were 
reduced and continued storms that threatened their light tent. 

24— Nat. Ghoo. Mag., vnr,. V, 18n:i. 

178 E. R. Scidmore — Rece7d Explorations in Alaska. 

Professor Russell then made his great march across the pla- 
teau of Malaspina glacier, which fronts the ocean for 60 miles, 
all the Saint Elias ice streams uniting in this great ice mantle 
which so awed Vancouver. 

Captain C. L. Hooper, of the revenue marine service, known 
to geographers by his arctic voyages in search of the Jeannette, 
touched at Yakutat bay in the autumn of 1890 to bring away 
the members of the Russell expedition. Before leaving he at- 
tempted some independent exploration. He took his vessel 
through the bergs of Yakutat bay into Disenchantment bay, and 
sailed 60 miles beyond the solid wall of ice that met Malaspina 
a century before. Captain Hooper found there a magnificent 
tide-water glacier, dropping jeweled bergs into the sea from all 
its four-mile front of glittering ice cliffs. As a loyal member of 
the National Geographic Society, he named this Hubbard 
glacier and its guardian peak for the President of the National 
Geographic Society. 

In 1891 Professor Russell took canoe after his exploration of 
Malaspina glacier, and, following the shore-line of Disenchant- 
ment bay, went another 60 miles further than Captain Hooper 
had gone. He found that the bay extends as a long, narrow 
inlet down to a broad plain reaching to the base of mount Fair- 
weather, and his observations introduced many striking details 
into that blank space of the maps. 

The height of mount Saint Elias, which has been estimated 
all the way from 12,000 to 20,000 feet, was put at 18,000 plus or 
minus 100 feet, by Professor Russell as the result of his triangu- 
lations from the Icy bay beach. The field party of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, consisting of Messrs Turner 
and McGrath — and it is unnecessary to say that they, too, are 
members of the National Geographic Society — devoted all of 
the season of 1892 to observation, and their final determination 
was 18,010 feet as the height of Bering's bolshoi sapka. 

Mount Saint Elias still awaits its conqueror, and Avhile the 
National Geographic Society retains its interest in the un- 
sealed, peak, it yields the right of way to the other societies 
reported as anxious to send out expeditions to it, greeting 
warmly even another expedition like that one from over the 
seas which, learning at Sitka that there were no guides for the 
region, went bear hunting and then to their homes. This 
Society has with especial emphasis claimed that American geog- 

The untrodden Field of Alaska. 179 

raphers should first consider tlie unknown and unexplored 
regions on their own continent; that American mountaineers 
should climb American mountains, and American geologists 
seek American glaciers and American volcanoes. 

The ascent of mount Rainier, that isolated peak which holds a 
small Switzerland on its sides and promises reason for another 
Zermatt to grow up on its slope, has been made by only thirty- 
eight people, while the records of Alpine clubs tell what American 
climbers can do on other 14,000-foot summits in other countries. 
All the northwestern coast from mount Rainier to mount Saint 
Elias and down the recurved shore to Unalaska offer such a field 
for the explorer, the mountaineer, the geologist, and geographer 
as exists nowhere else on any continent. Only one of the eight 
great glaciers in Glacier ba}^ has been explored, mapped, and 
measured, and not one of the trinity of great peaks that guard 
the bay have been trodden by white men, if ever by a human 
foot. The exquisite Taku glacier, only eighteen, miles by water 
from the largest town in Alaska, is unexplored, unmapped, un- 
measured, and the world knows only the facts apparent from 
its beautifully sculptured front. The great glaciers in Prince 
William sound, the grandest and gloomiest fiord on any coast 
within the temperate zone, are unnamed, unvisited, unsung. No 
more is known of them really than in Vancouver's day, and in 
that great landscape reserve of Cook inlet the living volcano 
of Iliamna has been climbed but once since the transfer. No 
one has ever attemjjted the greater volcano of Shishaldin, 
sloping steeply from the sea at the head of the Aleutian chain, 
the most exquisite uplift of earth even upon all that coast, a 
mountain with a more purely perfect outline than the Japanese 



Invited only a few days ago to take a part in this congress as 
commander of the caravels as well as a member of the Geo- 
graphical Society of Madrid, I am very sorry that my address 
cannot be as important as the subject demands. Although I am 
intimatel}^ acquainted with every detail of the history of the 
caravels, the special mission assigned to me by the Spanish 
government, to repeat the voyage of Columbus in the Santa 
Maria and the many ways in which the voyage has been de- 
scribed, make my position the more difficult. The history and 
the serious representation of that great enterprise, you must 
admit, are very different from the many descriptions of fancy 
that have been written on the subject. 

You all know the history of the caravels of Columbus ; you 
have heard of his troubles and difficulties, which have grown 
with the last 400 years ; but history as recorded by Navarrete, 
whom the great Humboldt calls the father of history, says that 
Spain then approved generally the project, although while the 
conquest of Granada was hanging in the balance the government 
decided to undertake no new venture until that was settled. 
This delay doubtless caused Columbus great sorrow, as he was 
growing old; but his project was not rejected by Spain. The 
Duke of Medinasidonia supported Columbus during two years ; 
the other two years Father Diego Deza, professor at Salamanca, 
afterward Archbishop of Seville, supported him ; and he was 
always protected by the Marchioness of Moya, the best friend of 
the Queen, which proves that even if he had difficulties he had 
high protectors to sympathize with and encourage him. The 
picture so often painted, depicting the learned men of the Uni- 
versity of Salamanca scoffing at Columbus, conveys an erro- 
neous idea, as the records of every meeting Avere kept and exist to- 
day, and nowhere can be found recorded any such action against 
Columbus. On the contrary. Salamanca was the scientific center 


The Inception of tlie Plan. 181 

of the world, and there the theory of the spherical form of the 
earth was sustained. Nothing is more worthy of mention, in a 
similar case a few years after, than when Copernicus, who was 
excommunicated by Rome because of his theory of the solar 
system, applied to that university, its learned doctors answered 
in this magnificent form : " Read Nicolaus Copernicus.^^ That is 
the best defense of that scientific center, which was for centuries 
the foremost in the world. 

You all know that Spain was consolidated by the marriage of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, sovereigns of Aragon and Castile. Por- 
tugal was almost a part of Spain, as the King had married the 
heiress of the throne of Spain, who unfortunately died without 
succession — a misfortune that will never be regretted enough 
by both nations. The only thing to be done by Ferdinand and 
Isabella to finish their great plan was to drive the Mohammedans 
from Granada ; but that conquest was extremely difficult, as the 
cities when conquered were depopulated to be repopulated by 
the conquerors. The last bulwark of the Moors in Spain was 
so over-peopled by crowds ousted by the former conquests that 
there were millions of inhabitants disposed to fight to the last, 
as they had only the sea behind them. 

So strong was the struggle on both sides that Spain, instead 
of keeping its soldiers in camps, built before Granada the city of 
Santa Fe. King Ferdinand took his residence there, making 
the conquest paramount to all other business. Queen Isabella, 
going herself several times to bring supplies to the army, put all 
her attention in that war ; and how is it possible that any serious 
historian could think that under such circumstances these 
sovereigns, being such great politicians, could support Colum- 
bus or any other venture, whatever might have been the sorrows 
of the man with whom the voyage was the only thought? 

The best proof that the voyage was not forgotten is that after 
Granada was surrendered, on January 2, 1492, the capitulations 
were signed on April 30 ; on August 3 the ships sailed from 
Palos, and on October 12 of the same year Spain opened to the 
New World the gates of history. 

And tell me when, before or since, in history have events gone 
so quickly ? Tell me why to your great Fulton you delayed 
twenty-two years to grant him in August, 1807, a patent to navi- 
gate his steamer only for twelve months? Could you tell me 
why, in the nineteenth century, the New York legislature was 

182 V. M. Concas — The Caravels of Columbus. 

obliged to threaten with prison and fine ani'-body that should 
speak or act against Fulton ? Tell me, where is his family, that 
I suppose are very rich, according to the service of that great 
countryman of yours? And when those who pity Columbus so 
much have answered satisfactorily, we shall consider the behavior 
of Spain toward Columbus and his descendants, who, after 400 
-years, you have seen yourselves so highly honored in this city 
of Chicago. 

As you know, the expedition of Columbus was prepared in 
Palos, and consisted of three ships. The largest was a vessel 
that was employed before in trading with Holland. She was 
called the Gallega, or the GaUtian. That name was changed to 
Santa Maria. The circumstance that she Avas chartered by the 
king, and that afterward, when wrecked on the coast of Santo 
Domingo, Spain paid for the whole ship and her equipment, 
has supplied much information about the Santa Maria, as all 
inventories and contracts made by the government exist in the 
archives at the present time. This permitted the new Santa 
Maria to be built to such a degree of exactitude that I consider 
at least nine-tenths an exact reproduction of the original, which 
certainly could not be done Avith other historic ships of even 
more recent date. 

It is- not possible to get the same data concerning the Pinta 
and the Nina, as they were in fact merchant ships that went 
on their OAvners' account. There is only a memorandum of the 
general line of the exterior form, gear and sails ; but that cir- 
cumstance proves that Columbus found welcome and help in 
the opinion, since he was supported by regular merchants and 
sailors, who willingly took a part in the enterprise not only with 
their persons, but on their OAvn account. These ships have been 
reproduced in Spain Avith the greatest exactitude by Lieutenant 
W. McCarty Little, of the United States Navy, and with the 
greatest skill and economy. 

The historical treasures, which you can consult at the convent 
of La Rabida in the exhibition, show to the most incredulous 
that the spherical form of the earth Avas already accepted by 
every learned man in Europe. Even was it true to those mari- 
ners who navigated to the west as far as the Azores and Canary 
islands, and it was especially so to the Portuguese, Avho had dis- 
covered those western islands of the group called Terceras ; but 
only in Spain Avas that feeling strong and popular, a feeling that, 

Knowledge of tlhc SphcriciU] of tJie Eartli. 183 

although it was not called l)y the name of " public opinion," as 
nowadays, directed the people of all nations with irresistible 
force. For that reason Columl)us came to Spain ; for that rea- 
son he was obliged to wait until Spain could undertake the 
voyage of discovery, and for that reason he found owners of 
ships and rich sailors who risked willingly life and i:)roperty in 
the enterprise. 

Only ignorance can see miracles and wonders instead of the 
natural development of facts, science, navigation, astronomy, 
cartography and preparatory voyages to Africa, the Canary and 
Azores islands and Iceland. All these made ripe the fruit of 
crossing the ocean toward the west, and the praise belongs to 
the tree where that fruit was most ripe. That tree was Spain, 
where Columbus brought the fortunate error of Toscanelli, be- 
lieving the distance about one-fourth of what it is. He expected 
to arrive at Cathay, and so the discovery was made by Spain, 
and could not have been done by any other nation without com- 
mitting Providence to historical injustice. 

But when we speak of La Rabida, allow me to tell you how 
much you are indebted to Mr Curtis for that wonder. Let me 
call it a wonder, for the work could not have been better done. 
It is not a copy ; it is the same, stone by stone, the original 
building of La Rabida. 

The great discovery was not appreciated in all its InqDortance 
until twenty years after, when more and more new lands and 
great empires were explored ; and the voyage of the Victoria, com- 
manded by Sebastian Elcano, went around the world, and whose 
family yet use for a coat-of-arms a globe with the lem primus me 
circumdedisti ; all that made us think what Spain had in her 
hand. In behalf of that opinion I am going to quote the pro- 
banza of 1513 and 1515, in the lawsuit against Diego Colon, son 
of the admiral (volume 3 of Navarrete, page 538), documents of 
my private library ; but I offer them with pleasure to the mem- 
bers of the congress who wish to consult them. Those probanzas^ 
that today would be called inquests, were to clear up the par- 
ticulars of the discovery, and there were heard more than fifty 
witnesses, some speaking of what they had seen, others of what 
they had heard from this same Columbus. Among other curi- 
ous details it is perfectly proved that Columbus contracted with 
Martin Alonso Pinzon, captain of the Pinta, to divide with him 
in equal parts honors and profits if they succeeded, which con- 

184 V. M. ■Co'iicas — TJie Caravels of ColuDihas. 

tract he afterward did not fulHll because it was not in writing. 
Let ns forget and forgive the man and always think of the hero. 
But I will finish to explain why there do not exist so many 
details of the caravels Pinta and Nina as of the Santa Maria. 
This is because tlie smaller ships were in their owners' or cap- 
tains' hands ; they did not enter into the contracts and inven- 
tories of the admiral. 

The three vessels being ready, they sailed from Palos on 
August 3, arrived at the Canary islands on August 9, and re- 
mained there until September 6, and did not sail from Gomera, 
an island south of Tenerite. 

The instruments that tliey used in navigation were similar to 
those you see on this table. The astrolabe, well known in Spain 
since the eleventh century; the jacob-stafF, that instrument 
that proceeds from the Chaldeans; and I offer besides for your 
inspection these others, which are not copies, but real instru- 
ments that have been used at sea and that belong to the Spanish 
section of the exposition, and I am now to describe to you briefly 
the use of them. (The description followed.) 

The voyage of the caravels was made by the parallel of 27° 
flirough the trade winds that, as we know today, come more to 
the north m summer, in which season the voyage was under- 
taken. You know how the deviation of the compass was dis- 
covered by Columbus, and how skillfully he overcame the diffi- 
culty between his men, changing the card on the needle as much 
as was necessary to correct the difference. You know also the 
history of the mutiny, made conspicuous by many curious pic- 
tures, one of which you can see in La Rabida, Avhere Columbus 
is menaced by poignards during his sleep. Read the magnificent 
inquests (numbers 15, 16 and 17, Diplomatic Collection, pages 
565-567), where 5''ou will see that Columbus consulted Martin 
Pinzon about returning to Spain that night, and tliat Pinzon 
answered, " No, sir; God would never allow a fleet of such a great 
king to return, not only tonight, but not for a year " (page 566); 
to which Columbus answered, " Let you be the blessed of God." 
How could it be otherwise in a short voyage of thirty days that 
the only thing that made them uneasy Avas the steadiness of the 
wind, since it is the only thing referred to in the admiral's log 
of the 22d of September, when he says that he was very happy 
at having a head-wind, as the sailors were uneasy at the steadi- 

NohWtjj of Fcrrjinand and Isahdla. 185 

ness of the direction of the wind ? Neither was that of the 
greatest importance, as they had only sixteen days of voyage. 

Land was sighted on October 12, and there we again meet the 
man Columljus. Land Avas seen by a sailor of the caravel Pinta, 
called Rodrigo de Triana, at 2 o'clock in the night, but the ad- 
miral awarded to himself the prize, consisting of an amount of 
money and a pension for life, because he said he had seen a 
light at 10 o'clock. According to his own log, Thursday, Octo- 
ber 11, they were sailing at the rate of twelve miles an hour, or 
nine knots of the actuifl measure, and how on a stormy night 
was it possible that he could see a light thirty-six knots distant 
on a low sandy inland that scarcely could be seen from the deck 
at five or six knots on a clear day ? Rodrigo de Triana aban- 
doned Spain in despair and made himself a Mohammedan, and 
Columbus received the prize allowed to him who first saw land. 
Let us again forget the man to admire always the hero of an 
idea ; but if you would read the original letter of Columbus to 
the nurse of the Infanta Dona Juana, which you can see also in 
the exposition at La Rabida, you will see that Columbus him- 
self, by his own handwriting, states that he had money enough, 
although he had been five years without paying anybody ; and 
after that study you will be able to appreciate how much value 
there is in those ridiculous stories and paintings of chains and 
jjoignards of authors and artists who otherwise could not sell 
their works. I do not excuse Bobadilla, who Avas very tyran- 
nical, even in those tim es, in all the nations of Europe ; but all that 
exalts more and more the behavior of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
Avho forgot the man to reestablish immediately the hero, the 
great discoverer, in all his privileges as general governor and 
admiral of the lands he discovered ; and even today in the more 
cultured and more enlightened nation in the world, and under 
very similar circumstances, although Ave knoAV AAdiat the Suez 
canal is for navigation, and that in the time of Ferdinand and 
Isabella nobody knew what Avas discovered, yet even noAV de 
Lesseps has found one hundred Bobadillas. How, then, can 
you Avonder that Columbus should find one? And Avhere are 
the Ferdinands and Isabellas of the nineteeeth century to forget 
the man and only remember the hero of another idea that 
opened a thoroughfare for six hundred millions of men? After 
that, tell me Avhere is a nation in the Avorld that should dare to 
throw the first stone at Spain of the fifteenth century ? 

25— Nat. f4K0G. Mag., vol. V, 189,3. 

18G V. M. Concas — The Caravels of Columbus. 

On that twelfth of October Columbus planted on this continent 
a flag in the first island discovered, quite like the one which I 
offer for your inspection. It was the distinguishing signal of 
his authority, the admiral's flag. The Pinzpn brothers carried 
these others. These are the flags of the discovery, granted by 
the king to the enterprise — the true flags of America, planted 
on the shores by the captains of the Pinta and Nina. The 
usual pictures are not in accord with the historical truth, ■ 
since the flags were similar to the flags you can see here, and 
there was no priest, with the party on either of the caravels, 
although you always see one represented in the pictures of the 
landing of Columbus. 

A great day was the twelfth of October ; a day that placed the 
name of Columbus and the flag of Castile in the book of immor- 
tality; a great day that opened this immense continent to 
Europe, already threatened by reform under the weight of relig- 
ious intolerance ; a great day, that one, when the gun of the 
Pinta proclaiming Land ! the cry answered from the tops of 
the Andes and the Rocky mountains, " For the White Man ! " 

The Spanish government, wishing to renew that memory, 
offered again to the wind the old flag of Castile and another 
Santa Maria, the fac-simile of the caravel of Columbus. A 
kind Providence has permitted me to complete such a historical 
voyage and to cross the Atlantic in thirty-six days, the same 
time that the great admiral emplo5^ed in crossing it ; and after 
reaching the island where was the first European settlement, 
and after, at Havana, saluting the tomb where are the remains 
of that great hero of science and perseverance, I have brought 
the memory of his immortal sj)irit and the order of all Spain 
to wish from the high deck of the Santa Maria peace and pros- 
perity to all the countries of the New World. 



I have selected as the- subject of this paper that of a work re- 
cently ]3ublished by me, entitled " In the Wake of Columbus." 
Certain friends have rather cruelly suggested that it might 
better be called ^^At the wake of Columbus," since the subject 
has been a long time dead, and it is high time he was buried. 

But, ignoring their evident flij^pancy, we shall, with your per- 
mission, follow awhile in the wake of the great navigator, and 
inquire if there are any remaining evidences of his voyages and 
of his discoveries in the land he was the means of bringing to 
the notice of Europe. The fact that several towns and cities 
claim the honor of his birth-place and two islands possess his 
last and only remains should not deter the investigator, since 
there are places identified with his career that are well authen- 

Leaving the somewhat mythical events of Columbus' youth 
and early manhood to the historian, we will glance at those 
places that stand forth most conspicuously, particularly in Spain 
and the New World. Summoning before us the picture of those 
times, when occurred the events that shaped the beginnings of 
American history, I suppose there is not one so well defined as 
the siege of Granada, when, after years of fighting, the Spaniards 
had at last reduced the Moors to the last extremity, had cooped 
them up in the fortress of the Alhambra, and had seated them- 
selves before the city of Granada, determined to drive them 
from this their last stronghold in Europe. That they succeeded 
we know, and that it was at the termination of the siege, when 
Boabdil, the last king of the Moors, had surrendered the keys of 
Granada, that Columbus appeared upon the scene, is a matter of 

It was in April, 1491, that the armies of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, 50,000 strong, entered the Vega of Granada and intrenched 


188 F. A. Ober — In tlie Wake of Columbus. 

themselves upon the site of the present city of Santa Fe, build- 
ing there a camp that eventually became a city. Here Columbus 
found them in January, 1492, and here he made his last plea 
for his projected voyages. Disappointed, he left the fortified 
camp of Santa Fe, and departed toward the coast of Spain, all 
his years of attendance on the court having apparently been 
passed in vain. 

Fate or fortune took him to the convent of La Rabida, on the 
coast, near the important town of Huelva, and here he met and 
conversed with the prior, who, formerly confessor to Isabella, 
retained Columbus at the convent until he himself had seen her 
and obtained her sanction to his return. The result the world 
knows. The " capitulation " between Columbus and the sover- 
eigns of Spain was signed April 17, 1492, and the Genoese re- 
turned to La Rabida and Palos, where he completed his prepa- 
rations for the voyage, sailing in August, to the discovery of the 
New World. 

With all this, of course, every one is familiar; but with the 
places most closely identified with the life and career of Colum- 
bus, and particularly in the hemisphere he discovered, very few 
people now living are acquainted. 

After more than two months of sailing, or about October 12, 
Columbus found himself at the New World's portal — at the 
gateway to the unknown lands beyond. 

This island, the Guanahani of the natives, called by the sailor 
San Salvador, the landfall of the first voyage, has been variousl}^ 
located in different portions of the Bahaman chain. 

We for a long time accepted the statement of Irving that it 
was that now known as Cat island, an opinion in which Hum- 
boldt coincided ; but later investigators have assigned it to 
Watlings island, most of them agreeing on it who have given 
the matter much attention. 

Of one thing we are sure, that it was an island in the Baha- 
mas and about midway the chain, though islands so far apart 
as Grand Turks and Cat, with 300 miles between them, have 
been claimed as the landfall. It is unfortunate that the journal 
of Co-lumbus, which Avas doubtless written on the voyage and in 
detail, is lost, since that might have settled all doubts on this as 
on man 3^ other .points. 

But, in view of what has been published, and after a careful 
sifting of all available evidence. I think we may assume it to 

Tlie Landfall of Colambas. 189 

have been Watlings. All the evidence, and careful descriptions 
of the island, I have given in my recently published book. " In 
the Wake of Columbus/' to which I must refer any one for fur- 
ther particulars. 

Having followed Columbus throughout Spain over five years 
ago, and having been commissioned by the Exposition to inves- 
tigate the route of the navigator through the West Indies, as 
well as to search out all existing remains of his settlements and 
plantations, when in those islands as a special commissioner 
during the past two years. I can claim to have given the matter 
some attention. 

Accepting the courses of the first voyage across the Atlantic 
as worked out by eminent navigators of modern times, we bring 
Columbus, at least approximately, to an island midway the 
Bahama chain. He " lay to " outside the reefs, and landed in 
his small boats, finding an island (described as nearly as possi- 
ble in his own words from the " Diary of Colon," transcribed 
from his journal by Las Casas), large and very level, with a large 
lagoon in the middle, without any mountain, and covered with 
verdure. The journal also describes the great barrier-reef of 
coral that surrounds th'e island and within which the water is 
as " still as a well," as Columbus himself says. 

Now, the distinctive feature of this island and this description 
is the great lagoon in the center of the island, a feature possessed 
by no other in the chain except Crooked island, which has never 
been claimed as that of the landfall. Cat island has no such 
body of water, and in no respect does it answer the description 
as given by the admiral. 

It should be observed that the only weak link in the chain of 
evidence in favor of Watlings is the fact that there are no other 
islands of any size visible from any portion of it, as mentioned 
by Columbus; but this may not be an objection, for he may 
have seen distant portions of the same island and taken them 
for different isles and islets. 

The island itself is about twelve miles long by from five to 
seven broad, with great salt-water lagoons in the center — egg 
shaped — and almost entirely surrounded with dangerous coral 

Like all the Bahama islands, it is composed of limestone, 
with a very scant covering of soil — in fact, the rocks are almost 
denuded of vegetal covering, and that little of the poorest and 

190 F. A. Oher — In the Wake of Columbus. 

thinnest. Still the natives have their " farms," as they call them, 
from which they gain the scantiest subsistence ; at the time of my 
visit, a year ago, they were on the verge of starvation. 

The particular spot at which it is thought Columbus and his 
crew landed on that memorable October morning, 1492, is on 
the northeastern coast of Watlings island at the end of a bay 
now known as Greens harbor. From the light-house, half a 
mile distant, the whole coast is visible, and the beautiful beach 
lies before 3^ou, a stretch of silver sands some two miles long, 
terminated by promontories of coral, and bordered by a low 
growth of sea-grape, dwarf palmetto, and sweet-smelling shrubs, 
such as the southern coast of Florida yields. Near the south- 
eastern extremity of this beach, where the coral rock of the head- 
land juts out toward the barrier reefs, it is assumed that the 
famous landing took place ; but the spot is as desolate now as 
at that time, four hundred years ago, no sounds breaking the 
stillness except the murmur of the waves and the cries of sea- 
birds. On the promontory there stands a monument, erected 
by the correspondent of the Chicago Herald in 1891, who arrived 
at the conclusion, after careful examination, that this was the 

Regarding the natives found in possession by Columbus, we 
can only say that they have long since disappeared. It was 
during the first century of Spanish occupation that their exter- 
mination was brought about through deportation to Haiti to 
labor in the mines. 

Columbus describes them well, and also the few articles of 
domestic use they had in their possession, as well as the flocks 
of parrots 9.nd the animals of the island. Parrots are no longer 
found here, but > are still seen in flocks on Acklins island, a 
hundred miles or so away. The only relics of the aborigines I 
succeeded in finding were the stone implements they used in 
their agricultural operations, such as celts, locally known as 
"thunderbolts," a few bones, and a skull. All these are shown 
in the monastery of La Rabida, that most interesting building 
erected at the Exposition through the recommendation and 
efforts of Mr W. E. Curtis, and which contains also other invalu- 
able relics of the great discoverer, presenting an epitome of 
American history. 

The present inhabitants of Watlings are mostl}^ black and 
colored, some 700 in number, and have no knowledge of the 

The Coasting of Columbus. 191 

history of the island at all. Their historical lore is limited to 
the times of the wreckers, and their information respecting 
Columbus may be summed up in the query of the old negro 
who took me across from Fortune to Watlings : " Say, boss, 
who is dis ole man Columbia you is so anxshus about? Here 
I's been sailing dese Bahama islands more'n fort}^ year, an' 
I's neber seen him yit." They declare that the relics of the 
Indian are " sho' enuff t'underbolts " and that they came down 
from the sk}^ 

One old black man solemnly assured me that he himself saw 
a celt descend, strike a tree and split it, and that he picked 
it up at the roots of the tree " after de lightning done pass by." 
The name of " thunderbolt," is universal, as applied to these 
objects, throughout the West Indies; in the Spanish island 
they are known as '^ piedras de 7-aya,^^ and the present descend- 
ants of the Caribs call them by that name. 

But we will not leave Columbus at Watlings; he sailed 
thence over to Rum cay ; after that to Long island, which he 
called Fernandina, and then to the present Fortune and Crooked 
islands, the former of which he called Isabella. 

The island first discovered by Columbus is very little visited 
and is difficult of access. Having come up toward it from 
Haiti, and having been dropped from the steamer at Fortune, 
only 100 miles away, I was ten clays in the latter island before 
I could get taken across to Watlings. Respecting the delights 
of travel in the Bahamas during the summer time, with the 
thermometer away up in the nineties, no means of communica- 
tion except dirty " turtlers " manned and ofiicered by black men, 
and no shade all day save the shadow of the main-boom, I will 
have nothing to say, except that I do not want to repeat the 

From Isabella or Fortune island Columbus sailed south- 
westward, toward a land the natives told him of, and which they 
called " Cuba." His first landing there was at or near the pres- 
ent port of Jibara, on the northern coast of Cuba, and thence he 
sailed eastward, entering the harbor of Baracoa, rounding the 
cape known as Point Maisi, and discovering another large island 
to the southward, that of Haiti. He first saw this new island on 
December 5 ; arrived at Point Saint Nicolas (recently a subject of 
dispute between Haiti and this government) on the seventh, and 
coasted until the twenty-fourth. It was on that date, after leis- 

192 F. A. Oher—In the Wake of Columbus. 

iirely examining the various beautiful harbors encountered and 
trafficking with the natives, that the fleet of Columbus first met 
Avitli disaster. On Christmas eve the Santa Maria ran on a reef 
and was wrecked, proving a total loss. The first Christmas in 
the New World was a sad one for Columbus and his sailors, but 
their distress was somewhat alleviated by the good offices of the 
Indian cacique, Guacanagari, whom they were seeking at the 
time of the Avreck. He sent out canoes to assist them and took 
them to his village, Guarico. where they were hospitably enter- 
tained. Near this place Columbus erected a fort, which he called 
Navidad, or the nativity, in commemoration of the day of dis- 
aster, and then, leaving here a garrison of forty men, sailed be- 
yond, as fjir as the bay of Samana, whence he took his departure 
for Spain. 

The places discovered by him after the first landfall are easily 
identified, as are all the important settlements made during 
subsequent voyages. 

Returning to America on his second voyage, Columbus found 
land at a point farther south than on the first, sighting the 
mountains of Dominica and landing at Guadeloupe. I was at 
the landing-place in Guadeloupe a little. over a year ago, and 
saw the bay in which the vessels lay while their crews were ex- 
ploring the woods, when they made their first acquaintance with 
the cannibals. 

The second landfall is a quiet and peaceful country, now the 
center of the sugar industry of Guadeloupe, but the general 
features of the country are unchanged, and the great waterfall, 
so grand and impressive, and which was described by Colum- 
bus, may still be seen (to use his own expressive language) 
"dropping from the clouds that drift around the brow of the 

In Dominica, across the channel, still live the descendants of 
the veritable Caribs found by Columbus, and who for many 
years held the Spaniards at a distance. In this island, and in 
that of Saint Vincent, reside the only Indians remaining in the 
West indies, of the. estimated millions found here at the coming 
of the Spaniards. 

I. myself have lived with them, have hunted with them for 
months, have studied and photographed them, and willingly 
testify to their many admirable qualities. Now reduced to a few 
hundred in number, yet the Caribs formerly occupied all the 

The Anchor of the Santa Maria. 193 

islands of the West Indies south of Puerto Rico, and were a 
constant menace to the more peaceful Indians of the Greater 

Coasting northward, Columbus brought to view all those 
beautiful islands between Guadeloupe and Santo Domingo and 
finally arrived off the scene of his wreck and the site of the 
fort he had erected. It was night, and all was still as death ; 
the Spaniards fired a gun, but there was no response, and in the 
morning they discovered thrift the fort had been destroyed and 
the garrison massacred. Not a man survived, and not a timber 
or gun has been found since to indicate the site of the ill-fated 
Navidad. But I secured one relic two years ago that without 
doubt once belonged to the Santa Maria and which was once 
within the fort. 

I visited the coast of Haiti twice, and during my first visit 
to the island secured evidence of the existence there of an 
anchor of the caravel, which was in the possession of a blacic 
man near cape Haitien. By a chain of evidence that led back 
to the time of the wreck aiid established beyond a doubt the 
authenticit}^ of the anchor in question, I have shown that this 
relic is genuine. After a great deal of trouble and after a con- 
test with the black man aforementioned I secured this anchor, 
and it is now in the monastery of La Rabida. 

This anchor is especially noteworthy as it is the only authen- 
ticated relic we possess of the first settlement in the New 
World — -that of Navidad. Of the second attempt at settlement, 
made immediately after, I secured many minor objects, which 
are also in La Rabida. 

It was in December, 1493, that the first town was founded, 
and it was soon after the discovery of the massacre at Navidad. 
At Isabella, as this settlement was called, there were erected 
but four or five structures that were intended to be permanent, 
and the houses of the rank and file of the army have long since 

Of the few houses that were built of stone some traces still 
remain, and when I went to Isabella two years ago I found 
some hewn stones and tiles, but these were all that remained 
of the town founded by Columbus four hundred 3^ears ago. 
Though I staid there a week, and persistently hunted, I found 
only the few stones you may now see in the monastery ; not 
even the ghosts of the departed hidalgos, who arCiSaid to walk 

2(5— Nat. Geoq/Mag , voi„ V, 1803. 

194 F. A. Ober—ln the Wake of Columbus. 

nightly throu2;h the forest adjacent, tleigned to honor me with 
their presence. Isabelki today is in desolation, completely over- 
grown with rank vegetation, and with no inhabitants within 
the region that was settled by the Spaniards. The nearest port 
is that of Puerta Plata, some forty iniles away, and the only 
means of communication with the outside world is by small 
sailing vessels. 

Although the original settlement of Isabella was soon aban- 
doned, the early settlers made s^eral attempts to erect forts 
and towns in the interior of Santo Domingo, starting out from 
this initial town on the coast. They soon after penetrated 
the Cibao, the famous gold region of the island, and there 
erected the fortress of Santo Tomas de Yanico, near the head- 
waters of the Rio del Oro, or the river from which Columbus 
obtained the first gold in 1492. 

I myself have explored the region of Columbus' Rio del Oro 
and have a nugget weighing half an ounce from the river Yanico, 
and also some flakes of gold ; for there is j^et much gold in 
the interior of Santo Domingo and the region has never been 
fully exploited. 

Santo Tomas is indicated at present only by rude earthworks, 
but the traditions of its early days still survive, and the memory 
of the audacious exploits of Alonzo de Ojeda and the fierce 
Caonabo still lingers. This fortress was erected in 1494, and 
immediately after were started the towns of Concepcion de la 
Vega and Jacagua, about 1495. Both towns were destroyed by 
an earthquake in 1564, but from their ruins I succeeded in 
taking away some interesting relics, which are to be seen in the 
monastery, and in photographing the fort and the ruins of the 

Not far from these ruins is the hill of Santo Cerro, overlooking 
the glorious plain called by Columbus the Vega Real, or Royal 
Plaiii, where his forces had a decisive battle with the Indians in 
1495, Avhich reduced them to subjection and sealed their fate 
forever. From a tree still standing on the Cerro and called 
the " Nispero de Colon " the discoverer watched the first impor- 
tant battle between red and white races, and afterward erected 
here a cross, which was long a venerated relic. 

The interior of the island of Santo Domingo is little known, 
and my explorations there were well rewarded, so far as Colum- 
bian relics go, and I would recommend it to the adventurous 
traveller as an interesting field for exploitation. 

Tlie Remains of Columbus. 195 

The Spaniards finally drifted away from the northern coast of 
Haiti, and the city of Santo Domingo was founded on the south 
in 1 496, which yet contains many things that take us back to 
those first years of conquest. The chapel still stands, though 
in ruinous condition, from the porch of which Bobadilla pro- 
claimed the downfall of Columbus, and the house built by 
Don Diego, the son of the Admiral, rises above the right bank 
of Ozama river. 

There is a castle also, the Homenage, which was built in the 
year 1509, or during the dominion of Don Diego. Here also 
are the ruins of the first American university — date, 1507 or 
1509 ; the vast convent of the Franciscans, a contemporary 
structure ; and lastly here are some of the remains of Columbus. 
To be more explicit, I may say that here are to be seen one set 
of the remains that Columbus left behind him at his departure, 
the other being claimed by the city of Havana. It is too long 
a story to narrate ; all the evidence on both sides is given in my 
book and also in the monastery of La Rabida, reproduced in 
Jackson Park. 

Briefly, Columbus died at Valladolid, in Spain, in 1506. His 
remains were taken to Santo Domingo about 1540, where they 
were deposited at the right hand of the high altar in the cathe- 
dral, remaining there until 1795, when the Spaniards took up 
and transported what they thought were the bones of Columljus 
to Havana; but in 1877, in making some repairs in the cathe- 
dral, the workmen found another vault, which contained a 
casket and bones; also inscriptions showing that those were the 
real remains and that the Spaniards had made a mistake and 
had probably taken away the ashes of Don Diego, the son. 
But, wherever may rest the bones of the Great Admiral, it is 
with the island of Santo Domingo that his greatest exj3loits are 
associated, and in that island he expressed the wish to be 

Nearly every island of the Caribbean sea has an association 
with the great Colon. In his second voyage he discovered the 
Caribbees, or Lesser Antilles ; on his third he found Trinidad 
and the peninsula of Paria, as well as the Pearl islands, sailing 
thence to Santo Domingo again, whence he was sent home in 
chains, in the year 1500. On his last and most disastrous 
■voyage, 1502, and the two 3^ears succeeding, he coasted the east- 
ern shores of Yucatan and Central America, the voyage ending 

196 F. A. Oher — In tJi.e Wake of Columbus. 

at Jamaica, where all of his vessels were wrecked and where 
he remained a twelvemonth a prisoner on his stranded ships, 
fighting the Indians and engaged in conflicts with his own 
mutinous men. 

The scene of his last shipwreck is well authenticated, and, as 
the conclusion of my labors in the search for Columbian foot- 
prints, I visited and photographed the little bay in which for 
a whole year he remained at the mercy of the sea and the 
savages. It is on the northern coast of Jamaica, in the parish of 
Saint Anns, the most beautiful portion of that beautiful island. 
A mile distant from the bay of Saint Anns is a little sea-nook, 
called today Don Christopher's cove, and on its narrow stretch 
of beach, with bordering fringe of sea-grape and cocoa-plum, 
Columbus stranded his vessels, building over their decks a shelter 
of palm-thatch, and here lived for a year, as Irving says, '* castled 
in the sea." 

Half way between Jamaica and Haiti is an island known as 
Navassa, at which the canoe sent by Columbus to Haiti for 
assistance touched on its way, the starving crew finding there a 
little raw fish and some water, which enabled them to complete 
their most perilous voyage. 

But perhaps I have followed too long after the ships of Colum- 
bus. I might mention many other spots he visited, and which 
I have seen ; but with you assent I will bring this description 
to a close. 



Several eminent Scandinavian scholars, and others who have 
made the early voyages of the Norsemen the subject of special 
study, have for years contended that the archives of the Vatican 
contained important evidence bearing upon the pre-Columbian 
discoveries of America. Some have even had the courage to 
assert that the legends and traditions of the Icelandic sagas 
would be established as facts if the records of the church could 
be called as witnesses, while others have gone even still farther 
and have insisted that, through the secret aid of the pope, Colum- 
bus enjoyed full knowledge of the vo3^ages of the Norsemen and 
the country they called Vinland the Good, and simply followed 
the course over which they had cruised across the ocean four 
hundred years before his birth. But until Leo XIII came to 
the Vatican no amount of argument or influence Avas able to 
unlock the mysterious manuscrii3ts, which for eighteen hundred 
years have been accumulating upon the shelves of the Holy See. 
Some years ago a woman went to Congress and asked the pas- 
sage of a resolution directing the President of the United States 
to use his influence with the pope to have them examined, but 
no notice was taken of her petition, and yesir after year applica- 
tions from students -and historians were made in vain. The 
officers of the church denied nothing. They simply said that 
they did not know what the early archives of the church con- 
tained ; that they had not been disturbed for centuries, and that 
no one with access to them had either the time or the disposi- 
tion to make an examination. 

In the summer of 1892 Congress passed a resolution request- 
ing the governments of Spain, France, Great Britain, the Pope 
of Rome, the Duke of Veragua and others to loan for exhibition 
in the convent of La Rabida, at the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, certain manuscripts, maps, and printed volumes relating 


198 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

to the voyages of Columbus and the discovery and early settle- 
ment of America. It was my pleasant duty to convey this 
request to the nations and persons named, and with the excep- 
tion of the government of France and the municipality of Genoa, 
the response was prompt, generous, and complete. His emi- 
nence, Mgr Rampolla, cardinal secretary of state, who repre- 
sented the pope in the negotiations, was extremely cordial and 
interested, and although he could not permit any original papers 
to be taken from the files of the Vatican, he caused a thorough 
investigation to be made, and furnished a fac-simile of every 
important or interesting document that could be found bearing 
upon the early history of America. While the claims of the 
Scandinavian scholars were not sustained, and no evidence was 
disclosed to show that the discoveries and adventures of the 
Norsemen in America were ever known to the church, or that 
Columbus obtained any information or assistance whatever from 
this source, there were brought to light several historical docu- 
ments of the greatest value, relating to the settlement of Green- 
land and the propaganda of the church in the middle ages. 

The work of investigation was done under the direction of 
Mr J. C. Heywood, a ripe and skillful scholar, who has devoted 
many years to the study of the history and the policy of the 
Catholic church, and who kindly consented to serve as the 
representative of the Department of State of the United States 
in securing a historical exhibit from the Vatican. Mr Heywood 
was formerly a resident of Philadelphia, but of late years has 
made his home at Rome, and is one of the chamberlains of Pope 
Leo XIII. He was inspired in his work by a double motive — 
the desire to have the Vatican represented at the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition by some important and unusual exhibit, and 
to add to the records of the Department of State at Washington 
a collection of most valuable historical papers. 

The documents were exhibited in the convent of La Rabida, at 
the World's Columbian Exposition, Avith the relics of Columbus, 
and the catalogue of the collection contained, among much other 
new and interesting historical matter, the following description 
from Mr Heywood's pen : 

" The fac-similes of documents relating to the early history 
of America here exhibited are taken from the famous series of 
the Papal registers or letter books. These are a collection of 
more than 12.000 volumes in folio, written partly on parchment 

Source of Information. " 199 

and partly on paper, and are preserved in the secret archives of 
the Holy See, at the Vatican palace. 

" In these registers almost all the letters issued by the popes 
were recorded before being sent to their destinations. They 
contain, also, the petitions received, and offer, therefore, original 
and most important materials for th^ histories of all nations. 

" The collection now begins with Pope Innocent III (1198- 
1216). All the portion of it prior to that date was lost or de- 
stroyed in the commencement of the thirteenth century. What 
remains is classified as follows : 

A. The Vatican registers, over 2,000 volumes, 1198-1600. 

B. The Avignon registers, about 350 volumes, 1316-1417. 

• C. The Lateran registers, about 2,300 volumes, 1417-1831. 

D. The registers of the Requests, about 7,400 volumes, 1352- 

" It must cause a peculiar satisfaction to Leo XIII that one 
of the early results of his enlightened liberality in opening the 
secret archives is, as shown by these letters, to make accessible 
to all proofs that, l)y whomsoever represented, the papacy has 
always been faithful to the divine mission which it claims for 
itself; that whenever discoveries of, till then, unknown coun- 
tries have been announced it at once has made provision for 
the preaching of the gospel and the introduction of Christianity 
among the people of such countries. 

" The papers, of which the fac-similes are here shown, may be 
divided into four groups, viz : 

" Those which relate to the bishopric of Gardar, Greenland ; 

" Those which relate to the line of demarcation ; 

" Those which relate to the sending of missionaries to America ; 

"Those in which Pope Julius II recommends Bartholomew 
and Diego Columbus. 

" J . Documents Concerning the Blihoprlc of Gardar, Greenlcuid. 

" Greenland certainly is the part of the new world which was 
first brought into relation with the old. This was done through 
the Northmen of Norway and Iceland. It was by their means 
that Christianity was first carried to America and there gave 
occasion for the documents in question. 

" According to Adam, of Bremen (died about 1076), and the 
sagas, NorAvegians first reached the American coast at the end 

200 W. E. Ckirtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

of the ninth or heginning of the tenth century ; hut, as in Nor- 
way itself, so in Greenland, the complete establishment of the 
Christian religion is attributed to King Olaf II (died 1030). It 
is said that Archbishop Adalbert, of Bremen (1055), sent Albert 
as the first bishop to Greenland. This bishopric certainly ex- 
isted in 1124. It was the first bishopric erected in America. 

" The numerous researches and publications in regard to the 
extension of settlements which Christian Greenlanders effected 
on the American continent, and in regard to the positions of the 
Helleland, the Markland and the Vinland, make apparent, not 
only the possibility, but also the probability, that a considerable 
portion of that continent felt in some degree at that time the 
civilizing influence of the bishops of Gardar. 

" Rafn identified the Vinland with Massachusetts. The ques- 
tion has lately been thoroughly reexamined b}'' Storm. His 
opinion is that Vinland, and consequently the extreme point 
reached by Christian Northmen, cannot be sought for further 
south than Noya Scotia. In any case, the historic importance 
of the bishopric of Gardar is plain. 

" The bishopric belonged first to the metropolitan see of Ham- 
burg-Bremen ; but in 1146 Pope Eugene III sent the cardinal- 
bishop of Albano, Nicolas, who afterward became Pope Hadrian 
IV, to Norway to arrange in a more convenient manner the 
ecclesiastical affairs of that country. He established a metropol- 
itan see at Drontheim, to which he subjected the bishoprics of 
Norway, of the Northern islands, and of Gardar, or Greenland. 

" The letter of Innocent III, the earliest in order of time and 
the first here exhibited, epitomizes the apostolic case with which 
his predecessors in the twelfth century had bestowed on the only 
part of America then known. 

" In all ordinary matters the dioqeses were governed by the 
bishops, without any direct interference on the part of the pope. 
But when Gregory X,' in the council of Lyons (1174), ordered 
that a tithe of all ecclesiastical revenues should for six years be 
contributed, in order to provide means at least to preserve the 
last Christian position in Palestine, which, after the death of 
Louis IX of France (died August 25, 1270), seemed almost lost, 
such interference in some cases became necessary. 

" The letters of the popes, written under these extraordinary cir- 
cumstances to the archbishop of Drontheim, contain interesting 
information regarding the condition of the Greenlanders in the 

The Condition of the Greenlaitders. 201 

thirteenth century, and show that a part of- America helped to 
furnish money for the crusade. 

" The archbishop has informed the pope (letters 2, 6) that it 
would take him five years, including the voyage to and from, to 
visit the diocese of Greenland, and has asked permission to send 
some proj^er person in his place. Other letters (letters 3, 4) say 
that the archbishop would have to spend six years in order to 
collect personally the tithes in his arch-diocese, and that in doing 
so he would be obliged to live, sometimes five or more consecu- 
tive days, in a tent while traveling through desert regions. 
Therefore he thinks it needful that a larger number of collectors 
should be appointed. 

" In other letters (letters 5, 8) the archbishop notes the poverty 
of the country. The people had no money of any kind, and no 
grain or fruit could be grown. The inhabitants lived on milk, 
or food produced from it (latimiia), and fish. In Greenland 
particularly the people could offer nothing for the expenses of 
the crusade but skins, probably of the elk or of the musk-ox 
and of seals {coria bovina et phocarum) and the teeth and soper 
of Avhales {funes halenarwii). The non-production of grain and 
grapes made it necessary for the faithful (letter 7) to provide for a 
supply of bread and wine to be used in celebrating the eucharist. 

" From a letter of Pope Nicolas V, dated September 22, 1148 
(letter 9), it appears that the Greenlanders attributed their con- 
version to Saint Olaf, King of Norway (died 1030) ; that they 
had built, beside a goodly number of parish churches, a respect- 
able cathedral at Gardar; that about the year 1418 heathen 
foreigners, with a fleet, invaded their country, killed or carried 
into slavery the inhabitants and burned their habitations and 
buildings, leaving only nine churches, which were in the least 
accessible regions. Some of the captives, having escaped and 
returned to their own country, unable to go to the distant 
churches, have begged the pope to provide them with ]3riests and a 
bishop. Nicolas therefore empowers the two neighboring bishops 
of Iceland to satisfy the j)ious desires of the Greenlanders. 

"The information contained in this letter of Nicolas V is in 
some measure completed and confirmed by one from Pope 
Alexander VI, written 1492-'93, just when Columbus had made 
his great discovery. It seems that the letter of Nicolas did not 
reach its destination, or failed to effect its purpose. At any rate, 
the Greenlanders had addressed a petition to Innocent VIII, 

27— Nat. Grog. Mag., vor,. V, 1893. 

202 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Colamhian, Vatican Documents. 

setting forth that for ahout eighty years (since' the heathen in- 
vasion, in about 1418) they had been deprived of priests and of 
a bishop. As a consequence many had ah-eady lost their faith, 
and to those who remained faithful the only memorial of Christian 
worship 3^et belonging was the coporal on which, nearly one hun- 
dred years before, a priest had, for the last time among them, 
consecrated the blessed sacrament. Once every year this holy 
and venerated relic was shown to all the people. 

" Before his elevation to the pontificate Alexander, as chan- 
cellor, had proposed Matthew, a Benedictine monk, for the bishop 
of Gardar. By this letter he frees liim from the payment of all 
fees that were due in such -cases and praises the willingness with 
which he had undertaken the difficult mission. 

" Documents that Relate to the Line of Demarcation. 

"Acting on the approved general opinion, a common consent of 
the time, which acknowledged the right of popes to interfere 
autlioritatively even in political and international affairs, when 
the welfare of souls are involved, the Portuguese kings, with 
their discoveries along the western coast of Africa, commenced a 
series of demands for the exclusive right of discovery and coloniza- 
tion in that direction. This the popes, Martin V, Eugene IV, Nico- 
las V, and Sextus IV, gradually ceded to them till their successive 
grants covered all the region from Ceuta around Africa to India. 

" The discovery announced by Columbus, and believed even b}^ 
himself till the day of his death to be only a new and shorter 
way to the eastern part of India, naturally excited the appre- 
hensions and jealousy of the Portuguese court. On the return 
of the great discoverer (March 4, 1493) from his first voyage, 
Ferdinand put in operation all his diplomacy at Lisbon for the 
purpose of preventing any interference with his claims, and at 
Rome, in order to procure from the pope a sole proprietorship 
of the new world, he obtained three papal letters, dated May 3d 
and 4th, which was to effect this result. 

" The letter beginning ' inter cetera,' of the date of May 3, gave 
to Spain : First, the exclusive right to the lately discovered 
islands and to the other lands which might still be found, so far 
as they were not already possiessed by some Christian power; 
secondly, the same privileges and rights for its new colonies as 
those previously conceded to Portugal for its possessions on the 

Tlie Demarcation Line. 203 

west coast of Africa. The other letter, of same date, which begins 
' eximie devotionis,' contains only the last-mentioned concession. 

" The third letter, dated May 4, on the other han,d gives the 
first concession indicated above, but not the second, and is, 
therefore, to some extent, a repetition of the first letter. But it 
contains, in addition, a definition of the famous line of de- 
marcation, determining more exactly the donation given by 
the first letter, evidently on account of the grant made to Por- 
tugal, although that is not mentioned. The line is fixed one 
hundred leagues to the west and south of the westernmost 
island of the Azores, ' To the south ' was added because the 
region was particularly desired by both parties, and because 
Portugal had already proposed the drawing of a line from east 
to west in order to confine Spain to the northern side of such a 
boundary. The condition of geographical science at the time 
did not permit the intended boundary to be defined more accu- 
rately. In proposing it to Alexander VI, Spain only knew that 
it would fall far from San Salvador and hoped that, by keeping 
its ships- at a distance of one hundred leagues from the most 
western of the Portuguese possessions, alarm and jealousy on 
the part of the last-named power might be prevented. But 
Portugal, like Columbus and Spain, believed San Salvador to 
be part of India, to which country, passing the cape of Good 
Hope, in 1487, it had opened a new way, and to which it claimed 
the exclusive right. It was, therefore, impossible for Spain to 
maintain the demarcation line of Alexander VI, and in the con- 
vention of Torderillas (7th June, 1494) it was moved one hun- 
dred and seventy leagues farther west, a change which, without 
the cognizance of either party, gave Brazil to Portugal. But 
although the position of the demarcation line of Alexander VI 
had been changed, it continued, nevertheless, to be the basis of 
all subsequent transactions and conventions for dividing the 
sovereignty of the new world, and thus preserved peace between 
the two colonizing powers. 

" It is clear from the text of these letters that the popes, and 
especially Alexander VI, founded such action, as was his in this 
case, on their duty to provide for the christianization of the new 
countries ; a duty which carried with it the right and authority 
to use all power, and particularly all indispensable means for 
its accomplishment. The conversion of these heathen popula- 
tions seemed impossible, unless somehow they should be incor- 

204 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

porated into and peace preserved between the Christian king- 
doms of Spain and Portugal. 

"TAe Sending of Bishops and. Missionaries to the New World. 

" In these grants of lands newly discovered or to be discovered 
Alexander VI and his predecessors emphatically insisted on the 
duty of Christian kings to cooperate, by all means under their 
control, in the conversion of the inhabitants of such lands; in 
fact, such cooperation was a clearly implied condition and con- 
sideration of the grants. The evidence appears insufficient to 
supj)ort a positive assertion that on his first voyage Columbus 
was accompanied by a priest; but it is a plain fact that for the 
second expedition, in 1493, Ferdinand and Isabella, as well as 
Alexander VI, solicitously provided missionaries, not only for 
the spiritual well-being of the Spaniards, but also and princi- 
pally for the conversion of the natives. 

" Bernard Boil, greatly esteemed for his saintly life and for 
his great ability in the management of ecclesiastical and also of 
political affairs, offered himself for this mission, the first apostle 
who, after Columbus' discover}^, went to the new world. Till 
1492 he was a Benedictine monk, or hermit, at Montserrat; but 
at the time of his mission to the lately discovered islands — that 
is to say, at least from September 22, 1492, to December 8, 1497 — 
he belonged to the order of the Minimi, Avhich shortly before had 
been established by Saint Francis of Paul. In 1488 he returned 
to the Benedictine order and became abbot of Cuxa. The copyist 
of the letter of Alexander IV to Boil made, therefore, a ver}'' 
excusable mistake in Avriting ' minorum ' instead of ' mini- 
morum,' in consequence of which Ragnaldus, Wadding, and 
many other writers assigned Boil to the Franciscan order. By 
this letter of June 25, 1493, Alexander granted to Boil and his 
twelve companions all the powers and privileges which could 
aid to make their enterprise successful. Of these twelve com- 
panions only Pedro de Asena and Fray Jorje are named. Pedro 
de Asena is said to have celebrated the first mass in the new 
world after it was discovered by Columbus. 

"As early as 1501, at the request of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
Alexander took steps to provide bishojDS for the infant colonies 
in America. In 1504 an archbishopric and two bishoprics were 
erected at Tagusta, Magua, and Bay una, in Hispaniola (Haiti), 
but through the operations of Ferdinand's well-known financial 

Early American Dioceses. 205 

policy the plan came to nothing. On August 8, 1511, these 
three dioceses were suppressed, and three others were established 
at Santo Domingo and Concepcion de la Vega, in Hispaniola, 
and at San Juan, in Porto Rico, and placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of the archbishops of Seville, where the government of the 
colonies had its seat. 

" In August and September, 1513 (see five letters of that date), 
John of Quevedo, a Franciscan friar, was appointed to the see 
of Banta Maria del Antiqua, or Darien, and his appointment 
announced to the authorities and people. He was the first 
bishop of a diocese on the American continent. He died at 
Barcelona about December 5, 1520. 

"Already a considerable body of priests, both secular and regu- 
lar, were working for the religious good of the colonists and to 
convert the natives. The popes, however, and the rulers of 
Spain iwishecl to increase the number of these laborers and to 
provide for their government. A letter of Clement VII, dated 
June 7, 1526 (letter 22), the better to effect their wish, urged the 
general of the Franciscans to visit personally the members of 
his order in the new world. By another letter (letter 23) Clement 
authorized the emperor, Charles V, who had asked for mission- 
aries, to send one hundred and twenty Franciscans, seventy 
Dominicans, and ten Serougmites to the lately discovered islands, 
even without the permission of their respective superiors, grant- 
ing to those who should be sent many privileges and exemptions. 
With like solicitude the kings of Spain and Portugal continued 
to fulfill the condition under which they had received the papal 
grants of newly discovered, or to be discovered, territories." 

Pope Julius II Recommends Bartholomew and Diego Columbus to 
the King of Spain. 

On the death of Christopher Columbus (May 20, 1506) began 
for his heirs the difliculties which, aggregated by the character- 
istic tenacity of the family, occasioned the endless lawsuit, well 
known as Los Pleitos de Colon. AVith a hope of ending these 
difficulties. Bartholomew, the brother, and Diego, the son, of the 
discoverer, determined to join King Ferdinand, then at Naples. 
Passing through Rome, on their Avay thither, they were kindly 
received by Pope Julius II, and obtained from him a recom- 
mendation to Ferdinand, who seems already to have been 
favorably disposed toward them. 

206 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. ' 

The documents from the secret archives of the Vatican, of 
which fac similes were furnished by Cardinal Rampolla for ex- 
hibition in the monastery of La Rabida, are as follows : 


985. Letter of Pope Innocent III, dated February 13, 1206, 
to the archbishop of Drontheim, confirming his metropolitan 
rights over the diocese of Greenland, which had been established 
by Pope Eugene III in 1148. 

(Translation. ) 

Innocent III to the archbishop of Drontheim and his canon- 

ically appointed successors in perpetuity : 

Although the power of binding and loosing was given to all, 
although one and the same command of preaching the gospel 
to every creature was given to all, nevertheless a certain distinc- 
tion of dignity was decreed and one alone received above all the 
rest the care of the Lord's sheep, according to the Lord's words : 
Peter, lovest thou me ? Feed my sheep. It was Peter likewise 
who obtained the preeminence among all the apostles ; he who 
received a special command from the Lord to confirm his 
brethren, in order that posterity might thereby understand that 
though many should be ordained to govern the church, one alone 
was to hold the supreme dignity, one alone was to be over all 
the rest in authority and jurisdiction; hence, and in accord- 
ance with this design, a distinction of dignities is observed in 
the church, and just as in the human body the different mem- 
bers thereof are destined for different purposes, so also in the 
church different persons receive different orders for different 
ministries , for some are ordained for special churches, some for 
the government of different cities and the settlement of different 
affairs, others are set over special provinces, others have j arisdic- 
tion over their brethren for the trial of cases pertaining to their 
subjects. Over all these, however, the Roman pontiff, like Noah 
in the ark, is recognized as holding the first place, for he, by 
virtue of the privilege granted him from on high in the person 
of the prince of the apostles, judges and settles the causes of all, 
and ceases not to confirm in the Christian faith the sons of the 
church throughout the world, rightfully endeavoring to prove 
that he has heard the voice of the Lord saying, '' and thou being 

Purposes of the Vatican. 207 

once converted, confirm thy brethren."* The apostles and men 
who have successively risen to the government of the apostolic 
see since the blessed Peter have likewise striven with unfailing- 
zeal to accomplish the same, and either personally or by means 
of their legates they have endeavored to their utmost to correct 
whatsoever needed correction and to decree whatsoever was 
required. Our predecessor of happy memory, Pope Eugene, 
following in their footsteps, was anxious, in accordance with the 
duty of his office, to correct in the kingdom of Norway all that 
seemed to demand correction, by sowing therein the word of 
faith, and what he himself was unable to do, owing to his care 
of the universal church, he entrusted for execution to his legate 
Nicholas, then bishop of Albano and later Roman pontiff, who, 
having gone to that country, loaned out, obediently to the com- 
mands of his master, the talent he had received, and like a faith- 
ful and wise servant endeavored to derive an increase therefrom. 
Among other things which he there accomplished to the glory of 
God's name and the credit of his ministry, according as he had 
been commanded by our aforesaid predecessor, he bestowed the 
pallium upon thy predecessor John, and lest the province of Nor- 
way should lack the supervision of a metropolitan he designated 
the city of Nidras, now under th}^ charge, as the metropolitan 
see in perpetuity of the said province and gave to it as suffrage 
sees in perpetuity Aslo, Amatrip, Bargen, Stavangri, the Orkney, 
Faroe, and Subraie island's, Iceland and Greenland, ordering 
the bish-ops of the same to obey him and his successors as their 
metropolitans. Lest, therefore, any one should ever presume 
to violate the order of the aforesaid legate, we, after the ex- 
ample of the above-mentioned Eugene, of happy memor}^ of 
Alexander and of Clement our predecessors and Roman pon- 
tiffs, confirm the same order by apostolic authority, and by the 
present ordinance decreeing that the cit}^ of Nidras is to be for- 
ever regarded as the metropolitan see of the above-mentioned 
cities ; that their bishops are to obey thee and thy successors as 
their metropolitan, and to receive from your hands the grace of 
consecration ; that thy successors, however, are to come to the 
Roman pontiff alone, in order to receive the gift of consecration, 
and that they are to be subject to the Roman church alone. 
Moreover, thy fraternity will use the -pallium which has been 
given thee, the emblem of the plenitude of the pontifical office, 
within church onlv during the solemn celebration of mass 

208 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, VaHcan Documents. 

throughout th}^ entire province, and on those days only which 
are written below, viz., the Lord's nativity, the Epiphany, the 
Lord's Supper, the Resurrection, Ascension and Pentecost, on 
the festivals of the blessed Mother of God, Mary, ever virgin ; the 
feast of Saints Peter and Paul, the finding and exaltation of the 
Holy Cross, the nativity of Saint John the Baptist, the feast of 
blessed John the Evangelist, on the commemoration of all 
saints, wdien consecrating churches or bishops, blessing abbots 
or ordaining priests, on the anniversary of the consecration of 
thine own church, the feasts of the Holy Trinity and of Saint 
Olaf and the anniversar}^ of thy consecration. Wherefore let 
thy fraternity perform all things with such diligence that the 
ornaments of thy conduct may be in keeping with the fullness 
of the great dignity thou hast received. Let thy life be an ex- 
ample to all who are under thee, so that they may learn there- 
from what they should seek after and what thej^ are obliged to 
shun; be distinguished for thy prudence, chaste of thought, 
pure in thy conduct, discreet in silence, useful in speech ; seek 
rather to do good to men than to rule them. In thyself thou 
shouldst consider not the power of order, but the equality of thy 
condition. Have a care lest thy life render void thy teaching 
or thy teaching be in contradiction with thy conduct. Remem- 
ber that the government of souls is the art of arts. Strive above 
all things to observe faithfully the decrees of the apostolic see, 
humbl}^ obeying the same as thy mother and mistress. These, 
most beloved brother in Christ, are some among the many 
duties which pertain to thy archiepiscopal and sacerdotal office, 
all of which thou canst easily perform with Christ's aid, provided 
that thou hast charity, which is the mistress of all virtues, and 
humility, and that thou hast inwardly what thou seemest out- 
wardly to have. 

Accordingly we decree, etc, unto the end. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, by the hand of John, cardinal, 
deacon of Saint Mary's, in Cosmedin, chancellor of the holy 
Roman church, on the 13th day of February, the sixth indic- 
tion, in the year of the Lord's incarnation 1205, and the 8th year 
of the pontificate of Pope Innocent III. 

986. Four letters from Pope John XXI to the archbishop of 
Drontheim, relative to the collection of tithes in Greenland for 
the Crusade, dated December 4, 1276. 

The Coliection of Tithes, ^09 


John XXI to the archbishop of Drontheim : 

Having received, by apostolic brief, the commission to collect 
tithes in the kingdom of Norway for the Holy Land, and having 
been expressly commanded in the same brief to visit personally 
all the countries of the said kingdom for this purpose, thy fra- 
ternity informs us that such visitation seems in a measure im- 
possible, for the diocese of Gardar, which belongs to thy province 
and kingdom, is so far from the metropolitan see and the diffi- 
culties of navigation are so great that five years are scarcely 
sufficient for the round journey ; hence thou hast reason to 
doubt whether the apostolic mandate or thine will reach the 
aforesaid country within the period named for the payment of 
the tithes. Accordingly thou hast had recourse to the wisdom 
of the apostolic see for a remedy in this matter. We therefore, 
in our desire that the collection of the said tithes be diligently 
attended to, do wish and by apostolic letters do command thy 
fraternity, the above facts being true, to appoint certain capable 
and faithful persons, regarding whom we charge thy conscience, 
who shall go to that country and shall see to and diligently 
superintend the said collection. Thou shalt also zealously pro- 
vide whatsoever shall seem expedient in the said matter, that 
thou mayest obtain thy reward of the Lord and merit for th}^- 
self more abundantly the favor of the apostolic see. 

Given at Viterbo December 4th, in the first 3^ear. 

To the same : 

Having received by apostolic brief the commission to collect 
tithes in the kingdom of Norway for the Holy Land, and having 
been expressly commanded in the same brief to visit personally 
all the countries of the said country for this purpose, thy fra- 
ternity has informed us that several of the dioceses in that 
kingdom and belonging to thy province are so widely scattered 
over the sea and so extensive in territory that it would be diffi- 
cult for thee to visit personally all the districts of the aforesaid 
dioceses within a period of about six years and without most 
serious expense to thy see, and since thou wouldst have to travel 
for some five or more seasons (?) through countries wdiere, because 
there are no houses, thou wouldst be compelled to carry tents, 
thou hast asked to be authorized to depute, notwithstanding the 

28— Nat. ftKOfi. Mao., voi,. V, 189::. 

210 W. E. Ciiiiis — Pre-Columbian, WiUcnn Documents. 

apostolic brief to the contrary, certain prudent and capable com- 
mib'saries to collect the tithes in the said countries. Wherefore, 
in order to spare thee and thy see such expense, we have con- 
cluded to grant thee, by tenor of these present, permission to 
appoint such commissaries for the collection of tithes in the said 
diocese, in case the above be in accordance with the facts, and 
if thou seest fit so to do, regarding which we charge thy con- 
science. We wish thee, however, to visit personally such of the 
aforesaid dioceses as thou canst, without great inconvenience, 
and to attend zealously to the collection of the said tithes, in 
order that thou ma3^est expect a recompense from the Lord, 
whose work it is, and mayest more abundantly merit the favor 
of the apostolic see. 

Given at Viterbo December 4th, in the first year. 

To the same : 

Thou hast informed us that, owing to the great extent of the 
dioceses in the kingdom of Norway, wherein thou hast been 
appointed by apostolic letter collector of tithes for the relief of 
the Holy Land, the two collectors named, with apostolic per- 
mission, for every diocese, are not sufficient for the said work, 
nor can they attend to the matter without inconvenience and 
very great expense. By the advice and with the assent of thy 
suffragans in the said kingdom, thou hast appointed for the 
country districts of the different dioceses several other collectors, 
who by their own efforts and at their personal expense are to 
collect the tithes and then consign them to the two city col- 
lectors. Wherefore thou hast humbly besought us to consider 
the labor and expense to wdiich these country collectors put 
themselves and to grant them some indulgence ; hence, as we 
desire that these country collectors should derive some profit 
from their labors and expense, we grant them the indulgence 
which has been accorded to those who by their efforts and coop- 
eration further the cause of the Holy Land. 

Given at Viterbo December 4th, in the first jT^ear. 

To the same: 

Thou has informed us that in the kingdom of Norway, where 
thou hast been entrusted with the collection of tithes for the 
Holy Land, the current coin is so base as to be of no value 
beyond the frontiers of tlie kingdom, and that in certain parts 

27^6 Baseness of the Coin. 211 

of the said kingdom money is not used at all, besides no crops 
are grown and no fruits are produced, the people subsisting 
almost entirely upon milk, cheese, and fish ; hence thou hast 
humbly asked us to tell thee what thou art to do with the tithes 
collected of the aforesaid milk, cheese, fish, and money. Accord- 
ingly, in our desire that whatever is most advantageous to the 
work to be done in the matter, we think it would be well, if the 
above be exact, to exchange, as circumstances will permit, all 
such coin and tithes for gold or silver. As for the nuns and 
other religious orders of the same kingdom whose incomes and 
ecclesiastical revenues are so small as to be inadequate for their 
support, thou canst observe that which is more fully set forth in 
the declarations concerning this collection of tithes. 
Given at Viterbo December 4th, in the first year. 

987. Letter from Pope Nicholas III, dated January 31, 1279, 
to the archbishop of Drontheim concerning the collection of 
tithes in Greenland. ' 


Nicholas III to his venerable brother, the archbishop of Dron- 
theim : 

We have gathered from thy letters to us that the island on 
which the city of Gardar is situated is rarely visited by a ship 
because of the storminess of the ocean within which it lies ; 
hence, when recently certain seamen set sail for the said island to 
the said city, thou didst avail thyself of the opportunity to send, 
in company with the said seamen, a prudent man whom thou 
didst depute to collect the tithes, and, relying upon our approval, 
thou didst authorize him to absolve clerics from the sentence of 
excommunication which they had incurred for not having paid 
the tithes within the appointed time, and to free them from 
whatsoever irregularity they might have contracted ; hence thou 
hast humbly besought us to grant our gracious ratification. 
Since then we cannot favorably assent to this demand, inasmuch 
as it is not supported by reason, and wishing on this account to 
accede to thy desires by applying a ready preservative against 
dangers to souls, we hereby authorize thee to impart to those 
whom thou has sent or whom thou wilt hereafter send to the 

212 W. E. Ourtis — Pre~Golambimi, Vatican Docimients. 

aforesaid islands to absolve clerics, whether in the above men- 
tioned or in whatsoever other islands of the same sea, from the 
aforesaid sentence according to the form of the church, and to 
dispense them from this kind of irregularity. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, January 31, 1279. 

Letter from Pope Nicolas III to Master Bertrand Arnabrie, 
dated June 9, 1279, concerning the purchase of wine and altar 
bread for the churches in Greenland. 


Nicholas III to the same (Master Bertrand Amabric) : 

We have lately been informed by thee that certain revenues 
have been assigned by the piety of the faithful in the cathedral 
churches of Denmark and Sweden for the special purpose of 
Ijrocuring wine and altar-bread for the clergy of the churches 
within the said kingdoms. As, however, thou hast consulted 
the apostolic see as to whether tithes should be taken from such 
revenues, we, while commending thy diligence, do by apostolic 
letter leave the matter to thy discretion, so that, if the revenues 
be so considerable that thou art certain a large sum is left over 
after the furnishing of wine and altar-bread, we desire that tithes 
be paid thereof. If, however, little or nothing remains of the 
said revenues, nothing is to be paid, out of reverence for worship 
and the sacrament of the Lord. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, June 9, 1279. 


988. Letter of Pope Martin IV to the archbishop of Dron- 
theim, dated March 4, 1281, instructing him as to the skins and 
whalebone contributed as tithes by the people of Greenland. 


Martin IV to the archbishop of Drontheim : 

Thy fraternity has informed us that the tithes which are being 
paid in the Iceland and Faroe islands, in the kingdom of Nor- 
way, consist of various articles which cannot easily be exchanged 
or sold, on which account the same cannot well be sent to the 

The Tithes of Greenland. 213 

Holy Land or to the apostolic see. Thou hast added, moreover, 
that the only tithes which can be collected in Greenland consist 
of skins (probably) of the elk or of the musk-ox or of seals (coria 
hovina elphocerum), teeth ropes of whales (Junes halnearum), which, 
according to thee, can hardly be sold for any suitable price. 
Wherefore thou hast asked instructions of the apostolic see as 
to what thou shouldst do in the premises. Accordingly, whilst 
we praise thy zealous solicitude, we answer thy question to this 
effect : thou wilt endeavor to exchange the tithes of Greenland 
and the aforesaid islands to the best possible advantage, either 
for silver or gold, and will forward this same as soon as thou 
canst, together with the other tithes collected in the kingdom 
for the relief of the Holy Land, faithfully informing as to the 
nature and amount of what thou sendest. We likewise write 
to our most dear son in Christ, the illustrious King of Norway, 
asking him not to prevent nor to allow any one to prevent the 
free exportation from his kingdom of the tithes which are to be 
applied, according as the apostolic see shall see fit, to the relief 
of the aforesaid Holy Land, and effectually to endeavor to repeal 
the prohibition decreed against clerics of the said kingdom, for- 
bidding any layman of the same to sell sterlings or other silver. 
Given at Orvieto, March 4, 1281. 


989. Letter from Pope Nicolas V, dated September 20, 1448, 
to the Irish bishojis of Skalholt and Holar concerning the con- 
dition of the church in Greenland. 


Nicholas, etc., to our venerable brothers, bishop of Skalholt and 

bishop of Holar, health, etc. : 

In directing the government of the universal church by virtue 
of the apostolic charge delivered to us from above, it is our 
solicitude in God's name to secure the salvation of souls re- 
deemed by the precious blood of our Saviour, not only by calm- 
ing the storms of impiet}^ and error which sweep over them, but 
also by sheltering them when exposed to calamities and the 
whirlwinds of persecution. From the natives and inhabitants 
of Greenland, an island said to be situated in the most distant 

214 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

parts of the ocean off the northern coast of the kingdom of Nor- 
way, in the province of Drontheim, a mournful wail has reached 
our ears and saddened our heart. This people nearly 600 years 
ago received the faith from the lips of their glorious apostle, the 
blessed King Olaf, and preserved it unchanged and pure, guided 
by the ordinances of the holy Roman church and the apostolic 
see. In the lapse of time, burning with a constant devotion, 
they erected numerous churches and a splendid cathedral, in 
which divine worship was faithfully carried on until, 30 years 
ago, by the permission of Him who, in His inscrutable wisdom 
and knowledge, chastises those whom He loves in order to per- 
fect them, barbarians from the neighboring pagan shores sent a 
fleet for the invasion of the island. The country was devastated 
with fire and sword ; sacred temples were destroyed in the 
whole island, which is said to be of vast extent. Only nine 
parochial churches were left untouched, because they could 
not easily be reached on account of their situation among the 
mountains. Many of the miserable natives of both sexes who 
seemed able to bear the yoke of perpetual slavery, and on 
account of their physical endurance best fitted for the purposes 
of their tyrants, were led away hj them captives. However, as 
the same report added, after some time many of them returned 
to their native shores, and having here and there re-erected 
what the barbarians had demolished, they desired to spread 
divine worship and restore it to its former splendor. But past 
calamities had left them in such a starving and destitute condi- 
tion that they were without the means of supporting a bishop 
and priests, and unless, in their desire for religious services, they 
could undertake a journey of many days to the churches which 
had escaped the hands of the barbarians, they were for those 
30 years in want of the solace of a pastor and the ministry of 
piiests. Accordingly they have most humbly implored that in 
our paternal commiseration we would aid them in the gratifica- 
tion of their pious and salutary desire ; that we would deign 
to satisfy their spiritual wants and show our benevolence and 
that of the apostolic see in this matter. Wherefore, moved by 
the just and lawful petitions and desires of the aforesaid natives 
and inhabitants of the island of Greenland and not having cer- 
tain knowledge of the above facts and their circumstances, we 
by apostolic letters order one or both of you, whom we under- 
stand to be of the neighboring bishops, after having diligently 

The Bishop of Greenland. 215 

examined and understood what we have said above, to ascer- 
tain whether it be true. If this is the state of affairs, and if you 
find the number and resources of tlie population sufficiently 
increased to make expedient the fulfillment of their desire, it is 
our wish that you ordain fitting priests of exemplary life, and 
provide rectors for the government of the restored parishes and 
churches and for the administration of the sacraments. More- 
over, if to one or both of you it seem timely and expedient 
(having asked the advice of the metropolitan if the distance per- 
mit), we give you power to appoint and constitute as bishop for 
them some useful and qualified person in communion with us 
and with the apostolic see, to consecrate him in our name with 
the usual form of the church, and to concede to him the admin- 
istration of spiritual and temporal affairs, after having received 
from him a fitting and customary oath of allegiance to us and 
the apostolic see. Making this a matter of conscience, we. by 
our apostolic authority, concede to one or both of you full and 
unrestricted power in this matter according to the tenor of these 
presents, all statites and constitutions, whether apostolic or of gen - 
eral councils or of any other kind whatsoever, notwithstanding. 
Given at Rome, at Saint Potenciana's, in the year, etc., fourteen 
hundred and forty-eight, twelfth day before the kalends of Octo- 
ber, the second year of our pontificate. 

990. Letter of Pope Alexander VI,1492-'93,appointing Mathias, 
a monk of Saint Benedict, to the bishopric of Gardar, Greenland, 
and describing the condition of the people of that country. 

■ ~ (Translation.) 

We are informed that the church of Gadar, on the confines of 
the world, in the country of Greenland, whose inhabitants are 
wont to subsist upon dried fish and milk on account of the 
dearth of bread, wine, and oil, and that because of the very rare 
voyages wdiich caii be made to the said country, owing to the 
freezing of the waters, no ship is supposed to have landed there 
during the past eighty years. We are told, moreover, that such 
voyages are not considered possible except in the month of 
August, after the thawing of the ice, and that no resident bishop 
or priest has governed the said church for some eighty years 
past; hence, because of the absence of the priests, it has hap- 

216 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

pened that a great many of the inhabitants of that diocese who 
were once Catholics 'have, alas! denied the sacred baptism the.y 
had received. It is said that the people of that country have 
no other reminder of the Christian religion than a certain capa- 
ral which they show once a year and upon which the body of 
Christ was consecrated by the last resident priest, one hundred 
years ago. Owing to these and other considerations our prede- 
cessor, Pope Innocent VIII, of happy memory, wishing to pro- 
vide an ethcient and worthy pastor for the said chui'ch, which 
has for so long been deprived of such a consolation, in accord- 
ance with the advice of his brethren, of whom we were one, 
appointed to the said see our venerable brother Mathias, a pro- 
fessed member of the order of Saint Benedict and now bishop- 
elect of Gades, having been preconized at our request previous 
to our election. In his great zeal for the conversion of those 
who have fallen away and for the expiration of error, he now 
cheerfully resolves to set out upon his most dangerous voyage. 
Whilst most highly commending in the Lord his pious and 
laudable intention, we wish to assist him somewhat because of 
his- poverty. Wherefore, of our own act, cognizance, and upon 
the advice and with the consent of our brethren, we command, 
under penalty of excommunication, to be incurred ipso facto, 
our beloved sons, the copyists, abbreviators, the solicitors, the 
officials of seals and registerator, and all other officials in the 
respective offices, whether of the chancery or the apostolic 
chamber, to forward and have forwarded promptly and entirely 
free of charge all apostolic letters concerning the promotion to 
the aforesaid church of Gades which have to be sent to the said 
bishop-elect. Moreover, by the same act, with like cognizance 
and under the same penalties, to be incurred by those who dis- 
obey, and all else to the contrary notwithstanding, we order the 
clerics and notaries of the apostolic chamber to deliver to the 
said bishops all such briefs and bulls without payment or exac- 
tion of any tax or of any of the fees or gratuities usually paid 
on like occasions. Let everything be done gratis in all the 
offices, because he is very poor, etc. 

This concludes the series of letters relating to the American 
continent on the files of the Vatican dated prior to 1492, and 
while they furnish presumptive evidence that the existence of 

Evidevce of Land wed of Greenland. 217 

unexplored lands and savage races west of Greenland was known 
to the church, the}^ are equally strong proof that Columbus re- 
ceived no information or encouragement from them, particularly 
as he never expected or desired to discover new lands, but sought a 
shorter passage to the lands of opulence described b}'- Marco Polo. 
The remaining letters from the Vatican files relating to the 
early history of America, are of interest, and historical value. 

991. Letter of Pope Alexander VI to Ferdinand and Isabella, 
dated May 3, 1493, congratulating them upon the triumph of 
Columbus and granting to them full sovereignty over all lands 
discovered by him. 


Alexander, etc., to his most dear son and daughter in Christ, the 
illustrious Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile 
and Leon, Aragon, Sicily and Granada, health, etc.: 
Among the works which are pleasing to the divine Majesty 
and dear to our hearts, none is so important as that of the ex- 
altation and diffusion of the Christian religion and Catholic 
faith, more especially in these our times, the salvation of souls, 
and the repression and conversion of barbarous nations. Where- 
fore, when, by favor of God's clemency and despite our inade- 
quate merits, we were elevated to this holy see of Peter, knowing 
that you, like true Catholic kings and princes, as we have ever 
known you to be, and as your famous achievements now prove, 
not only ardently desired the same end, but strove to attain it 
with all zeal and diligence, allowing youteelves to be deterred 
by no labors, expenses, dangers, nor even the effusions of your 
own blood, and being, nioreover, aware that you had for a long 
time dedicated all your thoughts and efforts thereunto, as is 
shown by the recovery of Granada from the Saracen yoke, accom- 
plished by 3^ou in these daj^s, to such great glory of God's name, 
we with reason concluded to grant you spontaneously and a[)prov- 
ingly whatsoever would enable you to promote, with ever increas- 
ing zeal for God's glory and the propagation of Christianity, an 
aim so holy, so laudable and so pleasing to the immortal God. 

We have indeed heard that you, who had long been deter- 
mined to search for and find certain remote and unknown con- 

23— Nat. Geog. Mag , vol. V, 1S93. 

218 W. E. Ourtis — Pre-Colunibian, Vatican Documents. 

tinents and islands, which no one had ever discovered, in order 
to convert the natives and inhabitants thereof to the worship of 
the Redeemer and the profession of the Christian faith, being- 
most earnestl}^ engaged in the conquest and recovery of the said 
kingdom of Granada, were enabled to carry into execution your 
holy and laudable resolve. When at length, however, by God's 
will, the said kingdom had been reconquered you, in your desire 
to begin at once the accomplishment of your purpose, sent our 
beloved son, Christopher Colon, with ships and suitable crews 
and cargoes, prepared with great labor, risk and expense, to 
make diligent search for the said unknown and remote conti- 
nents and islands in a sea whereon none had ever before. sailed. 
Finally, with the divine assistance and by the greatest effort, your 
envoys, while navigating the ocean to the westward, it is reported, 
in the direction of the Indies, discovered certain most distant 
islands and continents also which had never before been found, 
the inhabitants whereof are numerous and peaceful and, accord- 
ing to rumor, go naked and eat no meat. Moreover, as your 
said envoys have reason to think, the inhabitants of these islands 
believe in one God, the Creator, in heaven, and appear suffi- 
ciently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and to become 
imbued Avith good morals, and it is hoped that by means of in- 
struction the name of our Lord Jesus Christ can easily be intro- 
duced into the said islands. The said Christopher has already 
erected a sufficiently fortified citadel, in which he has placed a 
garrison of his fellow- voyagers, who are to search for other distant 
continents and islands. In those already discovered gold, spices 
and a great number of other precious products of different kinds 
and qualities are to be found. Wherefore you, on diligent consid- 
eration of all these facts, being, like your great and royal ancestors 
(as becomes Catholic kings and princes), most of all concerned 
with the exaltation and diffusion of the Catholic faith, have re- 
solved with God's merciful assistance to subdue the aforesaid 
countries and to convert their inhabitants to the Catholic faith. 
Hence, Avhilst we most highly commend in the Lord your holy 
and laudable purpose and desire that it be duly accomplished, 
and that by this means our Saviour's name be made known in 
those countries, we most earnestly exhort you in the Lord and 
demand of you, in virtue of holy baptism, by whose reception 
you have bound yourselves to obey our apostolic orders, and 

The Christianizing of the New World. 219 

through the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, 
inasmuch as you intend of your OAvn free will and out of zeal 
for the orthodox faith to undertake this expedition, you will 
diligently and out of a sense of duty induce the inhabitants of 
the said countries to embrace the Christian religion. We more- 
over exhort you not to allow yourselves to be deterred by dan- 
gers or trials and to remain firm in the hope that Almighty God 
will prosper your efforts ; and, in order that you may the more 
willingly and courageously set about so great an undertaking, 
after having received of the abundance of apostolic bounty by 
our own act, without being moved thereunto by any petition 
presented to us by you or by another in your behalf, but out of 
our sheer liberalit}', with certain cognizance, out of the fullness 
of apostolic power by the authority of Almighty God given us 
in blessed Peter, and of the vicegerency of Jesus Christ which 
we exercise upon earth, we, by tenor of these presents, give, 
grant and assign in perpetuit}'' to you and your heirs and 
successors, the kings of Castile and Leon, all the aforesaid un- 
known continents and islands that have been or shall hereafter 
be discovered by your envoys which are not actually under the 
temporal dominion of any Christian prince, together with all 
their territories, cities, castles, towns and villages, all their rights, 
jurisdictions and possessions. We moreover create, constitute 
and appoint you and your heirs and successors aforesaid loMs 
of the same, with full, free and universal authority. We decree, 
however, that by this our grant, donation and assignment no 
acquired right of any Christian ruler is to be understood as taken 
away, nor is it to be taken awa5^ We moreover command you, 
in virtue of holy obedience (according to your promise, which 
we feel certain you, in your great devotion and royal magna- 
nimity will fulfill), to appoint with all due diligence virtuous, 
God-fearing, learned, experienced and tried men, who shall in- 
struct the natives of the aforesaid islands in the Catholic faith 
and imbue them with good morals. Moreover, we strictly for- 
bid, under penalty of excommunication, to be incurred in the 
act of disobedience, all persons of whatsoever rank, be it even 
imperial or royal, state, degree, order or condition, to presume 
to go, whether for the purpose of trade or for any other what- 
soever, to the aforesaid islands and continents after they have 
been discovered by your envoys or by those sent for the purpose 

220 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

by you without your special permission and that of your afora- 
said heirs and successors. And, inasmuch as certain kings of 
Portugal also have, by an apostolic grant made to them, discov- 
ered and acquired other islands in the countries of Africa, Guinea 
and the Gold Coast, and have been accorded different privileges) 
favors, liberties, immunities, exemptions and indults, we Avish 
you to use, possess and enjoy all and every one of the same 
favors, privileges, exemptions, liberties, faculties, immunties and 
indults, all whose tenors we desire to be considered as though 
inserted word for word in the present letter, and to be regarded 
as sufficiently expressed and inserted in the same just as if the}'' 
had been granted to you and your heirs and successors by the 
same act, authority, knowledge and fullness of apostolic power 
and by special gift of favor. We extend and give the same in 
all respects to you, your heirs and successors aforesaid, notwith- 
standing apostolic constitutions and orders, and all which has 
been granted in the above letters, and all else whatsoever to the 
contrary, trusting in Him from whom empires, governments 
and all good things come that under His guidance of your 
actions your labors and endeavors will soon reach a most happy 
result, to the joy and glory of all Christendom, if you do but 
continue in this holy and praiseworthy (resolve) enterprise- 
Since, however, it would be difficult to send the present letter to 
all those places in which it would be expedient to have it pub- 
lished, we wish and by the same act and with like cognizance we 
decree that the same be copied by public notary thereunto de- 
puted and sealed by some ecclesiastical dignitary, and that the 
same value be attended to the said coj)ies, whether in or wher- 
ever else soever out of court, as attaches to the present original 
should they be shown or exhibited. No one shall go counter to 
our exhortation, requisition, donation grant, assignment, investi- 
ture, act, constitution, deputation, order, inhibition, indult, ex- 
emption, gift, will and decree, etc. Whosoever, etc. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, in the year, etc, 1493, third 
of May, in the first year of our pontificate. 

Coll. A. DE Campania. 
N, Casanova. 
By order gratis. 
B. Capocci. 


Sj^aiu's Sovereignty over the New World. 221 


992. Letter of Poi^e Alexander VI to Ferdinand and Isabella, 
dated Ma}^ 3, 1493, granting them sovereignty over all unknown 
continents and islands in the Indies that may be discovered by 
the explorers of Spain and confining to Portugal the newly dis- 
covered lands of Africa. 


Alexander, etc, to his most dear son and daughter in Christ, the 

illustrious Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile, 

Leon, Aragon and Granada, health, etc: 

The sincere and extraordinary devotion and the perfect faith 
with which you honor us and the Roman church truly deserve 
that we approvingly grant you whatsoever may enable you to 
promote more speedily and effectually your holy and laudable 
undertaking of discovering remote and unknown continents and 
islands for the glory of Almighty God, the extension of Christ's 
dominion, and the exaltation of the Catholic faith. Accordingly, 
by our own act, with full cognizance and in virtue of the pleni- 
tude of apostolic authority, we have this day given, granted and 
assigned to you and your heirs and successors, the sovereigns of 
Castile and Leon, in perpetuity, as is more fully set forth in our 
letter on this subject, all and every one of the remote and un- 
known continents and islands lying towards the west and the 
ocean and not at present under the temporal authority of any 
Christian princes which have been or shall be discovered by 
3^ourselves or 3'-our envoys, who have been equipped for the 
purpose with great pains, risks and expense. We have included 
in the same donation all the states of the aforesaid continents 
and islands, their cities, castles, towns, and villages, rights, and 
all jurisdictions whatsoever. 

As, however, on another occasion, different privileges, favors, 
liberties, immunities, exemptions, faculties, briefs and indults 
were granted by the apostolic see to certain kings of Portugal, 
who, after obtaining a like apostolic donation, discovered and 
acquired other islands in the regions of Africa, Guinea and the 
Gold Coast, we also, wishing, as is pro]3er, to bestow equal favors, 
prerogatives and benefits' upon you and your heirs and succes- 
sors aforesaid, by a similar act, without being moved thereunto 
by any petition presented to us by yourselves or by another in 

222 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

your behalf, but out of our sheer liberality, with like cognizance 
and fullness of apostolic power, by apostolic authority and by 
gift of special favor, do hereby grant you and your heirs and 
successors aforesaid the free and legitimate exercise, possession 
and enjoyment in the islands and countries thus far discovered 
or that shall hereafter be discovered by yourselves or in your 
name of all the favors, liberties, privileges, exemptions, faculties, 
immunities, briefs and indults which have been accorded to the 
kings of Portugal. We desire that the tenors of all the aforesaid 
concessions be considered as inserted, word for word, in the 
present letter, and as sufficiently inserted and expressed to 
signify that the said favors are specially granted to you and 
your heirs and successors aforesaid. In like manner and form 
we give in perpetuity all the above to you and your heirs and 
successors aforesaid, apostolic decrees and ordinances and all of 
a similar nature that is contained in letters to the kings of 
Portugal to the contrar}^ notwithstanding, etc. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, May 3, 1493, in the first year 
of our pontificate. 


995. Bull of the Pope Alexander VI, dated May 12, 1493, 
establishing the line of demarcatian between the dominions of 
Spain and Portugal. 


Alexander, etc, to his most dear son and daughter in Christ, the 
illustrious Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile, 
and Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada, health, etc : 
Among those works which are pleasing to the divine majesty 
and dear to our heart none is so important as that of the exalta- 
tion and diffusion of the Christian religion and Catholic faith, 
more especially during our times, the salvation of souls, and the 
repression and conversion of barbarous nations. Wherefore, 
when b}'- favor of God's clemency and despite our own inade- 
quate merits, we were elevated to this holy see of Peter, know- 
ing that you, like true Catholic kings and princes, as we have 
ever known you to be and as your m'ost famous achievements 
now prove, not only ardently desired the same end, but strove 
to attain it with all zeal and diligence, allowing yourselves to 

THscovery of dldaut Lands. 223 

1)0 deterred l)y no lal^ors, ex])enses, dangers, nor even tlie effu- 
sion of your own 1)lood, and knowing, moreover, that you had 
for a long time dedicated all your thoughts and efforts thereunto, 
as is shown hy the recovery of Granada from the Saracen yoke, 
brought about l)y you in these days, to such great glory of God's 
name, we with reason concluded to grant 3-0U spontaneously 
and approvingly whatsoever would enable you to promote, with 
ever-increasing zeal for God's glory and the propagation of 
Christianity, an aim so holy, so laudible, and so pleasing to the 
immortal God. We have, indeed, heard that you, who had 
long been determined to search for and find certain remote and 
unknown continents and islands which no one had ever dis- 
covered, in order to convert the natives and inhabitants thereof 
to the worship of the Redeemer and the profession of the Christian 
faith, being most earnestly engaged in the reduction and recovery 
of the said kingdom of Granada, were unable to carry into exe- 
cution your holy and laudable resolve. When at length, how- 
ever, by God's will, the said kingdom had been reconquered 
you, in your desire to begin at once the accomplishment of your 
purpose, sent our beloved son, Christopher Colon, a worthy and 
most commendable man and well fitted for so great an under- 
taking, with ships and suitable crews and cargoes, prepared with 
great labor, risk and expense, to make diligent search for the 
said remote and unknown continents and islands in a sea 
whereon none had ever before sailed. 

Finally, with the divine assistance and by dint of the greatest 
care, your envoys, while navigating the ocean, discovered cer- 
tain most distant islands, and continents also, which had never 
before been found, the inhabitants whereof are numerous and 
peaceful and, according to report, go naked and eat no meat. 
Moreover, as your said envoys have reason to think, the inhal)- 
itants of these islands believe in one God the Creator, in heaven, 
and appear sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith 
and to become imbued with good morals, and it is hoped that 
by means of instruction the name of our Lord Jesus Christ can 
easily be introduced into the said islands. The said Christopher 
has already erected a sufficiently fortified citadel, in which he 
has placed a garrison of his fellow-voyagers, who are to search 
for other distant continents and islands. In those already dis- 
covered gold, spices and a great number of other precious 

224 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

products of different kinds and qualities are to be found. 
Wherefore you, after diligently considering all these facts, being, 
like your great and royal ancestors (as becomes Catholic kings 
and princes), most of all concerned with the exaltation and 
diffusion of the Catholic faith, have resolved with God's merci- 
ful assistance to subdue the aforesaid countries and to convert 
their inhabitants to the Catholic faith. 

Hence, whilst we most highly commend in the Lord your 
holy and laudable purpose and desire that it be duly accom- 
plished, and that by this means our Saviour's name be made 
known in those countries, we most earnestly exhort you in the 
Lord, and demand of you in virtue of holy baptism, by whose 
reception you have bound yourselves to obey our apostolic 
orders, and through the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that inasmuch as you intend of your own free will and 
out of zeal for the orthodox faith, to undertake this expedition, 
you will diligently and out of a sense of duty induce the inhab- 
itants of the said countries to embrace the Christian religion. 
We moreover exhort you not to allow yourselves to be deterred 
by dangers or trials, and to remain firm in the hope that 
Almighty God will prosper your endeavors. 

And in order that you may the more willingly and coura- 
geously set about so great an undertaking, after having received 
of the abundance of apostolic bounty by our own act, without 
being moved thereunto by an}^ petition presented to us by you 
or by another in your behalf, but out of our sheer liberality, 
with certain cognizance, out of the fullness of apostolic power, 
by the authority of Almighty God given us in blessed Peter 
and of the vicegerency of Jesus Christ, which we exercise upon 
earth, we by tenor of these presents give, grant and assign in 
perpetuity to you and your heirs and successors, the Kings of 
Castile and Leon, all the islands and continents that have been 
or shall be found and discovered westward and southward of a 
line drawn from the Arctic pole, or the north, to tlie Antarctic 
pole, or the south, whether these continents or islands that have 
been or shall be found lie in the direction of India or of any 
other country, the said line to be one hundred leagues distant 
to the west and south from the most western and most southern 
of the islands commonly called the Azores and Cape Verde — that 
is to say, all the islands that have been or shall be discovered 

The Demarcation Line. 225 

west or south of the aforesaid hne which were not actuall}^ 
owned by any other Christian king or prince prior to the last 
feast of the nativity of our Lord Jesu^ Christ, from which the 
present 3'ear, fourteen hundred and ninety-three, began, at the 
time when some of the aforesaid islands were discovered by 
your envoys and captains, together with all their territories, 
cities, castles, towns and villages, all their rights, jurisdictions 
and possessions. We moreover create, constitute and appoint 
you and your heirs and successors aforesaid lords of the same, 
with full, free and universal authority. We decree, however, 
that by this our grant, donation and assignment no acquired 
right of any Christian ruler who was in actuah possession of any 
of the said islands prior to the above-mentioned feast of the 
nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ is to be understood as taken 
away, nor is it to be taken away. We moreover command you 
in virtue of holy ol>edience (according to your promise, which 
we feel certain you in your great devotion and royal magna- 
nimity will fulfill) to appoint, with all due diligence, virtuous, 
God-fearing, learned, experienced and well-tried men, who shall 
instruct the natives of the aforesaid islands in the Catholic faith 
and imbue them with good morals. Moreover we strictly forbid, 
under penalty of excommunication, to be incurred in the act of 
disobedience, all persons of whatsoever rank, be it even imperial 
or royal, state, degree, order or condition, to presume to go, 
whether for the purpose of trade or for any other whatsoever, 
to the continents or islands that have been and shall be dis- 
covered to the west and south of a line drawn from the north to 
the south poles, whether in the direction of India or of any 
other country, the said line to be one hundred leagues distant 
to the west and south from the most western and most southern 
island of those commonly called the Azores and Cape Verde, as 
has already been set forth, without the special permission of 
yourselves and your aforesaid heirs and successors, apostolic 
constitutions and decrees and all else to the contrary notwith- 
standing. We trust in Him from whom empires, governments 
and all goods things proceed that if you persevere in this your 
holy and laudable purpose your labors and endeavors will under 
the divine guidance be speedily crowned with a most fruitful 
result, to the joy and glory of all Christendom, etc. 

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter's, in the year of the Lord's 
incarnation 1493, May 12, in tlie first year of our pontificate. 

WJ— Nat. (teou. Mar., vol. V, 1898. 

22H IF. E. Curtis — Pre- Columbian, Voticfm Documents. 


996. Bull of Pope Alexander VI, dated Rome, June 25, 1493, 
confirming Bernard Boil as the first missionary to the New World. 


.Alexander, etc., to our beloved son, Bernard Boil, friar of the 
order of Minors and vicar of the said order in the kingdom of 
Spain, health, etc. : 

By virtue of apostolic authority, with certain cognizance and 
by tenor of these presents, we grant to thee, who art a priest, full, 
free and universal faculty, permission power, and authority, 
and the same to any members of thy own or another order, to* 
be selected by thyself or by the King and Queen, viz., Ferdinand 
and Isabella, without any necessity of permission unto this end 
from thy superiors or from any others whatsoever, to go to the 
aforesaid islands and countries, and to reside therein at your 
pleasure, to preach and sow the word of God, of thyself or by 
means of another or other suitable priests, whether secular or 
regular and of whatsoever orders, and to bring into the Catholic 
faith the said natives and inhabitants ; to baptize and instruct 
them in that faith, and to administer to them as often as neces- 
sary the sacraments of the church; to hear them, one and all, 
in their confessions, whenever requisite, either in person or by 
means of another or other priests, whether secular or regular, 
and, after having carefully heard them, to grant them the re- 
quired absolution from their crimes, excesses and transgressions, 
even from such as may demand consultation of the apostolic 
see, in anywise whatsoever, and to enjoin upon them salutary 
penance; to commute to other works of piety all their temporal 
vows, excepting only those of pilgrimage to Jerusalem, the tombs 
of the apostles Peter and Paul, Saint James of Compostella, and 
the vows of religion; to found and erect, provided nobody's right 
be infringed upon thereby, any churches whatsoever, chapels, 
monasteries, houses of any religious orders whatsoever, even of 
mendicant orders, whether for men or women; holy places, with 
belfries, bells, dormitories, cloisters, refectories, orchards, gar- 
dens and any other necessary adjuncts ; to receive into houses 
of the professed of mendicant orders erected by thee for the 
same and to grant permission to dwell permanently therein ; to 

The first Priest of America. 227 

bless the said churches, and as often as they and their respect- 
ive cemeteries chance to be desecrated, whether by the shedding 
of blood, pollution or otherwise, to bless and rededicate them 
through any Catholic jjriest, after the customary manner ; to eat, 
freely and lawfully and as often as necessary, meats and other 
kinds of food that are forbidden thee and thy associates by the 
rules of the said orders, with regard to which matter we charge 
your consciences, and to execute and dispose all things and 
everything in the above and all things necessary thereto. More- 
over, in order that the faithful may the more willingl}^ go to 
those countries and islands out of devotion and in the hopes of 
securing the salvation of their souls, we grant to all and every 
one of the aforesaid faithful, of either sex, who personally go to 
the aforesaid countries and islands, by order and with consent, 
however, of the above-mentioned king and queen, the choice of 
a suitable confessor, either secular or regular, who shall have 
power lo absolve them all or anj^ one of them, after the manner 
above stated, from their crimes, transgressions and even such 
sins as are reserved to the said see; to commute their vows and 
to impart to them, in virtue of the aforesaid authority, once in 
life and at the hour of death indulgence and remission of all 
their sins for wliich they shall be heartily sorry and which they 
shall have orally colifessed, continuing steadfastly in the sin- 
cerity of faith, in union with the hol}^ Roman church, ancl in 
obedience and fealty to us and to the Roman pontiffs, our legiti- 
mate successors. We also grant to the monasteries, establish- 
ments and houses which may be founded and to the monks, 
brethren and temporary sojourners therein the full and lawful 
exercise, possession and benefit of all and every one of the favors, 
privileges, liberties, exemptions, immunities, indulgences and 
concessions which have been given in general or which may here- 
after be given to the monasteries, establishments, houses and to 
the monks and brethren of the orders to which the aforesaid places 
and persons belong. We bestow the above as a mark of special 
favor, notwithstanding the decrees of our predecessor of happy 
memory, Pope Boniface VIII, forbidding mendicant friars to ac- 
cept new houses without special permission of the said see, etc. 

Given at Rome, from Saint Peter's, in the year 1493, June 
25th, in the first year of our pontificate. 

228 W. E. Curtis — Prc-Coluinhian, Vatican Documents. 


997. Pope Julius II commends Bartholomew, the brother, and 
Diego, the son, of Columbus to the favor of King Ferdinand, 
dated April 10, 1507. 


Our most dear son in Christ, health, etc : 

Our beloved son, Bartholomew Colum (sic), the brother of 
Christopher, who of late years discovered those islands of India 
which were unknown to our forefathers, being on his way to see 
your majesty, tarried with us in order to show his devotion to 
our person. We kindly received him and heard him because of 
his long sojourn in those islands. We were, moreover, pleased 
to give him our recommendation, inasmuch as Christian govern- 
ments appear to have greatly profited by the discovery of the 
said islands. Wherefore we beseech your majesty, whQse aim 
and desire has ever been the good of the Catholic faith, to con- 
sider Bartholomew himself, and his nephew, the admiral of the 
said islands, as most highly recommended, though we are of the 
opinion that you this of your own accord. 

Given at Rome, April 10, 1507, in the fourth year of our pon- 

1 ^ 

998. Bull of Pope Leo X, August 28, 1513, appointing John 
of Quevedos of Santa Maria del Antiqua (Darien), the first bishop 
on the American continent; also letters to the people of that 
diocese and to Queen Johanna of Spain. 


Leo X to our beloved son John of Quevedos, elect of S. Maria 

del Antiqua, health, etc : 

The debt of our pastoral office requires that amidst the divers 
cares by which we are constantly harassed this above all should 
occupy our attention ; that over all churches, and especially 
those which, like young plants budding forth in the garden of 
the Lord, are most exposed to the misfortunes of vacancy, b}^ 
our diligence those pastors be appointed, through whose fruitful 
care the same churches may with the Lord's help be able to 
receive a happy increase in spiritual and temporal affairs. A 
ghort time ago we reserved to our appointment and disposal 

The fir d Bislwp of America. 229 

proA'isions for all churches which were then vacant or which 
from that time forward should become vacant, declaring thence- 
forth null and void all attemj^ts made to the contrary, no matter 
l)y whom or by what authority, whether designedly or not. 
Afterwards, however, the church of S.Maria del Antiqua became 
vacant, which we to-day, counselled by our venerable brothers 
and in the plenitude of our apostolic power, have erected in that 
newd}^ discovered land of primeval India, liberated from pagan 
tyranny under the auspices of our beloved son in Christ, Ferdi- 
nand, illustrious king of Aragon and both Sicilys. We then, to 
provide quickly and happily for the same church, concerning 
which none but us could or can provide on account of our reser- 
vation and decree to the contrary, with paternal and solicitous 
care, carefully deliberated Avith our venerable brothers regarding 
the choice of a useful and zealous person to place over the same 
church, lest it be subjected to the ravages of a long vacancy ; and 
finally Ave directed our mind's eye to you, a priest and professed 
member of the order of Friars Minor, knoAvn as observants ; you, 
of Avhose zeal for religion, literary requirements, purity of life, 
regularity of morals, providence in spiritual and circumspection 
in temporal affairs, and many other A^rtuous gifts, suitable testi- 
mony has been given ; all Avhich things having been duly con- 
sidered by the counselof the same brothers, Ave, Avith the afore- 
said authority, make proAdsion for that church in your person, 
you who for your merits have proved acceptible to them and 
to us, and Ave apjjoint you its bishop and pastor, committing 
entirely to you its care and the administration of its spiritual 
and temporal matters ; and confiding in the giver of mercies we 
hope that, God directing your actions, that church, under your 
AAdse and happy government, may with the help of God's grace 
be usefully and j)rosperously ruled and receive a gratifying in- 
crease in temporal and spiritual affairs. Receive, then, with 
alacrity the yoke of the Lord Avhich Ave place on your shoulders ; 
strive to care for and administer that church Avith such fidelity, 
solicitude and prudence that it may rejoice in being commit- 
ted to so proAddent and profitable an administration, and that 
you, besides a rcAvard in eternity, may merit henceforth more 
abundant blessings and grace from us and the apostolic see. 

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of 
our Lord one thousand five hundred and thirteen, the fifth day 
before the ides of September, the first year of our pontificate. 

230 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Cohunblan, Vatican Documents. 

In like manner to our beloved children, the people of the city and 
diocese of the church of S. Maria del Antiqua, health, etc : 
Today, advised by our brothers and in the fulness of our 
apostolic authority, we provide for the church of S. Maria del 
Antiqua, in the island of India, which has been vacant since its 
first erection, in the person of our beloved John, elect of S. Maria 
del Antic^ua, acceptable to us and to our brothers for his merits, 
and we appoint him bishoj) and pastor of the same, committing 
entirely to him its care and administration in spiritual and 
temporal matters, according as is more fully expressed in our 
letters written to this effect. ' Wherefore we earnestly ask and 
exhort you all ; we order you b}^ aj)ostolic letters to receive the 
same John elect as your father and pastor of your souls with 
grateful honor, to pay him devout and fitting reverence, humbl}^ 
to obey his salutary admonitions and commands, so that' he may 
rejoice to have found in you dutiful sons, and you in conse- 
quence to haA'e found in him a benevolent father. 
Given as above. 

In the same manner, to our beloved daughter in Christ, Johanna, 

illustrious Queen of Castile and Leon, health, etc, grace, etc : 

Since then, beloved daughter in Christ, it is the work of virtue 

to act Avith benign favor toAvards the ministers of God and to 

revere them by word and deed for the glory of the eternal King, Ave 

earnestly request and exhort your royal serenity, out of love for 

us and the apostolic see, to consider the same John elect andhis 

church of S. Maria del Antiqua as most heartily commended, etc. 

Given as abo\^e. 


Letters from Pope Leo granting authority for the confirmation 
of John of Quevedos as bishop of Darien. 

M. XX XIX de Campania. . 

Leo X to our beloved son, John of Quevedos, elect of S. Maria 

del Antiqua, health, etc : 

Since Ave by apostolic authority, counselled by our brothers, 
have thought it proper to provide for the church of S. Maria del 

Oath of Office. 231 

Antiqua, in a certain manner bereft of the solace of a pastor, in 
your person acceptable to us and to our brothers, as your merits 
require, appointing you its bishop and pastor according, as is 
contained more fully in our letter written for that reason, gra- 
ciously attending to what may be to your greater convenience, 
we grant your request, conceding to you full and free leave, ac- 
cording to the tenor of these presents, to receive consecration at 
the hands of whatsoever Catholic bishop you wish,4n favor and 
communion, and we grant to the same bishop leave by our au- 
thority, freely and lawfully, to perform the aforesaid function 
after having received from you, in our name and that of the 
Roman church, the usual oath of fidelity, according to the form 
indicated by these presents. However, we wish and by the afore- 
said authority command and decree that if the same bishop 
presume to confer on you that charge without having received 
from you the aforesaid oath, and if you dare to accept it, that 
bishop be suspended from the exercise of his pontifical office 
and both he and you be suspended, by that very fact, from the 
administration of jouy churches in both spiritual and temj)oral 
matters. We desire, moreover, that you see to it that the form 
of this oath taken by you be sent to- us as soon as jDossible, 
through your own nuncio, word for word, by your letters patent, 
signed with your own seal. This is the form of the oath which 
you will take : I, John, elect of S. Maria del Antiqua, from this 
hour henceforth will be faithful and obedient to blessed Peter 
and the holy Roman church and to our Lord Pope Leo X and 
his successors canonically constituted, so help me God and these 
His holy gospel. 

Given at Rome, at Saint Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of 
our Lord one thousand five hundred and thirteen, the fourth clay 
before the ides of September, in the first year M. XX de Campania. 


Letter from Pope Leo X granting absolution to John of Queve- 
clos, bishop of Darien. 

To our beloved son, John of Quevedos, professed member of the 
order of Friars Minor, known as Observants, health, etc : 
The customary clemency of the apostolic see employs oppor- 
tune remedies, according as is fitting, in order that the disposi- 

232 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Documents. 

tions made by it for the time being regarding cathedral churches 
may not meet with opposition, l^ut tliat the persons to be placed 
over them may be able to preside over the same with pure heart 
and sincere conscience. Whereas, then, we this day, with the 
advice of our brothers, provide in your person, acceptable to us 
and to our brothers, as your merits rec^uire, for the church of 
S. Maria del Antic;[ua, which, vacant from its early erection till 
now, we by apostolic authority and counseled by the same 
brothers have this day erected ; and whereas we intend to place 
you over it as its bishop and pastor, desiring that this provision 
and appointment meet with no opposition on account of any eccle- 
siastical sentences or censures which 3'ou may have been under, 
we, according to the tenor of these presents, by apostolic authority 
do absolve you and do declare you absolved henceforth from 
any excommunication, suspension, etc., to this end only that the 
aforesaid provision and appointment and all the apostolic letters 
written above obtain their effect, notwithstanding apostolic con- 
s-titutions and ordinations and whatsoever others to the contrary ; 
no one therefore to infringe on our al>solution and declaration, 
etc. If any one, etc. 

Given at Rome, at Saint Peter's, in the year of the incarna- 
tion of our Lord one thousand five hundred and thirteen, the 
fifth day before the kalends of September, in the first year. 

M. XX DE Campania. 


1002. Letter from Pope Clement VII, dated Rome, June 7, 
1526, to Friar Francisco de los Angeles, minister-general of the 
order of Saint Francis, bestowing upon him the apostolic bene- 
diction upon his departure for America. 


Clement VII to Brother Francis of the Angels, minister-general 
of the order of Saint Francis, beloved son, etc : 
In our recent conversations with you we have had the occa- 
sion to admire your spirit of religion and sanctity, your learning 
and prudence, and ^''our zeal for the honor of God and His Avor- 
ship, and we are of opinion that such dispositions on your part 
fully deserve our paternal love and favor. Being minister-gen- 
eral of the order of Saint Francis because of vour virtues and 

The Apostolic Benediction. 233 

services to religion, yon desire to see the Christian faith preached 
and projDagated in the new world among the nations of those 
countries recently discovered by our most dear son in Christ, 
Charles, emperor-elect of the Spains, etc., and Catholic king. 
Not content Math having sent your brethren and religions to 
those new nations, you wish to go to them in person, and like 
God's holy apostles devote your whole strength to infusing into 
their minds the truth of the gospel, and extending the limits 
of Christendom to those distant regions by means of the most 
holy sign of the cross. You are now preparing yourself for 
your apostolate and are on the point of taking your departure. 
We pray God to bless your holy dispositions and the zeal Avhich 
impels you to so salutary a work, upon which we congratulate 
you exceedingly. We exhort you to persevere with hope and 
confidence in this undertaking, which you have chosen to direct 
in person. We pray Almighty God, who inspires you with so 
much zeal, to aid you with His heavenly light that you may the 
more easily induce those nations now lying in darkness to ac- 
cept the truth. We give you our apostolic benediction, in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. 
After the example of Jesus Christ our Savior, we send you, as 
He sent His apostles, to conc|uer for heaven, which will be your 
reward, those countries and nations in the name of the same 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Given at Rome, the 7th of June, 1526, in the third year of our 


1003. Letter from Pope Clement VII to Charles V of Spain,dated 
October 19, 1532, authorizing missionaries to be sent to America. 


To our dearest son in Christ, Charles, ever august emperor of 

the Romans : 

Our dearest son in Christ, health, etc. You have recently made 
known to us that by the blessing of the Lord you have subjected 
to your authority some other islands of the new world and a 
savage people living therein unacquainted with the name of our 
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and the orthodox faith, and that, 
unal>le to provide for the salvation of tlie souls of the natives 

:il— Nat. Grog. Mag , vol.. V, 1S03. 

234 W. E. Curtis — Pre-Columbian, Vatican Docum.ents. 

and to procure their instruction in the faith, you desire that 
there be appointed some professed members of an approved 
religious body who shall preach and make known the word of 
God in these islands and direct and guide the natives in the 
way of the Lord's commandments. Accordingly in God's name 
we most heartily approve your pious desire and in the pleni- 
tude of our apostolic authority' grant you by these presents full 
and unrestricted power to assign for this work 120 minorites of 
the order of Preachers and 10 professed Jeronymites, whom you, 
beloved son, or your representatives in those islands shall ascer- 
tain to be qualified for the undertaking and willing to assume it. 
We grant, moreover, to those professed religions liberty to repair 
thither even without having asked or obtained the permission of 
their superiors ; to preach there the word of God, and for this 
purpose to reside there, living, however, in a manner becoming 
the religious and wearing the habit of their order. It is also our 
wish that these religions have free and lawful possession, use 
and enjoyment of each and every one of the privileges, immu- 
nities, exemptions, prerogatives, favors and indults which other 
members of the same orders dwelling in their own houses and 
monasteries possess, use and enjoy by law, custom or any other 
title, and this we concede notwithstanding constitutions and pro- 
visions of the apostolic see, statutes of the aforesaid orders con- 
firmed by oath, apostolic letters to these orders and to their 
superiors, prelates and members, no matter of what tenor they 
may be, what form they may have, and what clauses or decrees 
they may be furnished with, eyen if granted freely and spon- 
taneousl}^, with certain knowledge and in the form of a brief, 
and though conceded repeated times, approved and renewed ; 
all of which and all other provisions to the contrary we espe- 
cially and expressly annul in this case, though otherwise they 
are to remain in full force. 

Given at Rome, etc, the 19th of October, 1532, 9th year Blosius. 



{President of the Geographical Society of the Pacific) 

Preliminary Remarks. 

The geodetic work of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey was extended to the Pacific seaboard in 1850, at a time 
when the geography of the coast was very imperfectly known, 
and when the names of capes, bays, rivers and islands were in 
much confusion. 

Part of my duty, in the' initiation of this public work, consisted 
in the determination of the latitude and longitude of the head- 
lands, islands, harbors, rivers, rocks and dangers, and in the 
geographic reconnaissance of the coast line from the Mexican 
boundary to the forty-ninth parallel. 

While in command of the surveying brig Fauntleroy I entered 
upon the self-imposed task of writing a Coast Pilot for California, 
Oregon and Washington. Very naturally my early interest in 
the old explorations became intensified as I sought to give the 
authority for each discovery and for each name ; and I made 
many special examinations of the narratives that were then 
available for the identification of doubtful localities. This work 
continued with more or less directness until I was gathering the 
material for rewriting the fourth edition of the Coast Pilot,-'^ and 
when I had familiarized myself with every mile of our own coast 
and had a fair acquaintance with the ocean coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia as far as San Jose del Cabo. Along the whole seaboard 

* United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. F. M. Thorn, superintend- 
ent, Pacific coast. Coast Pilot of California, Oregon and AVashington. 
By George Davidson, assistant U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Fourth 
edition. (Entirely rewritten . ) Washington ; Government Printing Office,' 
1889. 4to ; 721 pp. and 464 views. 


236 G. Davidson — Northwestern Coast of America. 

I had sketched the landfall, the headlands and the notahle 
features of the coast to be able to recall their peculiarities. 

Collation of the Old Narratives. 

In order to preserve some of the results of these investigationSj 
incidental to ray official duties, I determined to collate the nar- 
ratives of Ulloa, 1539 ; Cabrillo and Ferrelo, 1542-'43 ; Drake, 
1579, and Vizcaino, 1602-'3, and later authorities ; and in the 
extended record thereof I am satisfied that most, if not every 
one, of the discrepancies of the old Spanish and English navi- 
gators have been reconciled-. 

The inaccuracies of the earliest discoverers arose principal!}'- 
from errors of their crude instruments, ignorance of the coast 
currents, errors of judgment in estimating distances, unreliable 
compasses, etc. Among the Spanish discoverers the meagerness 
of detailed descriptions, a failure to seize the salient points for 
determining their positions, the want of minute accurac}^ in 
most of their plans, sometimes giving importance to general 
features, and sometimes to details without distinction, and a 
human weakness to exaggerate certain discoveries, and yet to 
overlook completel}^ others as or more important, have much 
involved the locating of many of their landfalls, headlands, bays 
and anchorages. Even with the accuracy of Vizcaino, personal 
acquaintance with parts of the coast is absolutely necessary to 
establish identification. 

The earlier navigators had not the education to carry through 
extensive and orderly narratives, and we can easily imagine that 
the priest, who invariably accompanied these expeditions, was 
the principal aiuthor of the reports. Moreover, the eff'ects of the 
ever-present scurv}^ harassed the commander and lowered the 
whole nervous tone of the strongest men and the wretched In- 
dians. Vizcaino returned with half his crew, and but two or 
three men able to do ordinary duty. The broken records of 
Drake's two anchorages on our Pacific coast are very meager 
and unsatisfactory until carefully weighed and elucidated b}^ 
personal knowledge and the assembling of nearly contemporary 

The minuteness of record in the full and faithful narratives of 
Cook and Vancouver, of comparatively recent date, has enabled 
me to follow their track day by day, and to correct their posi- 

The early Explorers. 237 

tions b}'' personal knowledge of the localities which they de- 
scribe ; but while giving these great discoverers the fullest credit 
for surveys unparalleled before or since their time (when all the 
attendant circumstances are considered), I cannot withhold my 
admiration for the indomitable courage and perseverance of the 
older Spanish navigators who, in ill-conditioned and ill-supplied 
vessels, with crude instruments and methods, and with crews 
nearly destroyed by scurvy, fought their way from the tropics 
to the wildest parts of the Alaskan coast regardless of seasons. 
" Tliere were giants in the earth in those days." 

The records of such of these earlier voyages as have been pub- 
lished are too short and meager to be of much more value than 
isolated statements of what was done on given dates ; and the 
inaccuracy of the observations for the determination of the geo- 
graphic positions has led manj'- writers to judge that all these 
men were touched with the spirit of Maldonado, de.Fonte and 
de Fuca. In comparatively recent controversy, which was un- 
fortunately marred by national feelings, Cabrillo and Ferrelo have 
been placed not only at the latitudes which their erroneous in- 
struments presumably gave, but located on the immediate coast, 
when they were storm-driven far to seaward, while Drake has, 
even at this late day, been carried as far north as the island of 

But with the present knowledge of our coast it is possible to 
locate Ulloa in his heroic struggle north of the gulf of Sebastian 
Vizcaino ; to track Cabrillo and Ferrelo in their discoveries in 
the terrific " southeasters " of our mid-winter; to place Drake 
under cape Ferrelo and Punta de los Reyes, and to fix with cer- 
tainty the most of Vizcaino's positions. Later than 1603 I have 
not undertaken identifications in this short paper, except to inci- 
dentally mention Father Taraval's visit to point Eugenio, and 
his landing upon Natividad and Cerros islands, which has been 
so much misapprehended by a recent author. 

The Voyages of Cabrillo and Ferrelo, 154^-^3. 

I was particularly interested in the voyages of Cabrillo and 
Ferrelo, and in studying their narratives have endeavored to put 
myself in their places. Understanding the character of the sea- 
sons and the difficulties of the winds, currents, swell and fogs 
which they encountered, I have tried to follow them day by 

.238 G. Davidson— Nortlbwestern Coast of America. 

day in their exciting discoveries. The two narratives had to be 
collated and studied as a general statement; then every word 
and idiomatic phrase had to be carefully weighed and defined. 
The mistranslation of certain words in Cabrillo, Ferrelo and 
Vizcaino had misled previous investigators. 

I based my translation of the narrative of Cabrillo upon the 
condensed, unconnected and unsatisfying chapters of Herrera 
corrected several mistakes and deciphered one or two obscure 
passages. Ferrelo's narrative is in moderate detail, and presents 
several critical passages where important issues are involved, 
yet I feel satisfied that every case of doubt has been elucidated. 
These two narratives are of unequal value. The original of Ca- 
brillo has certainly been lost, and as he died during the explo- 
ration the statements after the first ten days are extremely 
meager. Discoveries like that of San Diego bay are not men- 
tioned ; once there is a difference of date with Ferrelo, and 
occasionally particular expressions are common to both narra- 

For Drake's share of discovery on this coast we have " The 
World Encompassed," printed by the Hakluyt Society; the 
"Arcano del Mare," of Dudley; the "English Hero," and later 

For the narrative of Vizcaino I have used the " Noticia de la 
California," etc, by the Father Miguel Venegas, of which the 
published English translation is unsatisfactory. 

So far as I have learned, there are no charts of Ulloa, Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo extant. Learning that there was a manuscript 
chart in the Royal Museum of Miinchen exhibiting the line of 
coast as seen by Drake between latitudes 422-° and 38°, I ob- 
tained full-sized photographs of this invaluable record, which 
was evidently the basis for Dudley's chart of that part of the 
coast in his "Arcano del Mare " of 1647. Except the orien- 
tation of Drake's chart the shore-line from Rogue river, in 42J°, 
to Drake's bay, under 38°, is remarkably consistent with the 
general outline of the coast as laid down by the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

From the British Museum I obtained tracings of the Portus 
Novse Albionis of Drake, and part of the hemisphere whereon 
is shown his northwesternmost position and the Crescent City 
reef (the Dragon rocks of Vancouver), never before connected 
with his landfall of the coast. 

Errors of Latitude. 239 

To trace Vizcaino's narrative I first followed his chart of Cali- 
fornia as given b}^ Bnrney ; but have since obtained from the 
State Department at Washington copies of the coast line, as 
drawn from his thirty-two plans, by the navigators of the Sutil 
and Mexicano, 1802, with all his names. This chart is of vari- 
able scale and without parallels of latitude, but when these are 
supplied through means of well recognized capes and harbors, it 
is a remarkably good work for that period. 

The modern charts which have been consulted have all been 
made by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the 
coast pilots from San Jose del Cabo northward have been con- 
suited for exactness of geographic position and for the views of 

The Errors of their Lutrimients. 

As the investigation progressed it became evident that there 
were large errors in the determinations of the latitude by Ca- 
brillo and Ferrelo ; these and the erroneous estimates of dis- 
tances were at first very confusing for the identification of capes 
and harbors insufficiently described, and I had to rely upon my 
personal knowledge of the coast and seaboard to locate them. 
The navigators rarely gave the latitude nearer than half a de- 
gree, but the effect orthis was not apparent at the outset, where 
their reported measures were very nearly in accord with the 
true positions. When I had established the large and constantly 
increasing errors as the vessels sailed northward the identifi- 
cation was much simplified. 

Tliere were several points on the coast of Mexico, and one or 
more near the southern extremity of Lower California, whose 
latitudes were doubtless known to all the navigators with a rea- 
sonable decree of accuracy, and evidently accepted by Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo. 

The latitude of Puerto cle Navidad, whence the San Salvado7' 
and La Victoria sailed, is 19° 13' north, and quite naturally it is 
not mentioned by either of the captains. Cape Corrientes, which 
was well known, is distant thirty leagues from Navidad, in lati- 
tude 20° 25', and although Ferrelo says they had a southeast 
wind, and estimated the distance at forty leagues, Cabrillo places 
the cape in latitude "twenty degrees and a half." At this time 
I assume he did not observe, for the latitude, but adopted that 
given by previous authorities. 

240 G. Davidson — Northwestern Coast of America. 

After crossing the gulf of California Cabrillo says : " On Sun- 
day, the second of July, they found themselves in twenty-four 
degrees and more, and recognized the Puerto del Marquez del 
Valle, which they called la Cruz, which is the coast of Califor- 
nia." Ferrelo says : " They anchored the following Monday, on 
the third of tiie same month, off the point of California," etc. 

The easternmost land of the peninsula of Lower California is 
cape Pulmo, under which there is a goocj anchorage and fresh 
water. The eastern point of the land, which is a cliff 410 feet 
high and rises rapidly inland, is in latitude 23°. 23', and if 
Cabrillo observed for latitude, as we may feel assured he did 
when he made this landfall, the correction to his determination 
is— 0° 37'^' and more." 

At cape San Lucas, the southwesternmost point of the penin- 
sula, the ships anchored in the comfortable bay and took in 
water. The anchorage is in latitude 22° 52' and its position was 
already known. Cabrillo does not mention this harbor, and 
Ferrelo evidently did not observe for latitude, for his narrative 
states, " they say that this port is in twenty-three degrees." 
This indicates a correction of — 0° .08' to the assumed position. 

From cape San Lucas the navigators followed the coast, which 
Ulloa had discovered three years earlier. If they had copies of 
his chart or of his report they never refer to them or to him or 
use his names of capes and bays, except the island of Cedros. 
Northward of cape San Lucas we begin to find the large errors 
of latitude which began at the " Point of California." As they 
were reconnoitering the coast during the summer months, the 
weather was generally fair for observation, the winds adverse 
and sometimes quite strong, the swell heavy, and the fogs in- 
creasing as they advanced. Until well to the northward the 
fogs would rarely prevent a noon observation for latitude. 

The two narratives refer to seventy-one positions that are sub- 
ject to identification ; yet it is somewhat singular that the Cabrillo 
narrative has only two independent observations for latitude, 
while the Ferrelo narrative has twentj^-two. Whenever the 
latitude of a place is given by both narratives, which occurs 
eight times, the two statements are identical, except in the case 
of point Conception, where the correction to Cabrillo's determi- 
nation is — 2° 3' and to Ferrelo's — 1° 33' " and more." 

The corrections, with a gradual increase as the latitude in- 
creases, are fairly uniform for certain stretches, when we consider 

Latitude and Distance. 241 

that the latitude was rarely stated closer than half a degree, 
except to add that it was " more " on four occasions and " scant " 
on another. 

From latitude 23° 23' to 28° 6' the average correction to eleven 
determinations is — 0° 48', with a range from — 87' to — 58' ; from 
latitude 28° 55' to 31° 45' the average correction to nine deter- 
minations is — 1° 4', with a range from — 42' to — 75' ; from lati- 
tude 31° 51' to 34° 27' the average correction to nine determna- 
tions is — 1° 24', with a range from — 60' to — 123'. This line 
of coast includes San Diego, San Buenaventura and point Con- 
ception. From latitude 36° 3' to 38° 31' the average correction 
to eight determinations is — 1° 18', with a range from — 79' to 
— 91', including the determination in the gulf of the Farallones 
and of the landfall of Cahto mountain, which are not closely 

It is somewhat remarkable that the position of San Diego 
bay and of point Conception, which latter was to them a notable 
cape, should present larger errors of the instruments than any 
other places on the coast. At San Diego the correction to Fer- 
relo's determination is — 1° 40'; and at point Conception — 1° 33' 
" and more " to Ferrelo, and — 2° 3' to Cabrillo. In these extreme 
and infrequent cases I suspect erroneous readings of the instru- 
ments, amounting to not less than thirty minutes of arc, or of 
the whole diameter of the sun. 

These corrections must govern the high latitudes which the 
navigators report to have reached wdien they were struggling for 
life in the great storms far from land, and almost up to the 
latitude reached by Drake less than thirty-seven years later. 

Erroneous Estimates of Distances. 

The estimates of distances along the exposed seaboard, when 
the vessels w^ere buffeted by the regular northw^esters and the 
large swell and offshore adverse current, are, as a rule, so irregular 
and erroneous that they are almost useless for determining in- 
termediate positions. When they reached the quieter waters of 
the -Santa Barbara channel, with little wind, before the rainy 
season, with very small swell and little current, it was jDossible 
to proportion the erroneous estimate of distance between San 
Buenaventura and point Conception, and with a personal knowl- 
edge of localities I was able to fix every anchorage they made 
under that pleasant and populous coast, and where the}^ held 
frequent intercourse with the friendly Indians. 

32— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

242 G. Davidson — Nortliwestern Coast of America. 

The Main features of the Discoveries of Cabrillo and Ferrelo. 

The general progress of the two ships may be first briefly 
stated by mentioning the more easily identified places and then 
by following their narratives in more or less detail. 

The vessels sailed in company from cape San Lucas, in lati- 
tude 22° 52', July 6, 1542 ; reached Magdalena bay, in latitude 
24° 32'', July 13 ; Pequeha bay and point, in latitude 26° 14', 
July 19 ; port San Bartolome, in latitude 27° 39', August 1 ; 
Cerros island, in latitude 28° 02', August 5 ; point Canoas, in 
latitude 29° 25', August 15 ; port San Quentin, in latitude 30° 24', 
where they took possession of the country, August 21 ; point 
Santo Tomas, in latitude 31° 33', September 8 ; San Diego bay, 
in latitude 32° 40', September 28 ; Santa Catalina island, in lati- 
tude 33° 27', October 7, and San Buenaventura, at the eastern 
entrance to the Santa Barbara channel, in latitude 34° 17', Oc- 
tober 10. 

During these three months their progress had been very slow, 
because the prevailing summer wind was directly ahead, and 
they must have made many and many a tack to work their 
clumsy vessels to windward. With the modern vessel of the 
same size the time would have been less than a month. The 
weather was favorable, no storms of wind and rain, but gener- 
ally clear skies, with fogs at night but absent by day. They 
reached the Santa Barbara channel in the pleasantest part of 
the year, after the long dry season, and the country apparently 
much parched. They had ho difficulties with the natives, and 
we may well suppose that they looked forward with hope and 
confidence to continued success and the prospect of the discovery 
of precious metals. At San Buenaventura they established very 
friendly relations with the populous villages of that vicinity, 
with the river coming through the mountains on the west and 
the Santa Clara coming through the broad flat valley to the 
eastward. They readily obtained food from the natives, and 
perhaps had no need to draw the seine. 

In their progress through the Santa Barbara channel, they 
must have been charmed by its beauty and by the friendliness 
of the natives, for they anchored half a dozen times, Cabrillo 
says : " They sailed little in several days on account of the too 
fine weather, and on Wednesday, the eighteenth of said month 
[October], they arrived at a long point which forms a cape, and 

The Southeast Storms. 243 

on account of its length, like a galley, they named it el Cabo cle 
la Galera." This is the point Conception of our charts. 

The weather of the Santa Barbara channel at that season of 
the year is extremely lovel}^ When at point Conception for 
three and a half months, in 1850, 1 have seen sailing vessels five 
or six days '' in irons," drifting slowly from Santa Barbara to 
point Conception, with the weak current to the westward, while 
outside the cape a steady ten-knot breeze from the northwest 
was blowing for weeks. A vessel bound to the northwestward 
and opening from under the lee of the cape would frequently 
be reduced to short canvas in an hour. At that season of the 
year the southeast storms which bring up the rain are due, and 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo soou experienced them. 

Through this channel passage I have been able to locate every 
anchorage which the vessels made, and have disentangled the 
parallel range of the Santa Barbara islands, which from certain 
points of view overlap each other. Even the confusion of dou- 
ble names which they used has been made clear. 

From point Conception the strong northwest winds forced the 
vessels down upon the westernmost of the Santa Barbara islands, 
twenty-three miles southward from point Conception, where 
they were compelled to remain in port Possession (Cuylers 
harbor) eight days because a southeaster had sprung up with 
rain and the weather " was very storm3^" Here Cabrillo for- 
mally took possession of the country. 

After leaving this island on the 25th of October for the main- 
land they met with very severe weather north of point Concep- 
tion, and struggled heroically until the first of November, when 
they could not " carry a palm of sail," and sought shelter under 
that cape at the anchorage of the Coxo Viejo, where there was 
a large village called Xexo. Wood was scarce at this place and 
the vessels changed their anchorage to that off the Gaviota pass,* 
about ten miles to the eastward, where the Indians had two 
villages and there was an abundance of wood, water and fish. 
It is an open roadstead protected in part by large fields of kelp. 

The intercourse of the Indians and the navigators was evi- 
dently very satisfactory to both parties, and the vessels remained 

* Kohl says that the Puerto de las Sardinas (Gaviota anchorage) is to 
the eastward of point Conception, and yet he adds, in clear contradiction 
thereto, that it " is peiiiaps the place now known as the Bay of San 
Simeon," which is, however, 80 miles to the northwestward of the cape. 

244 G. Davidson — Northwestern Coast of Ar)ierica. 

at anchor until the 6th of November, when they left for the cape 
with very light airs, which gave them no steeragewa}^, for they 
were four days making twelve or thirteen miles. Off the cape 
another southeaster came up, and the vessels ran before it, mak- 
ing good progress, and sufficiently close to the land to assure 
themselves that there was no southeast anchorage. On the 11th 
of November the vessels were under the shadow of the compact, 
bold and precipitous mountain barrier of the Sierra Santa Lucia, 
which rises, in latitude 35° 54', to an elevation of over 5,000 feet, 
at a distance of not quite three miles inland. Here the south- 
easter broke upon the vessels in all its fury. 

"And at four o'clock in the night, being in the sea about six 
leagues from the coast, lying-to, waiting for daybreak, . . . 
so great a storm struck them from the southwest and the south- 
southwest, with rain and dark, cloudy weather, that they could 
not keep up a hand-breadth of sail, and it made them scud, with 
a small foresail, with much labor, all the night, . . . and 
a great sea that nearly engulfed them, and at dawn, the wind 
blowing tremendously, it was not possible to run before the wind, 
and on account of the strong sea, wind and dense clouds one 
vessel lost sight of the other, and that one vessel threw over- 
board everything that could lighten her from the deck, because 
the storm was very great, and on the Capitana, seeing themselves 
in the greatest danger, they vowed a pilgrimage to our Lad}^ of 
the Rosary and the Blessed Mother of Pity for her mercy, and 
she favored them with a little fair weather." (Cabrillo, Ferrelo. ) 

Ferrelo continues : " That on Monday, the 13th of the said 
month of November, at the hour of vespers, the weather cleared 
up and the wind veered to the west, and immediately they made 
sail and went in search of their consort, steering toward the land, 
praying to God that they might discover her, as they much 
feared that she would be lost. They were running to the north 
and to the north-northwest, with the wind west. and west-north- 
west ; and the following Tuesday at daybreak they had sight of 
the land, and the)^ were able to hold on until the evening, and 
they could see that the land was very high, and they cruised 
along the coast to discover if there was any port where they 
might take shelter, and so great was the swell of the sea that it 
was fearful to behold, and the coast was bold and the mountains 
very lofty, and at evening they lay-to for rest. It is a coast 
running northwest to southeast. They perceived the land at a 

A rocky Landmark. 245 

point where it projects into the ocean, which forms a cape, and 
the point is covered with trees, and it is in forty degrees." He 
afterwards adds that these grand sierras were covered with 
snow and many trees. 

I have given this long extract because this landfall is the 
farthest land they reached in this first attempt to trace the coast 
northward. In his description he does not refer to any jutting 
point of cliffs on the immediate shore line; it is the bold, high, 
transverse, wooded spur of the Coast mountains, nearly over- 
hanging Fort Ross cove, in latitude 38° 31', and gives a correction 
to Cabrillo and Ferrelo's determination of — 1° 29'. Cabrillo 
says, " they called it Cabo de Pinos, and observing the sun they 
found themselves in forty degrees, and more, to the northwest, 
from whence they recognized more than fifteen leagues of coast, 
all the land high, and the coast running from northwest to south- 
east." The vessels were evidently not near enough to this rocky, 
dark, and forbidding coast (in winter storms) to see the details 
of the high, jagged cliffs forming the shore line, which is fringed 
with outstanding rocks and hidden dangers marked by breakers. 
This bold shoulder, covered with the great forests of fir, was 
subsequently the distinguishing mark for the Russian otter- 
hunting ships when seeking the small northwest anchorage of 
Fort Ross cove. Tlie massive character of the orography is 
well exhibited in the latest edition of the chart of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

On the 15th of November the two ships had sight of each 
other, and their experience through the last storm compelled 
them to return to the southward. 

On the 16th, " at daybreak, they were arrived at a great gulf 
that looked like a harbor and which was formed by a change of 
the direction of the shore, which appeared to have a port and a 
river, and they went beating about this day and the night and 
the Friday following, until they saw that there was no river 
nor any shelter, and to take possession they cast anchor in 
forty-five fathoms. They did not dare to land on account of 
the high sea. This gulf is in thirty-nine degrees and more, and 
it is all covered with pines to the sea. They gave it the name 
of la Bahia de los Pinos. The following night they lay-to until 
daybreak." (Ferrelo.) 

The change of direction of the shore here mentioned is the 
projection of the great head of point Reyes more than twelve 

246 G. Davidson — Northwestern Coast of America. 

miles outside the general trend of the coast, and the great gulf 
under it is the present gulf of the Farallones, which is under- 
stood to embrace the area between point Reyes, the groups of 
the Farallones, and point San Pedro^ including the Golden Gate 
to San Francisco baj^, and the anchorage of Drakes bay under 
the eastern extremity of point Reyes head. 

It is very interesting to note what Ferrelo states about this 
gulf, because it was evident to his nautical eye that the dis- 
colored water therein indicated the presence of a great river. 
As they were near enough the land to be satisfied that no land- 
ing could be made on account of the large swell, and as they lay 
particular stress upon the forests, I judge they were beating in 
the northern part of this gulf to secure an anchorage under the 
north shore, but failed. 

These discolored waters were brought down by freshets from 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. They are known to 
all our vessels, and are particularly marked after great storms. 
From the summit of point Reyes I have watched them carried 
by the littoral drift or the Davidson inshore eddy current far 
to the northward of point Reyes, and they extend well outside 
of the Farallones. With more favorable conditions of weather 
such persistent efforts for exploration would have rewarded these 
men with the discovery of Drakes bay and doubtless the Golden 

When they had decided that further search was useless they 
anchored and took possession of the country through the slender 
hold of their cable. With the depth of forty-five fathoms the 
vessels must have been either six or seven miles from the south- 
east Farallon, outside the line thence to point Reyes, or more 
likely five miles southeastward from the southeast Farallon, and 
in about latitude 37° *40'. Inside of these depths the plateau of 
the gulf decreases very gradually and regularly in depth toAvard 
the shores and toward the bar of the Golden Gate. In the posi- 
tion southward from the island the correction to Ferrelo's lati- 
tude is about — 1° 30'. 

It is a rather curious fact that neither narrative refers to the 
two groups of the Farallones, close to which they must have 
anchored. The northwest group comprises four principal islets 
within an area of one mile by a quarter of a mile, and exhibits 
five or six high rocky peaks, of which the highest is 155 feet- 
The southeast Farallon has an area of about one mile by three. 

The Snowy Cajjc. 247 

quarters of a mile, is very irregular in outline, and broken into 
four or five bold granitic peaks, of .which the highest is 340 feet 
above the sea, and is visible from a ship's deck at about twenty 

Drake, in 1579, anchored under the eastern point of point 
Reyes head, in the northernmost part of the gulf of the Faral- 
lones, and named the two groups of islets. From the southeast 
Farallon his vessel obtained a large supjjly of fresh sea-lion 
meat. Vizcaino does not mention the groups of the Farallones 
in his published narrative, but they are laid down on his plans. 

The great storm which Cabrillo's vessels had encountered had 
covered the mountains of the peninsula of San Francisco with 
snow, and Ferrelo, in describing the coast from the great gulf 
southward, says : "All the coast they passed by this day is very 
bold, and there is a great swell of the sea, and the land is very 
lofty ; there are mountains which rise to the sky, and the sea 
beats upon them. While sailing near the land it appears as if 
they would fall upon the ships ; they are covered with snow to 
the summit. The}^ gave them the name of las Sierras Nevadas, 
and the principal one forms a cape which projects into the sea, 
which they named el Cabo de Nieve. The coast runs north- 
northwest and south-southeast. It does not appear that" Indians 
inhabit this coast. This Cabo de Nieve is in thirty and eight 
degrees and two-thirds, and always, when the wind blew from 
the northwest, it made the weather fair and clear." 

Cabrillo says ''they were seeking for a port," and hence the 
minuteness of the foregoing narration. 

This snowy cape and the erroneous latitude, 38° 40', has given 
rise to much speculation as to its identification. The descrip- 
tion of the navigators, although somewhat exaggerated, is sufii- 
ciently good to satisfy one who is acquainted with the charac- 
teristics of this high backbone of the jDcninsula and with the 
occasional high cliff's ; and is quite satisfactory to those who have 
encountered heavy snow-storms in the Coast range of mountains. 
In some very heavy southeasters, such as that we experienced 
in the Santa Lucia range early in January, 1880, the cold is 
quite severe, reaching 17° Fahrenheit, the force of the wind ter- 
rific, and the depth of the snow two or three feet. 

This Cabo de Nieve, or snowy cape, is the massive western 
spur or buttress of the high mountains of this part of the penin- 
sula of San Francisco and rises abruptly and immediately be- 

248 G. Davidson — Nortluvedern Coast of America. 

hind the low, rocky and dangerous point Afio Nuevo. Mount 
Bache, or Lonia Prieta, in the crest-line of the mountains, lies 
nearly east of this cape, in latitude 37° 62', and reaches an eleva- 
tion of 3,825 feet twenty miles from the coast-line on the same 
parallel. A vessel passing three or four miles outside the shore 
would rarely notice point Aho Nuevo, except from particular 
positions ; but all vessels following the coast notice the mountain 
mass projecting beyond the lower hills to the north and south, 
although it does not break the regularity of the shore-line. This 
is another of those cases when the vessels laid great stress upon 
the large features of the coast and not upon an}'- details of the 
immediate shore. I am thoroughly convinced of the identifica- 
tion of this cape. The correction to the determination of the 
latitude of both ships is — 1° 31', where the average of this 
region is— 1° 25'. 

The narratives mention no further details. Even with fair 
winds the vessels were not tempted to follow the gradually curv- 
ing shore to the eastward, where under point Santa Cruz, in 
latitude 36° 57', they would have found anchorage and protec- 
tion from the northwest swell. Nor did the gulf of the present 
bay of Monterey allure them. Far to the southward the moun- 
tains of the northern part of the Sierra Santa Lucia were already 
looming up above the horizon, and on "the following Saturday 
they were running along the coast, and at night they found 
themselves off el Cabo de San Martin. . ■. . El Cabo de San 
Martin is in thirty-seven degrees and a half," which latitude 
must have been noted from Avhat the}^ observed on their trip to 
the northward. 

We may very well conceive that the scurvy was among the 
crew, and that their provisions were not plentiful. Moreover, 
Ferrelo's vessel was leaking very badly and Cabrillo was suffer- 
ing from his broken arm. They knew that in the port of Pos- 
session, on the north side of San Miguel island, the anchorage 
in that small bay was protected from the southeast gales. They 
anchored here on " Thursda}^, the twenty-third of November, 
and because it is a good port they repaired the small vessel and 
made her staunch, because she was going to sink. In the afore- 
said port they remained until the end of December, on account 
of the bad weather, Avith great cold and snow, even to the sea- 
level, rain from heaven, and heavy clouds, and as the southeast 
storm was continuing there was so great a surf, although in a 

Death of CabriUo. 240 

land-locked harbor, that sometimes for three or four days it was 
not possible to go on shore." 

On the 3d of January, 1543, the brave Juan Rodriguez Ca- 
briUo died from the effects of an accident at his first visit in 
October, 1542. He earnestly charged Bartolome Ferrelo not to 
give up the voyage of discovery, but to continue his explora- 
tions to the northward. Who succeeded Ferrelo to the com- 
mand of La Victoria is not mentioned, but we may suppose he 
was the pilot Bartolome Fernandez. 

On the 19th of January, 1543, Ferrelo and his consort set sail 
for the mainland under point Conception in search of pro- 
visions. The vessels were caught by a heavy northwest storm, 
and for eight days were driven about among the Santa Barbara 
islands, seeking anchorage " on account of the foul winds," when 
they again sought shelter in port Possession on the 27th of 

They remained here two days, when the weather favored them 
and they sailed to the island of Santa Rosa to recover the 
anchors which they had left there when they slipped their 
cables in a storm. They recovered the anchors and took in a 
supply of water from Bechers bay, which is on the northeast 
face of the island, where they were protected from the southeast 
storm which brought much snow. 

On the 13th of February they stood across the Santa Barbara 
channel to the Gaviota anchorage, which they were forced to 
leave after getting onl}^ one boat-load of wood. The southeaster 
brought up a very heavy swell, and they sought shelter under 
the island of Santa Cruz " because they were there more secure 
from the storms and they might be able to make sail and run 
out to sea." 

On the 18th of February the vessels left this island in search 
of other islands rejDorted to them by the Indians. These islands 
were doubtless San Nicolas and San Clemente, which had not 
been seen by them, and at dark they were about twelve leagues 
from Santa Cruz, and "saw six islands, some large and others 

"At daybreak of the 19th they were about ten leagues to"' the 
windward of the islands, and with the wind west-northwest 
they were standnig off five days to the southwest, and after 
they had proceeded about 100 leagues they found the wind 
more violent and the sea high, and Thursrlay, the 22d of the 

:i3— Nat. Gkog. Mao., vot,. V, 1893. 

250 G. Davidson — Northivestern Coast of America. 

said month of' February, they again stood in shore to endeavor 
to reach Cabo de Pinos, with the wind south-southeast, which 
continued three days and was increasing each day." 

This brief search, wherein it is doubtful if tliey made 100 
leagues from the islands, has led Kohl to make the unaccount- 
able blunder of supposing that the six islands of the Santa 
Barbara groups which Ferrelo mentions " were doubtless the 
Sandwich islands ! '' If we suppose that the course made by 
Ferrello was south, half way between Santa Cruz and San Nico- 
las, he would probably have seen, in all, the islands of San Miguel, 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina (with Santa 
Barbara in line and not distinguishable) and San Nicolas. He 
could not have seen San Cleniente. Anacapa is small, but high, 
and Santa Catalina would at that distance appear small. San 
Nicolas would be seen moderately small, because he would make 
it endwise. 

When the unusual " moderate wind from* the northeast ' 
changed and the west-northwest wind came up with the large sea 
always accompanying it, it is very unlikely that the ships pro- 
ceeded even two hundred miles instead of one hundred leagues. 
Moreover, whei> Ferrelo changed his course to make his land- 
fall, and the south-southeast wind continued with increasing 
force and with a necessaril}^ heavy and broken sea, he must 
have made by his own account more than five hundred miles 
in less than three days under short sail. He got sight of the 
Cabo de Pinos, in latitude 38° 31', at daybreak on the 25th of 
February. This alone should demonstrate the erroneousness of 
Kohl's supposition. ^ 

When Ferrelo made the mountains behind Fort Ross at day- 
break he continued his course to the northwestward, and the 
vessel " at dusk Avas twenty leagues to windward on a coast run- 
ing northwest and southeast, and it is bold and without shelter ; 
there was no smoke seen on the land, and they saw a point 
which formed the extremity of the land, which changed the 
coast to the northwest;- in the middle of the night the wind 
suddenly shifted to the south-southwest, and they run to the 
wesf-northwest until day, and in the morning the wind shifted 
to the west-southwest with great violence, which held on until 
the following Tuesday [the 27th] ; they ran to the northwest." 
This is Ferrelo's narrative, and he gives no latitude. The point 
which he saw at dark was point Arena, in latitude 38° 57', where 

Coasting in Storms. 251 

the shore-line which has been trending to the northwest makes 
a gentle sweep to the northeastward, with low shores and bold 
wooded mountains behind. The point is the extremity of a 
plateau sixty feet high, and rises by several steps in three miles 
to two hundred and fifteen. It is destitute of timber, but on the 
higher parts of the plateau the fir trees stretch to the mountains. 
He doubtless saw the high timbered crest line rising to 2,300 
feet elevation behind and beyond the point. 

Cabrillo's narrator does not write a word about the exciting 
experiences of the vessels from the time they left their anchor- 
age at the Gaviota until the morning after Ferrelo saw point 
Arena, when he says : "And Monday, on the twenty-sixth of 
the said month [of February], they were at a point which they 
called Cabo de Fortunas [cape of Perils] on account of the many 
dangers which they had experienced in those days, and it is in 
forty-one degrees." 

If the vessels scudded twenty leagues northwestward from 
Fort Ross in the short period of daylight they should have 
reached latitude 39° 30', but if point Arena was what they saw 
at dark they could not have been up to Fort Ross at daylight, 
but had made it out at that time. 

Granting, however, that they reached the latitude of 39° 30', 
and supposing they kept their course, they may next day have 
seen some distance to the northeast the culminating peak of the 
Coast range of mountains just north of point Delgoda, where 
King peak, in latitude 40° 9', rises to a height of 4,265 feet at 
two and a half miles from the coast line. This is probably too 
far north, for Ferrelo says : 

" Tuesday, the 27th of the said month, the wind veered to the 
south-southwest, which held on all day. They ran to the west- 
northwest with the foresails lowered, for it blew violently. At 
the approach of night the wind shifted to the west. They ran 
all night to the south, with but little sail. There was a high 
sea which broke over them." 

The shore north of point Arena retreats in a long curve to the 
eastward to the Ussal river, and then takes the old northwest 

Before reaching so far north as King jpeak, " one of the 
great landfalls for this section of the coast to vessels well off 
shore is Cahto mountain, lying N. 85° E. (magnetic) from cape 
Vizcaino. It rises to an elevation of 4,076 feet, and should be 

252 G. Davidson — Northiuestern Coast of Ainerica. 

visible at a distance of sixty miles from the coast. It is in lati- 
tude 39° 41'/' (Davidson's Coast Pilot.) This would give a 
correction of — 1° 19' to Cabrillo's position. 

The vessels were now well out at sea, and Ferrelo says : 
" The Wednesday following, the 28th day of the said month, at 
daybreak, the wind shifted directly to the southwest, and it did 
not blow hard. This day they observed the latitude in 43°." 
With the average instrumental correction from identified points 
this would place the vessels in latitude 41 2°, and far out to sea. 
Ferrelo continues : 

" Toward night the wind freshened and shifted to the south- 
southwest. They ran this night to the west-nothwest with much 
difficulty, and Thursday [March 1] at daybreak the wind shifted 
to the southwest with great fury, and the seas came from many 
quarters, which harassed them much, and broke over the ships, 
which, not having the decks (as in a man-of-war), if God should 
not succor them, thej^ could not escape, and not being able to 
lay-to, of necessity they scudded northeast toward the land ; and 
now, holding themselves for lost, they commended themselves 
to Our Lady of Guadaloupe, and made their promises [or offer- 
ings], and ran thus until three o'clock in the afternoon with 
much fear and labor, for they saw they were going to be lost, 
and already they perceived many signs of the land, which must 
be near, as small birds and logs, very fresh, which had floated 
from some rivers, although from the dark and cloudy weather 
the land did not appear. At this hour the Mother of God suc- 
cored them with the grace of her Son, and there came a very vio- 
lent rainstorm from the north, which made them scud all that 
night and the following day until sunset to the south, with the 
foresails furled, and because there was a high sea from the south 
it broke over them each time at the bow and swept over them 
as if over a rock," 

On the first of March Cabrillo's narrator says : ': When the 
weather cleared up they observed the sun in forty and four de- 
grees, with so.much cold they were freezing." This observation, 
corrected by the average instrumental variation, would place the 
vessel in 42° 30' of latitude, more or less, and well out to sea, 
because the landfalls in this region can be seen sixt}'- and more 
miles from seaward. 

Another imijortant statement is made in relation to the indi- 
cations of discolored fresh water from rivers. In latitude 42° 25' 

Rivers of the Pacific Coast. 253 

is the mouth of Rogue river, whicli discharges an enormous 
volume of water in the winter storms ; Pistol river, in 42° 
17'; Chetko river, in 42° 03', and Smith river, in 41° 57', be- 
sides smaller streams. In the winter freshets these streams 
bring down great quantities of large trees torn from the banks. 
How far these signs have been seen seaward we have at present 
no record. 

Ferrelo continues his narrative and says : " The wind shifted 
to the northwest and the north-northwest with great fury, so 
that it made them run until Saturday, the third of March, to 
the southeast and to the east-southeast with such a liigh sea that 
it made them cry out without reserve that if God and His blessed 
Mother did not miraculously save them they could not escape. 
Saturday at noon the wind moderated and remained at the 
northwest, for which they gave many thanks to our Lord. They 
suffered also in provisions, as they had only biscuit, and that 

And apparentl}^ reviewing the last few days' experience, he 
says : " It appeared to them that there was a very large river, of 
which they had much indication, between forty-one degrees and 
forty and three, for they saw many signs of it." 

These determinations relate to the coast between latitudes 
39° 30' and 41° 30', in which are the following streams : Klamath 
river, in latitude 41° 32', a large stream; Little river, under 
Trinidad head, in 41° 02'; Mad river, in 40° 56'; Humboldt bay 
entrance, in 40° 45'; Eel river, one of the largest rivers in Cali- 
fornia, in 40° 39'; Mattole, in 40° 18'; Ussal, Ten Mile, Noyo and 
other streams farther southward. 

Ferrelo continues : " This day [March 3], in the evening, they 
recognized the Cabo de Pinos, and on account of the high sea 
which prevailed, they could do no less than run along the coast 
on the return course in search of a shelter. They experienced 
much cold. 

'■ Monday, on the fifth day of the said month of March, 1543, 
at dawn, they found themselves off the island of Juan Rodriguez 
[San Miguel}, and they did not dare to enter tfie port on account 
of the great storm which prevailed, which broke the sea at the 
entrance of the harbor in fifteen fathoms. The entrance is nar- 
row ; they ran under the protection of the Isla de San Salvador 
on the southeast side." 

This Puerto de la Isla de San Salvador is Smugglers cove on 
the short southeast side of Santa Cruz island. The dangers 

254 (r. Davidson — Northwestern Coast of America. 

which he reports m fifteen fathoms are Wilson reef, one mile in 
extent, which lies in deep water off the northwest shores of San 
Miguel island, two and a quarter miles westwardly from the 
entrance to Cuylers harbor or port Possession. The Coast Pilot 
gives particular warning about these dangers. Smugglers cove 
is an open roadstead, with partial protection from heavy north- 
west weather. 

Ferrelo, in continuing his narrative, goes back a day or more 
and says : "And the night before coming with a violent tempest, 
with only two small foresails, the other ship disappeared, so 
that they suspected that the sea had swallowed it up, and they 
could not discover it any more, even after daybreak. They 
believe they must have been in forty-four degrees when the last 
storm overtook them and compelled them to run to leeward." 

Cabrillo's narrator says that on account of the foregoing storm 
" they were forced to go to la Isla de la Posesion [San Miguel 
island], where they arrived on the fifth, and on account of the 
heavy breaking at the mouth of the harbor they sought protec- 
tion under the Isla de San Sebastian, under the side presented 
to the south-southeast ; and that night [of the great tempest] 
the flagship disappeared." 

After the vessels met at Cerros island Ferrelo says : " That 
ship passed la Isla de Juan Rodriguez at night, passing through 
some breakers, so that they thought they must be lost, and the 
mariners promised to go in procession naked to her church, and 
our Lady delivered them." 

This is the first time the Cabrillo narrative has mentioned 
this island of San Sebastian. As the Fragata was ofi" Cuylers 
harbor at night, probably eight pr ten hours after the Capitana 
had passed it, with the heavy northwester still blowing, he was 
very naturally afraid to approach the old anchorage of port 
Possession, and probably steered through the San Miguel pas- 
sage, and found protection and anchorage under the southeast 
shore of Santa Rosa island, between South Point and East Point, 
which he calls el Puerto de San Sebastian, now known as John- 
sons lee. He must have remained at this anchorage fourteen 
days, while the other vessel lay three days in Smugglers cove, 
under Santa Cruz island, and then searched for her consort at San 
Buenaventura, again at Smugglers cove, at San Diego bay, port 
San Quentin, and finally at the south end of the island of Cerros 
on the 24th of March, 1543. On the 26th the consort arrived. 
When she had started to search for the Capitana " the whole 

Tl^c return Voyage. 255 

crew made their demands that they should return to New Spam. 
as we had nothing that we could eat ; and because this was ifl 
reason, they ordered the return, searching for their consort." 
(Cabrillo's narrator.) 

Some question has arisen about the probability of these small, 
badly equipped vessels, with mixed crews of Spaniards and 
Indians, broken down by scurvy, making such good time. It 
seems quite reasonable that they reached the latitude observed, 
and that they commenced to scud before the northwester from 
latitude 42° 30' to a position off Fort Ross, making about 275 
miles between the morning of March 1 and the evening of ^ 
March 3, or about five miles per hour. From the last position 
to San Miguel island the Capitana sailed not less than 315 miles 
in about thirty-eight hours, or inore than eight miles per hour, 
with an evident increase in the force of the wind. Cabrillo's 
narrator says that " in five days they ran 200 leagues with reefed 
foresail;" and his vessel reached San Miguel island on the same 
day as the Smi Salvador, but later. It was a run for life, and 
these masterful navigators must have handled their craft with 
consummate skill and decision. I have no doubt whatever of 
their statements. 

Concluding Remarks. 

This is a condensed review of this heroic voyage or voj^ages 
of discovery and exploration in the very heart of our winter 
gales. The whole story is ingenuously told ; there is no com- 
plaint of sickness or of the incapacity of the crews. To the 
seamen the narrative is full of pathos. 

I have endeavored to point out only a few of the identifi- 
cations of the two principal actors ; I have not quoted from 
Ulloa, Drake or Vizcaino. To exhibit the details of the narra- 
tives of these five remarkable men, I drew up, in 1885, their 
statements in parallel columns, following the localities from the 
south toward the north, preserving the entire narratives of 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo, and using such parts of the others as 
related to the positions of the former or to new localities inter- 
mediate. I then appealed to my personal knowledge of the 
localities, and to my descriptions from the manuscript for the 
Coast Pilot of 1889, and to the Coast Pilot of Lower California. 
During the investigation doubtful cases of identification were 
left in abeyance until Avell authenticated locations to the north 
and to the south were fixed ; then the doubtful cases Avere bar- 

256 G. Davidson — Nortkwestern Coast of America. 

monized without straining. Many minor and interesting state- 
liients noted in the narrations have been verified, such as the 
seventeen villages which Ferrelo names from the Gaviota an- 
chorage to point Conception. On the Coast Survery chart there 
are seventeen arro3^os, where we found the remains of old ran- 
cherias as we traveled this part of the coast in 1850. 

It is proper to mention that upon the return of the vessels to 
the Santa Barbara islands in March, on their final retreat, the 
confusion of new names to the islands was added ; but fortu- 
nately I had learned from my colleagues, who had made the 
detailed surveys of these islands, the advantages and disad- 
vantages of the anchoring grounds around Santa Cruz and Santa 
Rosa islands under different conditions of summer blows and 
winter storms, and I am satisfied that the last anchorages of 
these navigators have been identified. 

Of the identification of Drake's anchorages on the coast of 
California and Oregon I have not spoken, because I propose to 
elsewhere present a separate paper upon the former ; nor have 
I referred specially to the accurate work of Vizcaino, but I may 
mention that, upon the authority of his narrative, it has been 
long"*asserted that a great forest covered the Tjoma that lies be- 
tween San Diego bay and False bay to the northward. This 
erroneous statement has arisen from the mistranslation of " el 
monte," which in the narrative signifies a hill ; that is the point 
Loma of the modern charts. 

Such instances as these have satisfied me that all the narrators 
made truthful records, so far as they wrote, and this conviction 
has enabled me to clearly explain in my monograph several 
apparent inconsistencies in parts of Vizcaino's narrative. 

The mass of details presented in the monograph cannot be 
given in this short paper, but I presented in the Report of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, appendix No. 7, 
a tabulation of the results, which establish the identification of 
the seventy-one landfalls, capes, points, bays, anchorages and 
islands mentioned by Cabrillo and Ferrelo. I also appended a 
chart to exhibit in graphic and still more condensed form these 

It will be noted that in this list and chart there is no mention 
of the groups of the Farallones off the entrance to San Francisco 
bay, although Cabrillo and Ferrelo must have seen them. Drake 
mentions and names them ; Vizcaino has them on his chart, but 
does not mention them in his narrative. 


Vol. V, pp. 257-263, l-LXVIII 

May 5, 1893 




Published by the National Geographic Society 

Price 50 cents 



Abercrombie, John, Address by 102 

— , delegate to conference lOU 

— , Record of address by xiv 

Abercrombie, Lieutenant. Explorations 

by 174 

Adams, Cyrus C, Record of lecture by.... x 
Africa, Conditions effecting develop- 
ment in 129 

— , Discovery of. 6 

— , Record of lecture on x 

African population of tlie United States. .32 

Agriculture in tlie arid region 16!) 

— , Record of address on xi 

Air, Relations of 112 

Alaska, Recent explorations in ITa 

— , Supposed islands near 7(1 

— , Surveys of 63 

— , Volcano in 93 

Alexander VI, Bull of. 222 

— , Reference to 2 

Alien population, Effects of. 37 

Alienation of cities 43 

Allen, Henki T., E.xplorations by 174 

Amazon, Character of, river and valley . 114 

— , First navigation of. 12 

Amendments to by-laws xii, xiv, xvii, 

xix, xxi 

America, Discoverers of. 1 

— , Early voyages to 235 

— , IMountains of. 120 

— , Naming of 10 

American Geographical Society, Dele- 
gate from 100 

— , Reference to action of 173 

Andersen, Magnus ; Norway and the vi- 

liings 132 

— , Record of address by xvi, 109 

paper by xv 

Anderson, Rasmus B., cited on Norse dis- 
coveries 13.0 

Andes, Record of lecture on xi 

Angeles, Francisco de los. Early letter to 232 

Aquinas, Thomas, cited on geography 2 

Arabia, Description of. 119 

Archives of the Vatican 197 

Area settled in the United States 25 

Aridity, Causes of. 167 

Argentina, Record of lecture on xvii 

Armstrong, , cited on supposed Arc- 
tic island 82 

Arnabrie, Berteand, Early letter to 212 

.4siA, G-eneral characteristics of. 119 

— , IMountains of. 121 

— , Natural conditions of 128 

Atlantic coast, Fisli and fisheries of 161 

— slope, Record of address on xviii 

— type of rainfall 55 

Atmosphere, Movements of 108 

Auditing Committee, Reference of report 

to xix 

— , Report of the ; H. C. Rizer, Isaac 

Winston and Weston Flint xxiv 

Austria-Hung.ary, Great cities of 89 

Azambuja, Gr.aciano a. de, Record of ad- 
dress by xvi, 101, 111 

34— Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. V, 1893. 

Babb, C. C, Appointment of, as Secre- 
tary xvii 

— ; Sixth annual report of the Secretary xx 

Batley, Fred., Communication from 101 

Baker, Marcus; Undiscovered island off 

the northern coast of Alaslia 76 

— , Record of addresses by xii, xvii 

discussions by ix, xvii 

Baker mount. Modern volcanism in 93 

Balboa, Vasco Nunez, Discoveries by 12 

Bancroft, George, cited on population... 22 
Barrow, Sir John, cited on supposed 

Arctic island 81 

Baseleveling about Blue mountain 87 

Beaedslee, Lester, Survej's by 175 

Beehler, W. H., Record of paper by xiv 

Bell, A. Melville, Record of reading by. ix 
Bell. C. J.; Sixth annual report of the 

Treasurer.... xxii 

Bering sea arbitration question, Record 

of address on xviii 

BicKMORE, A. S., Record of paper by xiii 

Biography of Christopher Columbus 187 

Bjarni, Hekjulfso.v, Discovery of Amer- 
ica by 4 

Blau, Paul LE, delegate to conference... 99 
Blount, Henry, Record of discussion 

by xvii 

Blue mountain Geologist at, Charles D. 

Walcott 84 

Bobadilla, Francisco de. Criticisms of... 1>5 

BoGosr.ov, Eruption of 93 

Boil, Beenaud, Confirmation of. 220 

— , Reference to worlc of 20-1 . 

Boston, Founding of. 21 

Bourke, John G., Aclinowledgment to xv, 110 

— , Record of paper by xvi, HI 

Brande, , cited on supposed Arctic 

island 82 

Brazil, Participation in conference by... 99 
Brewer, William M., Record of address 

by xii 

Brown, Robert, cited on suppo.«ed Arc- 
tic island 83 

Bryant, Williasi C, Reference to writ- 
ings of. 153 

Bull of Alexander VI 2, 222 

Burns, Robert, Quotation from 1.53 

Burroughs, John, Use of writings of 152 

By-laws, Adoption of amendments to... xiv, 

xix, xxi 
— of the National Geographic Society... xxv 
— , Proposed amendments to xii, xvii 

Cabot, John, Discoveries by 9 

Cabot, Sebastian, Discoveries by 9, 12 

— , quoted on Columbus 19 

Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez. Death of 249 

— , Geographic Narrative of. 236 

California, Compilation of Coast Pilot of 235 
Campbell, Marius R., Record of paper 

by X 

Canada, Settlement of. 14 

— , Surveys adjoining 63 

Canting, Alberto, Reference to map by.. 17' 



National Geograpliic Magazine. 

Cakavels (The) of Columbus ; Victor 

Maria Concas ISO 

Caribs, Decadence of 192 

Cakpmael, Chakles, cited on Canadian 

rainf.ill 58 

Carroll, James, Surveys by 175 

Carter, C. L., Record of lecture by xi 

Cartier, Jacques, Explorations by 14 

Catoctin ridge, Condition of. -Si 

Census, Results of. -22 

Center of population 27 

Centers (The great populous) of the 

world; A. W. Greely 89 

Chaillu, Paul B. du. Record of address 

by xvi. 111 

Chamberlain,' T. C, Appointment of, on 

conference committee 98 

— , Record of address by xv, 110 

— ; The relations of geology to physi- 
ography in our educational system.. 154 

Charles V, Letter to 2:« 

('hesapeake bay. First settlements on 21 

Chicago, Conference in 97 

— , Minutes of conference at xiv 

Chicago Herald, Erection of monument 

by ...., 190 

Chile, Discovery of 12 

China, Density of 123 

Chkonicon Nurembergense, Map of 2 

Circulation of air and water 112 

Circumnavigation, Drake's l(i 

— , Magellan's 11 

Cities, Alienation of 43 

— , Growth of American 29 

Classification of geology 150 

public lands 170 

Clavus, Claudius, Reference to map by.. 17 

Climate, Changes of the 124 

— , Discussion of American 46 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, Work of 235 

Coast Pilot, Compilation of 235 

CoLLiNsoN, Richard, cited on supposed 

Arctic island 82 

Colon, Bartholomew, Commendation 

of 228 

Colon, Diego, Episodes in life of. 183 

Colorado, Record of address on xii 

Columbus (In the wake of); Frederick 

A. Ober 137 

— , (The caravels of ) ; Victor Maria Con- 
cas 180 

Columbus, Christopher, Brief sketch of... 6 

— , Early documents relating to 217 

— , First voyage of. 8 

— , Reference to work of. 1 

— , Tribute to 20, 107 

Commerce, Norwegian 132 

CoNCAS, Victor Maria, Record of address 

by xvi, HI 

— , The caravels of Columbus IW 

Conference, International Geographic, xxi, 


Minutes of, xiv, 101 

Congress, Action of, on archives of the 

Vatican 197 

Cook, Captain James, Geographic narra- 
tive of 236 

CoRBETT, JuLiEN, Reference to work of.... 16 

Coutez, Hernando, Conquest by 13 

Cosa, Juan de la. Map by 16 

CouES, Elliott, Record of address by xii 

Cresswell, S. G., cited on supposed Arc- 
tic island 82 

Croffut, W. a., Record of lecture by.,., xvii 

Crops, Dependence of, on rainfall 16S 

Cuba, Discovery of 8,191 

Cumberland valley. Condition of 84 

Curtis, William E., Acknowledgment 
to XV, 110, 183 

CuiiTis, William E. ; Recent disclosures 
concerning pre-Columbian voyages 
to America in the archives of the 

Vatican 197 

— , Record of paper by xvi, 111 

— , Reference to work of. 190 

Cycles, Geographic 73 

Dashiell, R. B., Acknowledgment to xiii 

Dato, Sri Amar d'Rajah, Communica- 
tion from 101 

Davidson, George, cited on modern vol- 

canism 93 

— , delegate to conference 100 

— ; Early voyages on the northwestern 

coast of America 235 

— , Reference to work of. 173 

Davidson, T. D., Reference to work of.... 64 
Davis, W. ;VI., Record of paper by x 

— ; The improvement of geographical 

teaching 68- 

Dawes, Henry L., Record of introduc- 
tion by xi 

Deformation, General character of 109 

— in eastern America 85 

De Kalb, Courtnay, Record of paper by., xii 

Delaware, First settlements in 21 

Density of population 28 

Deserts, American 167 

— . General description of. 119 

Deza, Diego, Support ot Columbus by 180 

Diaz, Bartholomew, Discovery of cape 

Good Hope by 6 

Diller. J. S. ; Our youngest volcano 93 

— , Record of paperby xii 

DiscovEiiEiiS OF America ; Gardiner G, 

Hubbard 1 

Discoveries on the Pacific coast 253 

Discovery of America, History of 181 

Distkict of Columbia, Geographic in- 
struction in 137 

DiSTRiBuiiON of rainfall 45 

Documents, Early, concerning Green- 
land 199 

— , Early geograiJiic 202 

Dominica, Discovery of 192 

Drake, Sir Francis, Reference to work 

of 1, 14, 15, 230 

Drontheim, Bishopric of. 206 

Dutton, C. E., cited on modern vol- 

canism 94 

Eaton, John, Address by xv, 105 

— , Record of introduction by xiv, lo2 

Education, Geographic 100, 137 

— , Geology and physiography in 154 

— , Relation of geography to 125 

Egypt, Natural conditions of 128 

Elcano, Sebastian, First circumnaviga- 
tion by 183 

Election of officers xix 

Emerson, Ralph W., Quotation from 153 

England, Natural conditions of 128 

— , Participation in conference b.y 99 

Envelopes, Terrestrial lOS 

Environment, Influence of, on fish life,., 166 

on man 128 

Ekatosthenes, cited on the circumfer- 
ence of the earth 1 

Eric the Red, Voyages of 4, 134 

Ericsson, Lief, Discovery of Vineland by 4 

— , Voyages of 134 

Ericsson, Thorstein, Attempted coloni- 
zation by 134 

Ernst, Adolph, Record of address by..xvi. 111 

Errata .'. viii 

Eskimo, Traditions of. 78 

Europe, General- characteristics of 117 

— , Blethod of study of. 151 




Evaporation, Rate of 112 

EvERETTE, Dii W., Explorations by 174 

ExpLOKATioNS (Receiit) in Alaska; Eliza 

Ruharnah Scidmore 173 

Extraction of our population 42 

Families, Classification of population by 31 
Fernandez, Bartolomj^, Explorations of.. 249 

Ferdinand and Isabella, Letter to 217 

— , Support of Columbus by 8, 181 

Ferdinand, Letter to 228 

Fernow, B. E., Record of address by... xviii 
Ferrelo, Bartolome, Geographic work 

of 236,249 

Fewkes, J. Walter, Record of lecture 

by xiii 

Field meeting, Record of xiii 

Figure of the earth. Record of paper 

on ,. X 

Fish Commission, Work of 161 

Fisheries, Norwegian 132 

Fiske, John, Reference to work of. 2 

Fin;eus, Orontius, Reference to map by.. 18 
Flint, Weston, Report of the Auditing 

Committee xxiv 

Florida, Acquisition of. 25 

FoNTE, Admikal de, Reference to discov- 
eries ol 237 

Foreign blood in the United States 42 

•FoKEST, The battle of the, Record of ad- ^ 

dre«s on xviii 

FoYN, SvEN, Tribute to 132 

France, Great cities of 89 

— , Participation in conference by 99 

Franklin, Sir John, Reference to search 

for 76 

FucA, Juan de, Discoveries of. 237 

Fulton, Robert, Episodes in history of... 181 
Funston, Frederick, Record of letter 

from xvii 

Gadsden purchase. Reference to 25 

Gaelic names, Orthography of 103 

Gama, Vasco de. Discovery of India by... 9 
Gannett, Henry, cited on population of 

New York, 90 

— , Record of paper by xiv 

— ; The movements of our population... 21 

GAST.ALDI MAP, Reference to 18 

Geographic discoveries in western Amer- 
ica 236 

Geographical Society of Madkid, Work 

of 180 

Geography, Definition of 105, 125, 159 

— (Physical) of the Hawaiian islands. 

Record of lecture on xviii 

— (Relation of) to history; Francis VV. 

Parker, 125 

— , Teaching of. 08, 137 

Geology of Blue mountain 81 

— (The relations of) to physiography in 

our educational system ; T. C. Cham- 
berlain 154 

Geumorphology of the Appalacliians, Rec- 
ord of paper on x 

Geomorphy about Blue mountain 87 

— of New England (59 

— , Principles of 109 

— , Processes of 157 

Georgi.\., First settlements in 21 

Germany, Great cities of 89 

Gilbert, G. K., Record of discussion by. x 

Glacier bay, Glaciers of. 179 

Glave, E. J., Explorations by 176 

Goode. G. Brown, Reference to work of. 161 

Good Hope, cape. Discovery of 16 

Gray, Thomas, Reference to writings of.. 153 

Great Britain, Great cities of 89 

Greece, Natural conditions of. 128 

Greely, a. W., Amendments proposed 

by xii 

— ; An undiscovered island off the coast 

of Alaska 80 

— , delegate to conference 98, 100 

— ; Introduction 98 

— ; Rainfall types of the United States.. 45 

— , Record of addresses by ix, xii, xv, 110 

— , Record of announcements by., xi, xiv, 105 

— ; The great populous centers of the 

world ; 89 

Greenland, Discovery of 4 

— , Early documents concerning 199 

— , Early importance of. 134 

— , Early settlement of 198 

— , Record of lecture on ix 

Growth of urban population 92 

Guadeloupe, Discovery of. 192 

GuiLLEMAKD, F. H. H., Reference to work 

of 11 

Gulf stream. Influence of the 118 

(The relations of the) and the Lab- 
rador current ; William Libbey, ju- 
nior 161 

Guyot, Arnold, Reference to work of. 130 

GzowsKi, Sir Casimir S., Delegate to con- 
ference 99 

Haiti, Discovery of. 195 

H.ALL, H. L., Valuable donation by xxi 

Harkness, H. W., cited on modern vol- 

canism 93 

Harlan, Justice. Record of address by., xviii 

Harris, W. T., Acknowledgment to 98 

— , Tribute to 107 

Hassler, Emil, Record of address by..xvi, 111 

Hauslab globes. Reference to 18 

Hawaiian islands, Record of lecture on. xi,_ 


Hawkins, John, Voyages by 14 

Hayes, C. Willard, Explorations and 

surveys by 176 

— , Record of paper by ' x 

Helluland, Accounts of 4, 134 

Henry THE Navigator, Voyages of. 6 

Herald ISLAND, Discovery of 76 

Herendeen, E. p. ; An undiscovered is- 
land off the coast of Alaska 78 

— , cited on supposed Arctic islands 77 

Herrera, Antonio de. Reference to writ- 
ings of 238 

Hey'wood, J. C, Reference to work of. 198 

Hidalgo, Guadaloupe, Reference to treaty 

of 25 

Hill, Robert T , Record of paper by xiv 

History of the discovery of America 181 

History, Relation of, to geography 125 

Hittel, J. S., cited on modern volcan- 

ism 93 

HoDGKiNS, W. C, Record of paper by xvii 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Refei'ence to 

writings of. 153 

Honduras, Discovery of. 9 

Hooper, W. H., cited on supposed Arctic 

island 82 

Hooper, C. L., Explorations by 178 

Horn, cape, First rounding of. 15 

Horses, Use of, in Alaska 176 

HoRSFORD, E. N., cited on Norse colo- 
nies 135 

Humboldt, Alexander, cited on history... 180 
Hubbard, G-ardiner G., delegate to con- 
ference 98, 100 

— ; Discoverers of America 1 

— , Election of, as president of the con- 
ference 101 

— , Garden party by xiv 

— , Record of addresses by ix, xiv 

— , Reference to work of....... 167 


National Geographic Magazine. 

Htibbaed, Gardiner G. ; Relations of air 

and water to temperature and life.... 112 

— , Valuable donation bj^ xxi 

Hudson bay company, Reference to work 

of 173 

Hydrography of 'the Atlantic coast 161 

Immigration, Discussion of 35 

Increase of population in different coun- 
tries 23 

India, Discovery of. 9, 11 

— , Great cities of 89 

— , Record of papers on xii, xiii 

Indians, Record of paper on xiii 

Industries, Norwegian 133 

Inglefiei.d, Admiual K. a., Reference to 

Arctic discoveries of 81 

Instituto Historico GEOGiiAFico Ethno- 
grafico de Rio Janeiro, Participation 

in conference by 101 

Instructions (Geographic) in the public 

schools; W. B. Powell 137 

Introduction; [A. W. Greely] 98 

Inventions of the 15th century 5 

Irrigation, Indian 119 

— in the United States 170 

— , Relation of rainfall to 4G 

Irving, Washington, Reference to work 

of 152 

Isabella, Support of Columbus by 8, 181 

Isabella and Ferdinand, Letter to 217 

Island (An undiscovered) off the north- 
ern coast of Alaska, by Marcus Baker 

et al 76 

Isolation, Affect of national Vi% 

Italy, Great cities of 89 

Jamestown, Founding of 21 

Japan, Great cities of 89 

— , Record of lectures on xi, xiii 

JoHORE COMMISSION, Communication from 101 
Juan Diego, Commendation of 228 

Karlsefni, Thorfinn, Colonization by 134 

Karmarkar, Sumantrao Vishna, Record 

of address by xii, xiii 

Kelley, W. D., Record of lecture by xi 

Keenan island. Naming of 78 

Keenan, John, cited on supposed Arctic 

islands 77,80 

Keli.ett, Henry, and Moore, Thomas, 

Arctic search voyage by 76 

Keltie, J. Scott, Communication from... 101 
Kohl, J. G., cited on California geogra- 
phy ;.. 243 

Krause, Dr Arthur, Explorations by 174 

Labrador, Discovery of '. 4 

Lake BASINS, Mapping of, in Scotland 104 

Landfall of Columbus 188 

Lands, public. Character of 167 

, Classification of. 170 

La Rabida, Record of history of xvi, 111 

LasCasas, Bartolom^ de, cited on Colum- 
bus landfall.. 189 

— , Description of Columbus Ijy , 7 

Lassen peak, Modern volcanism near 94 

Lennox GLOBE, Reference to 18 

Leo xiii, Acknowledgmpnt to 197 

Le Plongeon, Alice, Record of lecture 

by xviii 

Levasseur. E., Communication from 101 

— , delegate to conference 99 

LiBBEY, William, juNiOK. delegate to con- 
ference 100 

— , Record of lecture by xviii 

paper by... xv, 110 

— ; The relations of the Gulf stream and 
the Labrador current IGl 

Life of the arid region 169 

— , Relations of 112 

Littlehales, G. W., Record of discussion 

by ix 

Little, W. M.. Reference to work of 182 

LocKwooD, Lieutenant J. B., Reference to 

work of 110 

London, Discussion of population of. 31 

Longmans company, Map by, cited 76, 81 

LooMis, Elias, cited on rainfall 51 

LooMis, Dr L. C, Record of discussion 

by xvii 

LoPHiLATiLus ehamcsleonticeps. Appear- 
ance of 164 

Louisiana. Purchase of 25 

Magellan, Ferdinand, Reference to 

work of 1 

— , Voyages and discoveries by 10 

Maiollo map. Reference to 18 

Malaya, Record of lecture on x 

Maldonado, Alonzo D., Reference to ex- 
plorations of. 237 

Managers, Meetings of xxi 

Maney, Mme Regina, delegate to confer- 

em-e 100 

— , Rt^eord of address by xiv, 105 

Mangles, James, cited on supposed Are- 
tic island S2 

Mankind, Importance of, in education... 15» 

— , Influence of geography on 126 

Maps (American), Exhibition of. xviii 

— , Ancient 1, 2,4, 16, 18 

— , Reference to Arctic 76 

Marajo, Baron de, Delegate to confer- 
ence 99, 111 

— , Record of address by xvi, 101 

Markland, Accounts of 134 

Maryland, Blue mountain of 84 

— , First settlements in 21 

Massachusetts, First settlements in 21 

— , Geomorphy of 69 

Mayas, ancient civilization of the, Rec- 
ord of lecture on xviii 

McClure, R. J. L., cited on supposed Arc- 
tic island 82 

MoDun.u,d, Marshall, Reference to wprk 

• of 161 

MoDougall, , cited on supposed Arc- 
tie island 83 

McGee, W J, Record of address by xviii 

discussions by x, xi 

McGrath, J. E., Explorations by 63, 178 

Meetings of the National Geographic 

Society xx 

Membership of the National Geographic 

Society xx, xxix 

BIembers, Honorary xxviii 

Memoiks and addresses 112 

BIedinasidonia, Duke of, Support of Co- 
lumbus by 180 

MendenhalLj^T. C, Appointment of, on 

conference committee 98 

— , Record of papers by x, xii, xvii 

— ; The geographical position and 

height of mount Saint Elias 63 

Merriam, C. Hart, Record of discussion 

by xi 

Meteorology of the Atlantic coast 161 

— of the United States 45 

— of western America 167 

Mexican type of rainfall 50 

Mexico, Discovery of 13 

— , Participation in conference by 100 

MijAOKA, TsuNEjiRO, Recorcl of address 

by xiii 

Miles, General Nbl'^on A., Reference to 

exploration by 174 

Mineral wealth of the arid region 169 



Minutes of the eonfereuce ; F. H. New- 
all and Eliza R. Scidmore 101 

— of the National Geographic Society... ix 

Missouri type of rainfall 52 

MoNADNocK, Definition of, as a generic 

term 70 

Montezuma, Fall of 13 

Monsoons, Origin of. 119 

Moore, Thomas, Areiie search voyages 

by 76 

Morton, J. Sterling, Record of address 

by xviii 

Mountains, General description of 120 

Movements (The) of our population ; 

Henry Gannett 21 

Moya, Marchioness, Support of Columbus 

by ISO 

MuiR, John, Reference to explorations 

by 174 

MuNSTEB MAP, Reference to 18 

National Geographic Suciety, Explora- 
tions by 175 

— , Relation of, to education 105 

Natural (The) bridge of Virginia; 

Charles D. Walcott 50 

Nativity, Classifieatlon Of population Vjy 35 
Navarrete, Martino F. de, cited on Co- 
lumbus IS) 

Navarro, Inau N., delegate to confer- 
ence 100 

Navigation, Primitive 135 

Navigators, Work of early 239 

Newell, F. H., delegate to conference... 100 

— , Election of, as Secretary 101 

— •; Minutes of the conference 101 

— , Record of addresses by., xii, xv, xvii, 110 
— ; The arid regions of the United Stales 167 

New England coast, Hydrography of. 161 

— , Geomorphy of 69 

Newfoundland, Discovery of 4 

New Hampshire, Geomorphy of. 69 

New Jersey, First settlements in 21 

New York, Founding of 21 

— , larger, Population of. 31 

New York Times, Explorations by 176 

Nicaragua, Record of paper on xii 

Nomenclature, Revision of Scottish geo- 
graphic I(i3 

Norsemen, Discoveries of the 4, 135, 197 

North America, Principal characteris- 
tics of. 116 

— , AVinds and rains of. 116 

North Carolina, First settlements in 21 

Norway and the vilvings; Magnus Ander- 
sen 132 

— , Characteristics of 132 

NoRUMBEiiA, Founding of , ; 5 

Nova Scotia, Discovery of. 4 

Nurembergense, Chronicon, Map of. 2 

Ober, Frederick A.; In the walie of Co- 
lumbus 187 

— , Record of paper by xvi, 111 

Obituaries xx 

Observation, Development of, hy geo- 
graphic study 139 

Ocean CURRENTS, Laws of 113 

Oceans, Movements of. 108 

Officers, Election of xix 

— of the National Geographic Soci- 
ety ii, xxvii 

Ogden, H. G., Record of addresses 
by... ix, xvii 

Orellano, Francisco de, Navigation of 
the Amazon by 12 

Orient, Population of tlie 123 

Orinoco river, Record of address on. xvi, 111 

Orizara, Height of 67 

Orogeny, Effects of 73 

OsBORN, Sherard, cited on supposed Arc- 
tic islands 76, 81 

Oscillations of tire continent 72 

OuTHWAiTB, J. H., Record of address by. xiii 

Pacific coast, Work relating to 235 

— type of rainfall 48 

Palestine, Record of lecture on xvi 

Pamir, Character of the 121 

Parker, F. W., delegate to conference.... 100 
— , Record of address by .- xv, 109 

— ; Relation of geography to history 125 

Paris gilt globe. Reference to 18 

Pedagogy, Modern methods of., 154 

Pennsylvania, First settlements in 21 

Peary, R. E., Record of lecture by ix 

Peru, Discovery of 12 

Peterman, a., cited on .supposed Arctic 

island 82 

Peter the Hermit, Crusades of 5 

Physical geography of the Hawaiian is- 
lands xviii 

Physiography, Relations of, to geology... 154 
PiNzoN, Martin Alonzo, Episodes in life 

01' 183 

Pitkin, J. R. G., Record of lecture by... xvii 
PizARRO, Francisco, Discoveries and con- 
quests of. 12 

Plant life in the arid region 169 

Plata, Rio de la. Character of. 114 

Plymouth, Founding of. 21 

Pope Alexander VI, Bull of 222 

, Letter from 215 

— Clement VII, Letter from 2i2 

— Innocent III, Letters from 206 

— John XXI, Letters from 209 

— Julius II, Letter from 228 

— Leo X, Bull of 228 

— Leo XIII, Aclvnovvledgment to 197 

— Martin IV, Letter from 212 

— Nicolas III, Letter from 211 

Polo, Marco, Reference to work of. 2, 217 

PopuL.VTioN, Center of 27 

— , Colored 33 

— , Density 01 28 

— , Increase of, in different countries 23 

— , Movements of our 21 

— of our cities 43 

the orient, Density of the 123 

-, Urban 28 

of the world 89 

Portugal, Participation in Conference 

by 100 

Post, George E., Record of lecture by... xvi 

Powell, J. W., cited on irrigation 168 

— , delegate to conference 100 

— , Record of addresses hy xiii, xv, 107 

introduction by xi 

remarks by xviii 

Powell, William B., delegate to confer- 
ence 98, KM 

— ; Geographic instruction in the public 

schools 137 

— , Record of papers by xv, xviii, 110 

Pratt, J. F., Reference to worli of. 64 

Preston, E. D., Rncord of address by xi 

■ discussion b.y x 

Proceedings of international conference 

in Chicago ,. 97 

the National Geographic Society... ix 

Procter, R. W., Refen^nce to writings of. 153 
Ptolemy, Claudius, cited on circumfer- 
ence of the earth 1 

— , Map by 1 

Publications of the National Geographic 
Society vi 


National Geographic Magazine. 

Public schuols, geograpliic iiistraction 

in the, Record of address on xviii 

Purchases, Territorial.. 25 

QuEVEDos, John of. Appointment of 228 

Rabida, La, Convent of 182 

— , Record of paper on xvi, iii 

^, Relics in 193 

Race, Classification of population by 32 

Races, Influence of geography on 126 

Rafn, C. C, cited on Vineland 200 

Rainfall, European 118 

— in western America 167 

— of America 116 

Asia 119 

South America 114 

— types of the United States; A W, 

Greely 45 

Rainiee. mount. Ascent of 179 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, Voyages by 14 

Rampolla, Monsignor, Acknowledgment 

to 198 

Reception, Record of annual xi 

Reclamation of the arid region 169 

Reclus, Elisee, cited on evaporation 112 

— , quoted on Alaska 174 

Reconnaissances of Alaslia 174 

Regions (The arid) of the United States; 

P. h: Newell 167 

Reid, H. F., Explorations by 175 

Relations of air and water to tempera- 
ture and life ; Gardiner G. Hubbaid 112 
Relics, Aboriginal, of Watlings island... 190 

Religion, Perversion of. 108 

Report of the Auditing Committee xxiv 

Secretaries xx 

Treasurer xxii 

Reseryoirs, storage 171 

Rhi.^je, (jeomorphy along the 71 

RiCHAKDSON, John, cited on supposed 

Arctic island ; 81 

RiCHAKDSON, T. J., Explorations by 175 

RiTTER, Carl, Tribute to 126 

Rivers, Drowned 71 

Rizer, H. C. ; Report of the Auditing 

Committee xxiv 

Rogers, H. D., Reference to worli of bS 

Rogers, William B., Reference to work 

of 88 

RotHROCK, J. S., Record of lecture by xiii 

Royal Geographical Society, Communi- 
cation from 101 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society, 

Communication from 101 

— , Origin and purpose of 102 

Russell, 1. C, Expeditions by 175, 177 

Russia, Great cities of 89 

Russian America, Purchase of. 173 

RuYSCH, Johanx, Ancient map by 17 

Saint Augustine, cited on geography 2 

Saint Elias, mount, Attempts to ascend.. 176 

— , Height of. 178 

— , Record of paper on xii 

— (The geogranhical position and height 

of); T. C. Mendenhall 63 

Saint Helens, mount, Modern volcanism 

in 93 

Saint Lawrence type of rainfall 55 

Salamanca University, Character of. 180 

Salem, Founding of. 21 

Salvator, Archduke Ludwig, Valuable 

donations by xxi 

Sandwich islands, Record of address on. xi 
San Francisco harbor. First landing at.. 16 

Santa Maria, Voyage of the - 180 

Scandinavia, History of. 132 

Schedel, Hartman, Map of. 2 

SciDMORE, Eliza Ruhamah, delegate to 

conference 100 

— ; Minutes of the conference 101 

— ; Recent explorations in Alaska 173 

— , Record of papers by xi, xvi, 110 

— ; Sixtii annual report of the Secretary xx 

Science, Progress of 108 

Schoneu globes. Reference to l.** 

Schools, Geographic instruction in 137 

— , Place of geography in 105 

ScHWATK.A, ITkederick, Explorations by... 174, 

ScoRESBY, W., cited on supposed Arctic 

island 81 

Scotland, Geographic worli in lo3 

— , Participation in conference by 100 

Scoville, J. T., Reference to work of .... 67 
Secretaries, Record of joint report of.... xix 

— (Sixth annual report of); Cyrus C. 

Babb XX 

; Eliza R. Scidmore xx 

— , Employment of permanent xxi 

Seeman, Herthold, cited on supposed 

Arctic island 81 

Settlement of the United States 21 

— , Progress of, in United States 24 

Settlements, First American 193 

Sex, Classification of population by 31 

Seward, William H., Reference to action 

by 173 

Sierra Nevada, Original naming of 247 

Slavery, Beginning of, in Amej'ica 14 

— , Effects of, on population 35 

Smith, George, delegate to conference... 100 
SociEDADE DE Geografia de Lisboa, Par- 
ticipation by, in conference 100, 105 

South America, Discovery of 8 

-, Method of study of 150 

— , Principal characteristics of 114 

Spain, Great cities of 89 

— , Record of lecture on xiii 

Sphericity of the earth 1 

Spofford, a. R., Aclcnowledgment to 17 

Stock raising in the arid region 169 

Storage of storm waters 171 

Structure about Natural bridge 60 

— , Effects of, on geomorphy 70 

— of Blue mountain.. .. 85 

Surveying, Record of address on Ik 

Surveys, Errors of primitive 239 

— , geologic. Suggestions concerning 74 

— in Alaska 63, 179 

Sutherland, , cited on supposed 

Arctic island 82 

Sweden, Union of, with Norway 132 

Syria, Record of lecture on xvi 

Taraval, .Father, Explorations by 237 

Tayloi!, Bayard, Reference to works of. 152 

Taylor, C. H., Explorations by 176 

Teaching (The improvement of geo- 
graphical) ; William Morris Davis ... 68 

Temperature, Eff^ects of, on fish life 161 

-, Relations of 112 

Tennessee type of rainfall 54 

Tenure of land in the arid region 172 

Terra del Fuego, Discovery of 16 

Texas, Admission of 25 

— , Record of paper on xiv 

Thermometers, Use of submarine 162 

Thompson, Gilbert, Record of discussion 

by ix, xvii 

"Thunderbolts" on Watlings island 191 

Tile-fish, Appearance and disappear- 
ance of. 164 

Topham, E, Explorations by 177 

ToPHAM, W. H., Explorations by 177 

Topography, Composite definition of 73 

— , Stages in , 158 




ToRBERT, John B., Map compiled by 16 

ToscANELLi, Paoi.o DEL Pozzo DEI, Early 

mapping by 3 

— , Map by 4 

— , Reference to map of 183 

TuADE winds, Character of. 113 

Tkaditions, Eskimo 78 

Treasureb, Record of annual report of... xix 
— , Sixth annual report of the ; C.J.Bell xx 
Triana, Rodrigo, First sighted America 185 
Triangulation in vicinity of mount Saint 

Elias 65 

Turner, J. Henry, Explorations by 178 

— , Reference to surveys by 63 

TypHOONS, Origin of ". 119 

Ulloa, Francisco de, Geographic narra- 
tive of 236 

United States, Arid regions of 167 

— , Great cities of. ' 89 

-, Method of study of. 149 

— , Participation in conference by 100 

— , Population of. .' 22 

Vancoi'Ver, Captain' George, Geograpliic 

narrative of. 236 

Vatican, Reference to archives of. 197 

Vbnegas, Miguel, Reference to writings 

of 2.S8 

Venezuela, Record of address on xvi, 111 

Vespucius, Americus, Reference to work 

of 1, 9 

Viking, Origin of the word 132 

—, Voyage of the 136 

Vikings, Discoveries by 4, 197 

— , Record of address on xv, .\vi, 109 

Vinci, Leonardo da. Reference to map by 18 

ViNELAND, Attempted colonization of 134 

— , Discovery of 4, 200 

Virginia, First settlements in 21 

— , Natural bridge of. 59 

V[zcAiNO, , Geographic narrative of.. 236 

Volcano, Oar youngest ; J S. Diller 93 

Voyages (Eariy) on the northwestern 

coast of America; George Davidson. 235 

Voyages (Recent disclosures concerning 
pre-Columbian) to America in the 
archives of the Vatican; William 
Eleroy Curtis 197 

Waldseemuller,. Martin, Reference to 

map by , 17 

Walcott, Charles D. ; The geologist at 

Blue mountain 84 

— ; The Natural bridge of Virginia 59 

Water, Relations of. 112 

Watlings island, Description of... 189 

Washington, Geographic instruction in-.. 137 
Welles, Roger, junior, Record of ad- 
dress by xvi, 111 

West Indies, Discovery of. 8 

— , Record of paper on xiii 

Western Union Telegraph Company, Ref- 
erence to work of 173 

White, A. Silva, Reference to work of... 102 
Whittier, J. G., Refeience to writings of 153 
Wilde, James D., Delegate to conference 99 
WiLDMAN, RouNSVELLE, Record of lecture 

by x 

Williams, G. H., Reference to work of... 84 

Williams, William, Explorations by 177 

Willis, Bailky, Record of discussion by x 
WiLLiTs, Edwin, Record of address by.... xi 

Wilmington, Founding of 21 

Wilson, Thomas, Acknowledgment to 17 

Wilson, H. M., Record of discussion by. ix 

Winds, European 118 

— , Laws of 112 

— of the norihern Atlantic 163 

Winston. Isaac ; Report of the Auditing 

Committee xxiv 

Wood, C. E. S., Explorations by 176 

Wrangell island. Discovery of 76 

Wrangell, mount, First survey of. 175 

Yellowstone National park, Record of 

paper on xiv 

Yucatan, Record of lecture on xviii 

Zeni Map, Reference to 17